PsyResearch
ψ   Psychology Research on the Web   



Couples needed for online psychology research


Help us grow:




Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy - Vol 9, Iss 3

Random Abstract
Quick Journal Finder:
Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy Official Journal of APA Division 56. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy publishes empirical research on the psychological effects of trauma. The journal is intended to be a forum for an interdisciplinary discussion on trauma, blending science, theory, practice, and policy.
Copyright 2017 American Psychological Association
  • Trauma and mental health in South Africa: Overview.
    Provides an introduction to this special edition of Psychological Trauma. The papers included in this special section focus on aspects of trauma and the effects of trauma in a cultural context that pertains to the way of life in South Africa. These articles highlight the complexities of the effects of trauma and call for tailored interventions to address the lasting effects on health and mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Trauma and PTSS of Zimbabwean refugees in South Africa: A summary of published studies.
    Objective: This paper is a report of 4 published papers on posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS)/posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and traumas experienced by homeless Zimbabwean refugees living in South Africa. The general purpose of the papers was to explore how pre- and postmigration difficulties predicts posttraumatic stress symptoms/disorder; to understand gender differences in PTSS/PTSD reports using quantitative and qualitative approaches; and finally, to understand the nature of abuses, perpetrators, and sex of perpetrators. Method: Through focused group discussions (FGD)s, structured in-depth interviews, data were collected from 125 randomly selected homeless Zimbabwean refugees in Polokwane, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Age of participants ranged from 18 years to 48 years with a mean age of 28.3 years (SD = 6.27). Participants were assessed on demographic variables, Pre- and Post-Migration Difficulties Checklists, General Health Questionnaire 28 (GHQ-28), and PTSD Checklist (Civilian Version; PCL-C). Results: Results (Paper 1) indicated that a majority of the participants were significantly traumatized and pre- and postmigration traumas contributed to PTSS and PTSD. The qualitative study (Paper 2) overwhelmingly shared similar experiences that could be temporally framed into pre-, mid-, and postmigration. Many of the challenging sociocultural, structural, and institutional factors that they experienced were seen across all the migration stages. In Paper 3, results of a structural equation model (SEM) showed that none of the 3 paths (pre- and postmigration stress and poor mental health) on PTSD is significant for men whereas for women, the path from poor mental health to PTSD (β = .36, p = .013) is significant. Finally the fourth paper showed that rape and sexual harassment were common abuses. Perpetrators were mainly single male border and police officers. Conclusion: The Zimbabwean refugees were found to constitute a particularly vulnerable group to have experienced cumulative traumas and therefore reported PTSS, PTSD, and poor mental health. These findings were discussed in line with practical implications for refugees in South Africa where xenophobic feelings are on the rise. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Assault injury presentation and lifetime psychological trauma in emergency centre patients in South Africa: A cross-sectional study.
    There is a paucity of data from emergency centers regarding (a) the prevalence of recurrent assault injury and prior psychological trauma, and (b) psychosocial predictors of assault-injury presentation. Objective: To address the above gaps to identify psychosocial needs and injury-prevention opportunities. Method: Patients presenting with assault or unintentional injuries were recruited from 2 emergency centers (ECs; n = 200) and assessed for injury history, traumatic events, and mental disorders. Descriptive statistics were computed and predictors for assault-injury presentation and recurrent assault injury were identified using logistic regression. Univariate regression models were employed to identify significant variables before entering these into multivariate models. Results: The majority of the participants were male (67%), of whom 43% were between the ages of 25 and 40 years. The median number of lifetime traumatic events was 7. Recurrent assault injury was found in 31%. These injuries were predicted by lifetime traumatic events other than injury (OR = 1.035, 95% CI [1, 1.07]). Assault-injury presentation was significantly less likely in female participants (OR = 0.221, 95% CI [0.1, 0.5]) and was associated with high levels of witnessing community violence (OR = 1.157, 95% CI [1.01, 1.32]). Conclusion: Patients presenting with assault injuries are at risk for injury recurrence, have high levels of past psychological trauma, and should be screened for psychosocial risk. Further research is needed to assess the role of past psychological trauma in risk for assault injury, and clarify treatment needs. The role of EC-based interventions in injury prevention and mental health requires increased recognition in South African policy and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • The development of a screening tool for the early identification of risk for suicidal behavior among students in a developing country.
