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Psychological Assessment - Vol 26, Iss 4

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Psychological Assessment Psychological Assessment publishes mainly empirical articles concerning clinical assessment. Papers that fall within the domain of the journal include research on the development, validation, application, and evaluation of psychological assessment instruments. Diverse modalities (e.g., cognitive, physiologic, and motoric) and methods of assessment (e.g., questionnaires, interviews, natural environment and analog environment observation, self-monitoring, participant observation, physiological measurement, instrument-assisted and computer-assisted assessment) are within the domain of the journal, especially as they relate to clinical assessment. Also included are topics on clinical judgment and decision making (including diagnostic assessment), methods of measurement of treatment process and outcome, and dimensions of individual differences (e.g., race, ethnicity, age, gender, sexual orientation, economic status) as they relate to clinical assessment.
Copyright 2014 American Psychological Association
  • Frequent assessments may obscure cognitive decline.
    Effects of an initial testing experience on the level of cognitive performance at a 2nd occasion are well documented. However, less is known about the effects of additional testing experiences beyond the 1st on the amount of cognitive change over a specified interval. This issue was investigated in a moderately large sample of adults between 18 and 95 years of age who performed a battery of cognitive tests either 2 or 3 times at variable intervals between each assessment. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine effects of the number of assessments on change while controlling the length of the interval between the 1st and last assessments. Change in each of 5 cognitive domains was less negative when there was an intervening assessment. To illustrate, for adults between 65 and 95 years of age, the estimated change from a 1st to a 2nd assessment across an average interval of 3.9 years was −.25 standard deviation units (p <.01), but it was only −.06 standard deviation units, and not significantly different from 0, when an intervening assessment occurred during the interval. These results indicate that cognitive change may not be detected when individuals are assessed frequently with relatively short intervals between the assessments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • A test of the International Personality Item Pool representation of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and development of a 120-item IPIP-based measure of the five-factor model.
    There has been a substantial increase in the use of personality assessment measures constructed using items from the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) such as the 300-item IPIP-NEO (Goldberg, 1999), a representation of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992). The IPIP-NEO is free to use and can be modified to accommodate its users’ needs. Despite the substantial interest in this measure, there is still a dearth of data demonstrating its convergence with the NEO PI-R. The present study represents an investigation of the reliability and validity of scores on the IPIP-NEO. Additionally, we used item response theory (IRT) methodology to create a 120-item version of the IPIP-NEO. Using an undergraduate sample (n = 359), we examined the reliability, as well as the convergent and criterion validity, of scores from the 300-item IPIP-NEO, a previously constructed 120-item version of the IPIP-NEO (Johnson, 2011), and the newly created IRT-based IPIP-120 in comparison to the NEO PI-R across a range of outcomes. Scores from all 3 IPIP measures demonstrated strong reliability and convergence with the NEO PI-R and a high degree of similarity with regard to their correlational profiles across the criterion variables (rICC = .983, .972, and .976, respectively). The replicability of these findings was then tested in a community sample (n = 757), and the results closely mirrored the findings from Sample 1. These results provide support for the use of the IPIP-NEO and both 120-item IPIP-NEO measures as assessment tools for measurement of the five-factor model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Does field reliability for Static-99 scores decrease as scores increase?
    This study examined the field reliability of Static-99 (Hanson & Thornton, 2000) scores among 21,983 sex offenders and focused on whether rater agreement decreased as scores increased. As expected, agreement was lowest for high-scoring offenders. Initial and most recent Static-99 scores were identical for only about 40% of offenders who had been assigned a score of 6 during their initial evaluations, but for more than 60% of offenders who had been assigned a score of 2 or lower. In addition, the size of the difference between scores increased as scores increased, with pairs of scores differing by 2 or more points for about 30% of offenders scoring in the high-risk range. Because evaluators and systems use high Static-99 scores to identify sexual offenders who may require intensive supervision or even postrelease civil commitment, it is important to recognize that there may be more measurement error for high scores than low scores and to consider adopting procedures for minimizing or accounting for measurement error. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Executive function assessment and adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Tasks versus ratings on the Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale.
    Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit variable impairments on executive function (EF) tasks. Due to this variability, ratings of EF (rather than tasks) have been proposed as an alternative method that better captures symptom severity and impairment among adults with ADHD. However, few studies have jointly examined performance across multiple neuropsychological domains and EF ratings as predictors of severity and impairment among adults with ADHD. Adults (N = 273) ages 18–38 years (M = 22.6 years, 55.3% male, 62.2% with ADHD) completed a comprehensive diagnostic and neurocognitive assessment, which included self and informant ratings of ADHD symptom severity and EF and tasks of arousal/activation, response inhibition, set shifting, interference control, and working memory. Hierarchical linear regression models indicated that tasks of arousal/activation and response inhibition uniquely predicted ADHD symptom dimensions and related impairments. Over and above EF task performance, EF ratings of time management significantly predicted increased inattention (β = .209, pR² = 3.9%), whereas ratings of restraint predicted increased hyperactivity/impulsivity (β = .259, pR² = 6.4%). Furthermore, EF ratings of time management, restraint, and emotion regulation incrementally accounted for variance in relationship, professional, and daily living impairments over and above EF task performance (ΔR² range = 1.7–7.7%). Results may help refine neurobiological theories and assessment of adult ADHD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Factor structure and diagnostic validity of the Beck Depression Inventory–II with adult clinical inpatients: Comparison to a gold-standard diagnostic interview.
    Little is known about the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the Beck Depression Inventory–II (BDI-II) among adult clinical inpatients, a group at high risk for major depressive disorder (MDD). Data from 1,904 adult inpatients were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), Cronbach’s alpha, and Pearson’s correlations. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses evaluating MDD diagnostic performance were conducted with a subsample (n = 467) using a structured diagnostic interview for reference. CFA of 3 previous 2-factor oblique solutions, observed in adolescent and older adult inpatient clinical samples, and 3 corresponding bifactor solutions indicated that BDI-II common item variance was overwhelmingly accounted for by 1 general factor specified to all items, with minor additional variance contributed by 2 specific factors. Analyses revealed high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = .93) and significant (p <.01) intercorrelations between the BDI-II total scale and Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale–24’s Depression/Functioning (r = .79) and Overall (r = .82) subscales. ROC analyses generated low area under the curve (.695; 95% confidence interval [.637, .752]) and cutoff scores with poor sensitivity/specificity balance. BDI-II use as a screening instrument for overall depressive symptomology was supported, but MDD diagnostic performance was suboptimal. Clinicians are advised to use the BDI-II to gauge severity of depression and measure clinical changes to depressive symptomology over time but to be mindful of the limitations of the BDI-II as a diagnostic tool for adult inpatients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Comparing short forms of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale.
    The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS; Mattick & Clarke, 1998) are companion scales developed to measure anxiety in social interaction and performance situations, respectively. The measures have strong discriminant and convergent validity; however, their factor structures remain debated, and furthermore, the combined administration length (i.e., 39 items) can be prohibitive for some settings. There have been 4 attempts to assess the factor structures of the scales and reduce the item content: the 14-item Social Interaction Phobia Scale (SIPS; Carleton et al., 2009), the 12-item SIAS-6/SPS-6 (Peters, Sunderland, Andrews, Rapee, & Mattick, 2012), the 21-item abbreviated SIAS/SPS (ASIAS/ASPS; Kupper & Denollet, 2012), and the 12-item Readability SIAS and SPS (RSIAS/RSPS; Fergus, Valentiner, McGrath, Gier-Lonsway, & Kim, 2012). The current study compared the short forms on (a) factor structure, (b) ability to distinguish between clinical and non-clinical populations, (c) sensitivity to change following therapy, and (d) convergent validity with related measures. Participants included 3,607 undergraduate students (55% women) and 283 patients with social anxiety disorder (43% women). Results of confirmatory factor analyses, sensitivity analyses, and correlation analyses support the robust utility of items in the SIPS and the SPS-6 and SIAS-6 relative to the other short forms; furthermore, the SIPS and the SPS-6 and SIAS-6 were also supported by convergent validity analyses within the undergraduate sample. The RSIAS/RSPS and the ASIAS/ASPS were least supported, based on the current results and the principle of parsimony. Accordingly, researchers and clinicians should consider carefully which of the short forms will best suit their needs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Development and validation of the Hookup Motives Questionnaire (HMQ).