    Objective: Adolescent suicidal behavior is a public health concern in South Africa. The purpose of this article is to report on the development of a screening tool for teachers to identify South African students who are most at risk for suicidal behavior. This need is addressed within the context of the limited number of mental health professionals available to provide screening and care services in South Africa. Method: Grade 8 students participated by completing sociodemographic questionnaires and self-report psychometric instruments. A screening tool for suicidal behavior was developed using a 4-phase approach. Results: Twelve factors for high-risk suicidal behavior were identified and included in the screening tool. While further research is needed to validate the screening tool, the findings provide a useful preliminary starting point for teachers to refer students at high risk for suicidal behavior to mental health services for treatment. Conclusion: This screening tool is based on factors that were identified as being associated with suicidal behavior from local research on South African adolescents. The tool contributes to research on adolescent mental health, particularly suicidal behavior, in developing low and middle income countries like South Africa, with the aim of creating African prevention and intervention programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Towards a culturally appropriate trauma assessment in a South African Zulu community.
    Objective: To develop a culture specific screening tool for trauma, and to determine whether it would significantly increase the probability of eliciting traumatic events and associated symptoms when added to a Western diagnostic tool for trauma. Method: A convenience sample of 1 hundred Zulu speaking volunteers was recruited in the North-Eastern KwaZulu-Natal region of South Africa. A demographic questionnaire, the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, Axis I, Research Version (SCID-I RV), and a Zulu Culture-Specific Trauma Experience Questionnaire (Z-CTEQ) designed for this study were administered to the participants. Results: As measured by the SCID-I RV, the rates of exposure to traumatic events as well as the lifetime prevalence of PTSD were relatively high, at 32% and 24%, respectively. The use of the 10-item Z-CTEQ, when added to the SCID, increased the rate at which traumatic events were elicited by 19.4%. The additional traumatic events elicited were culture-specific in nature and were significantly associated with PTSD (p <.0001). The Z-CTEQ also elicited culture-specific attributions for traumatic events, which could prove beneficial for therapeutic interventions. The Z-CTEQ was found to have acceptable internal reliability, with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.78. The construct and discriminant validity of the Z-CTEQ were supported by several significant correlations between the SCID and the Z-CTEQ and between the additional traumatic events elicited and PTSD. Conclusion: Despite some identified limitations, our findings suggest that the Z-CTEQ can enhance the assessment and management of trauma in the study population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Feasibility and effectiveness of narrative exposure therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy in a context of ongoing violence in South Africa.
    Objective: In an observer-blinded intervention trial, we tested the reduction of posttraumatic stress symptoms, aggressive attitude, and behavior in young males living in a context of ongoing community and gang violence by means of (a) forensic offender rehabilitation narrative exposure therapy (FORNET), and (b) the cognitive-behavioral intervention “Thinking for a Change” (TFAC). A waiting list served as the control condition. Method: A total of 39 young men were included in the data analysis: 15 completed FORNET, 11 underwent cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and 13 were on a waiting list for later treatment. The primary efficacy endpoints were the PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview (PSS-I) severity score, the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS) score, and the number of perpetrated violent event types 8 months (on average) after treatment. Results: Only in the sample receiving FORNET were posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) scores significantly reduced at the first follow-up (Cohen’s d = −0.97) and significantly different from those of the control group (Cohen’s d = −1.03). The changes in scores for appetitive aggression and perpetrated events were not significant for any of the treatment conditions. Conclusions: The study shows that trauma-focused treatment can reduce the psychological symptoms of posttraumatic stress even for individuals living under unsafe conditions in low-income urban communities. However, achieving changes in violent behavior within a context of ongoing violence may require more than the treatment of trauma-related suffering, confrontation with one’s offenses, or cognitive-behavioral interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Maternal posttraumatic stress disorder and infant developmental outcomes in a South African birth cohort study.
    Objective: To investigate the association between maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and infant development in a South African birth cohort. Method: Data from the Drakenstein Child Health Study were analyzed. Maternal psychopathology was assessed using self-report and clinician-administered interviews; and 6-month infant development using the Bayley III Scales of Infant Development. Linear regression analyses explored associations between predictor and outcome variables. Results: Data from 111 mothers and 112 infants (1 set of twins) were included. Most mothers (72%) reported lifetime trauma exposure; the lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 20%. Maternal PTSD was significantly associated with poorer fine motor and adaptive behavior – motor development; the latter remaining significant when adjusted for site, alcohol dependence, and infant head-circumference-for-age z score at birth. Conclusion: Maternal PTSD may be associated with impaired infant neurodevelopment. Further work in low- and middle-income populations may improve early childhood development in this context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Risk factors for PTSD and depression in female survivors of rape.
    Objective: To investigate association of the sociodemographic factors, characteristics of rape and social support to the development of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder at 6 months after the rape. Method: A cross-sectional survey with female survivors of rape was carried out in 3 provinces of South Africa 6 months after the rape. Results: One hundred female survivors s of sexual assault were interviewed. More than half (53%) were from Limpopo, 25% from Western Cape, and 22% from KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). 87% reported high levels of PTSD and 51% moderate to severe depression post rape. The major risk factors for PTSD and depression were the unmarried survivors of rape and those living in KZN. The female survivors of rape in KZN province were 7 times more likely to experience symptoms of depression compared to other provinces, while married/cohabiting female rape survivors were 6 times less likely to report symptoms of depression compared to the unmarried female rape survivors. Conclusion: These findings add support to existing literature on PTSD and depression as common mental health consequence of rape and also provide evidence that survivors’ socio- demographics—marital status, employment status—are significant contributors to the development of symptoms of depression and PTSD after rape. The results have research and clinical practice relevance for ensuring that PTSD and trauma treatment focuses on an in-depth understanding of the various aspects of the sociodemographic factors and rape characteristics that contribute to survivors’ mental state and how these compound stress and depression symptoms over time post rape victimization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • A longitudinal study of the aftermath of rape among rural South African women.
    Objective: Sexual assaults against women are a global health crisis, with alarmingly high rates in South Africa. However, we know very little about the circumstances and the aftermath of these experiences. Further, there is limited information about how factors specific to the rape (e.g., fighting back) versus those that are specific to the individual—and potentially modifiable—influence mental health outcomes. This study examined how situational characteristics of rape as well as individual and situational factors confer risk for symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and dysfunctional sexual behavior at 12-month follow-up. Method: Two hundred nine (N = 209) South African women were recruited from rural rape clinics in the Limpopo Province (LP) and North West Province (NWP) of South Africa. Interviews were conducted at baseline (within 6 months of the rape incident) and at 6 and 12 months by trained staff at the clinics in English or the women’s native languages. Women were interviewed after services were provided in a private room. Results: One hundred thirty-two (n = 132) women were lost to follow-up at 12 months, resulting in 77 women with interview data for all time points. Undermining by the survivor’s social support system and an increased belief in myths about rape were associated with increased dysfunctional sexual practices and symptoms of depression. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the need for interventions that address the most pervasive effects of rape over time. These behaviors can increase risks for revictimization and reduce psychological well-being in the aftermath of rape. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Race differences in depression vulnerability following Hurricane Katrina.
    Objective: This study investigated whether racial disparities in depression were present after Hurricane Katrina. Method: Data were gathered from 932 New Orleans residents who were present when Hurricane Katrina struck, and who returned to New Orleans the following year. Multiple logistic regression models evaluated racial differences in screening positive for depression (a score ≥16 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), and explored whether differential vulnerability (prehurricane physical and mental health functioning and education level), differential exposure to hurricane-related stressors, and loss of social support moderated and/or reduced the association of race with depression. Results: A univariate logistic regression analysis showed the odds for screening positive for depression were 86% higher for African Americans than for Caucasians (odds ratio [OR] = 1.86 [1.28–2.71], p = .0012). However, after controlling simultaneously for sociodemographic characteristics, preexisting vulnerabilities, social support, and trauma-specific factors, race was no longer a significant correlate for screening positive for depression (OR = 1.54 [0.95–2.48], p = .0771). Conclusions: The racial disparity in postdisaster depression seems to be confounded by sociodemographic characteristics, preexisting vulnerabilities, social support, and trauma-specific factors. Nonetheless, even after adjusting for these factors, there was a nonsignificant trend effect for race, which could suggest race played an important role in depression outcomes following Hurricane Katrina. Future studies should examine these associations prospectively, using stronger assessments for depression, and incorporate measures for discrimination and segregation, to further understand possible racial disparities in depression after Hurricane Katrina. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Racial/ethnic disparities in the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among mothers of children diagnosed with cancer and Type-1 diabetes mellitus.
    Objective: Research findings have indicated that mothers of children diagnosed with life-threatening illnesses can be at risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (PTSS), with African American mothers being especially vulnerable because of evidence suggesting higher rates of PTSD among both African Americans and women. Race/ethnicity, past trauma exposure and the interaction of these variables were evaluated as risk factors for PTSS, depression, and state and trait anxiety among African American and Caucasian mothers of chronically ill children. Method: Mothers of children (N = 91) diagnosed with a life-threatening illness (i.e., cancer or Type-I diabetes mellitus [T1DM]) completed standardized measures and provided a salivary cortisol sample while attending medical appointments for their ill children. Results: A MANCOVA revealed that mothers of children diagnosed with T1DM had higher cortisol levels than mothers of children with cancer. There was no racial or ethnic disparity in the risk of PTSS among the mothers. Conclusion: These findings suggest that mothers of children with T1DM may be vulnerable to stress reactions, as reflected by cortisol, a biological marker. Clinicians and researchers might consider illness-specific features when evaluating the risk of stress reactions among mothers of children with life-threatening illnesses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Trauma in Hispanic youth with psychiatric symptoms: Investigating gender and family effects.
    Objective: Hispanic youth in the general community experience traumatic events and display symptoms of psychological distress more frequently than do Caucasian youth. However, little is known about how traumatic experiences in this ethnic minority population relate to psychopathology in clinical samples and whether these outcomes vary by gender and are impacted by family functioning. We hypothesized that traumatic stress reactions, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and internalizing and externalizing symptoms, would vary by gender and by family functioning in a clinical sample of Hispanic youth. Method: The current study utilized baseline data from a randomized clinical trial (RCT) involving 200 Hispanic adolescents (122 boys and 78 girls) referred to treatment for experiencing clinical symptoms of 1 or more behavioral disorders and conflictual family relations. The rate of traumatic events, differences in outcomes depending on trauma exposure, and the effects gender, family functioning, and trauma on psychopathology and PTSD symptoms were examined. Results: Analyses revealed that 61% of Hispanic youth in this clinical sample experienced at least 1 traumatic event. Although only 12% of the sample reported PTSD scores in the clinical range, girls reported higher PTSD scores than did boys. Poor family cohesion was particularly detrimental to girls compared with boys and related to internalizing and PTSD symptoms. High family conflict predicted PTSD symptoms in boys but not in girls. Conclusions: These findings have clinical implications for working with Hispanic populations, suggesting that culturally sensitive interventions should incorporate family-based interventions for individuals who experience trauma to strengthen family bonds and decrease family conflict. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Posttraumatic stress disorder in Latina women: Examining the efficacy of the Moms’ Empowerment Program.
    Objective: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health problem, affecting every 1 in 4 women in their lifetime. Latinas have been found to experience IPV at rates equal to or even higher than rates in the general population. The consequences of experiencing such violence can be severe, and result in increased risk for developing both physical and mental health problems, notably, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although treatments for PTSD in IPV-exposed women have been developed and evaluated, this is the first study to test the efficacy of a program tailored specifically to meet the needs of Latinas who experience IPV. Method: This study examines the efficacy of a Spanish-language adaptation of the Moms’ Empowerment Program, a 10-week group treatment program for IPV-exposed women. A total of 93 low-income, mostly immigrant Latinas were included in this community trial. All women were Spanish-speaking, and information about violence exposure and PTSD symptoms were collected immediately before and after the implementation of the intervention. Results: Findings show that women who participated in the intervention had a significantly greater reduction in PTSD symptoms than women in the wait-list comparison group. Specific reductions by symptom domains were also analyzed. Conclusions: This adaptation of a program designed to reduce problems associated with experiencing IPV addressed several mental health treatment needs for Latinas, particularly the need for services in Spanish. These findings demonstrate that it is possible to tailor current treatment programs for IPV in ways that are both effective and culturally sensitive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Trauma and psychological distress in Latino citizen children following parental detention and deportation.
    The mental health impact of parental detention and deportation on citizen children is a topic of increasing concern. Forced parent–child separation and parental loss are potentially traumatic events (PTEs) with adverse effects on children’s mental health. Objective: This study examines posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and psychological distress among 91 Latino U.S.-born children (ages 6 to 12), living in mixed-status families with a least 1 undocumented parent at risk for detention or deportation. Method: Multiagent (child, parent, teacher, clinician) and standardized assessments were conducted at baseline to assess for child trauma and psychological distress. Results: Analyses indicate that PTSD symptoms as reported by parent were significantly higher for children of detained and deported parents compared to citizen children whose parents were either legal permanent residents or undocumented without prior contact with immigration enforcement. Similarly, findings revealed differences in child internalizing problems associated with parental detention and deportation as reported by parent as well as differences in overall child functioning as reported by clinician. In addition, teachers reported higher externalizing for children with more exposure to PTEs. Conclusions: These findings lend support to a reconsideration and revision of immigration enforcement practices to take into consideration the best interest of Latino citizen children. Trauma-informed assessments and interventions are recommended for this special population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Psychometric properties of the PACT Scale and relations with symptoms of PTSD.
    Objective: Healing from trauma has been conceptualized as either facing the trauma head-on or moving beyond the trauma and focusing on the future. Emerging research suggests that the greatest healing may result from the ability to adaptively use both (i.e., coping flexibility). The current study sought to examine the psychometric properties of a self-report scale of coping flexibility: the Perceived Ability to Cope With Trauma (PACT) Scale. Method: Participants included 322 undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory psychology course at a large Midwestern university. Analyses used the PACT’s 2 scales, Trauma Focus and Forward Focus, as well as its flexibility score that is derived from these scales. Confirmatory factor analysis of the PACT was performed in Mplus. Results: The PACT scales demonstrated high internal consistency and convergent validity with measures of experiential avoidance, distress tolerance, self-compassion, perceived stress, and PTSD symptoms. Discriminant validity was demonstrated by nonsignificant relations with fight and flight responding. All 3 PACT scores demonstrated significant relations with PTSD symptom clusters. The 2-factor model of the PACT demonstrated good fit after using item parceling. Conclusion: Overall, the current analyses support and replicate the psychometric properties and construct validity of the PACT as a measure of adaptive trauma-related coping. Further, the PACT scales are significantly negatively related to PTSD symptom clusters, suggesting that the greater one’s perceived ability to use Trauma Focus and Forward Focus skills flexibly, the less severe he or she will experience symptoms of reexperiencing, avoidance/numbing, and hyperarousal. Future applications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • A latent profile analysis of intimate partner victimization and aggression and examination of between-class differences in psychopathology symptoms and risky behaviors.
    Objective: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with heightened psychopathology symptoms and risky behaviors. However, extant investigations are limited by their focus on IPV victimization, despite evidence to suggest that victimization and aggression frequently co-occur. Further, research on these correlates often has not accounted for the heterogeneity of women who experience victimization. Method: The present study utilized latent profile analysis to identify patterns of physical, psychological, and sexual victimization and aggression in a convenience sample of 212 community women experiencing victimization (Mage = 36.63, 70.8% African American), as well as examined differences in psychopathology symptoms (i.e., posttraumatic stress symptoms [PTSS] and depressive symptoms) and risky behaviors (i.e., drug problems, alcohol problems, deliberate self-harm (DSH), HIV-risk behaviors) across these classes. Results: Four classes of women differentiated by severities of victimization and aggression were identified. Greater psychopathology symptoms were found among classes defined by greater victimization and aggression, regardless of IPV type. Risky behaviors were more prevalent among classes defined by greater sexual victimization and aggression in particular. Conclusions: Findings highlight the importance of developing interventions that target the particular needs of subgroups of women who experience victimization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Customized computer-based administration of the PCL-5 for the efficient assessment of PTSD: A proof-of-principle study.
    Objective: To investigate the potential of customized computer-based testing procedures to reduce the mean test length of the Posttraumatic Stress Checklist for DSM–5 (PCL-5). Method: A retrospective analysis was conducted using responses from 942 adults who had completed the full-length (20-item) PCL-5 in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. The abilities of 2 testing procedures, curtailment and stochastic curtailment, to lessen the instrument’s mean test length while maintaining the same result as the full-length PCL-5 (“positive” or “negative”) were evaluated in a post hoc simulation. Curtailment and stochastic curtailment track a respondent’s answers as she takes the instrument and stop the test if future items are unable or unlikely to change the result. The performance of each procedure was recorded under 2 scoring methods: a total-score-based method and a cluster-based method. Each procedure’s sensitivity, specificity, and overall agreement with the full-length PCL-5 were computed. Results: Curtailment reduced the mean test length by 40% under the total-score-based method, and by more than 70% under the cluster-based method, while exhibiting 100% sensitivity, specificity, and overall agreement with the full-length PCL-5. Stochastic curtailment reduced the mean test length by up to 88% under the total-score-based method, and up to 84% under the cluster-based method, while always exhibiting at least 92% sensitivity and 99.8% overall agreement, as well as 100% specificity, for the full-length PCL-5. Conclusions: Curtailment and stochastic curtailment have potential to enhance the efficiency of the PCL-5 when this assessment is administered by computer. The 2 procedures should be evaluated in future prospective studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Development and validation of a brief trauma screening measure for children: The Child Trauma Screen.
    Objective: Childhood exposure to trauma, including violence and abuse, is a major public health concern that has resulted in increased efforts to promote trauma-informed child-serving systems. Trauma screening is an important component of such trauma-informed systems, yet widespread use of trauma screening is rare in part due to the lack of brief, validated trauma screening measures for children. We describe development and validation of the Child Trauma Screen (CTS), a 10-item screening measure of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms for children consistent with the DSM–5 definition of PTSD. Method: Study 1 describes measure development incorporating analysis to derive items based on existing measures from 1,065 children and caregivers together with stakeholder input to finalize item selection. Study 2 describes validation of the CTS with a clinical sample of 74 children and their caregivers. Results: Results support the CTS as an empirically derived, reliable measure to screen children for trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms with strong convergent, divergent, and criterion validity. Conclusion: The CTS is a promising measure for rapidly and reliably screening children for trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms. Future research is needed to confirm validation and to examine feasibility and utility of its use across various child-serving systems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source



Back to top


Back to top