    Despite the high prevalence rates and growing research on hooking up among college students, no multidimensional inventory exists in the literature to assess motivations for hooking up. In the current study, we report on the development and validation of the Hookup Motives Questionnaire (HMQ), designed to assess the various reasons for hooking up. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted using 2 samples of college students (Campus 1, N = 401; Campus 2, N = 367). Exploratory factor analysis was undertaken to explore the psychometric properties of an initial set of 25 items, and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to evaluate additional properties of the factor structure. The final factor structure of the HMQ contained 19 items that tapped 5 subscales representing social-sexual, social-relationship, enhancement, coping, and conformity motives. Results demonstrated good internal consistency and discriminant validity for the subscales. Moreover, criterion-related validity was satisfied by showing that HMQ subscales significantly correlated with hookup approval and behavior. Gender differences on the measures were found. The inventory offers considerable potential as a psychometrically sound instrument that may be administered to understand reasons for engaging in potentially risky hookup behaviors and used to inform the design of sexual health programs and interventions targeting young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Temporal stability of DSM–5 posttraumatic stress disorder criteria in a problem-drinking sample.
    The 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–5) reformulated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) based partially on research showing there were 4 main factors that underlie the symptoms of the disorder. The primary aim of this study was to examine the temporal stability of the DSM–5 factors as measured by the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM–5 (PCL-5; Weathers et al., 2010). Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to examine the structure of DSM–5 PTSD, and temporal stability over 3 time points was examined to determine if the measure reflects a consistent construct over time. Our sample was 507 combat-exposed veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan who enrolled in an online intervention for problem drinking and combat-related stress (Brief et al., 2013). We administered the PCL-5 at baseline, 8-week postintervention, and 3-month follow-up assessments. The DSM–5 model provided an adequate fit to the data at baseline. Tests of equality of form and equality of factor loadings demonstrated stability of the factor structure over time, indicating temporal stability. This study confirmed the results of previous research supporting the DSM–5 model of PTSD symptoms (Elhai et al., 2012; Miller et al., 2013). This is the 1st study to demonstrate the temporal stability of the PCL-5, indicating its use in longitudinal studies measures the same construct over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Psychometric properties of abbreviated and ultra-brief versions of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire.
    The Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) is a 16-item self-report measure considered the gold-standard assessment instrument for worry. Two abbreviated versions of the PSWQ have also been developed. An 8-item measure (PSWQ-A) was designed to address poor model fit of the full version with older adult samples, and a 3-item version (PSWQ-3) was developed in a clinical setting to avoid problems related to the reverse-scored items and to increase clinical utility. Preliminary examinations of the abbreviated forms have been promising, but additional psychometric evaluation is needed to confirm their reliability and validity. The current study compared psychometric properties of the 3 versions of the PSWQ in a heterogeneous clinical sample of 272 patients presenting for treatment in a partial hospital setting. Results suggested that scores for all 3 versions had good internal consistency; convergent validity with anxiety, stress, intolerance of uncertainty, negative problem orientation, and negative beliefs about worry; as well as adequate discriminant validity with depression, emotional lability, and substance abuse. On all 3 versions, individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) scored higher than those without the disorder, and across all participants, scores decreased from pre- to posttreatment. Finally, scores on the 3 versions showed similar levels of sensitivity and specificity as screening tools for GAD. Overall, the PSWQ-A and PSWQ-3 scores appear to be internally consistent and valid measures of worry that performed similarly to the full 16-item PSWQ. Given the strong psychometric properties of the shorter form scores, clinicians may prefer such forms, as they are quick to administer and easy to score in session. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Different profiles of acute stress disorder differentially predict posttraumatic stress disorder in a large sample of female victims of sexual trauma.
    This study aimed to test the dimensional structure of acute stress disorder (ASD). Latent profile analysis was conducted on scores from the Acute Stress Disorder Scale (Bryant, Moulds, & Guthrie, 2000) using a large sample of female victims of sexual trauma. Four distinct classes were found. Two of the classes represented high and low levels of ASD, and the high ASD class was associated with a high probability of subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There were 2 intermediate classes that were differentiated by the number of arousal symptoms, and the class with high levels of arousal symptoms had a higher risk of PTSD. The results suggested that ASD is best described by qualitatively and quantitatively differing subgroups in this sample, whereas previous research has assumed ASD to be dimensional. This may explain the limited success of using ASD to predict subsequent PTSD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Effect of personality item writing on psychometric properties of ideal-point and likert scales.
    The present study was designed to investigate personality item-writing practices and their effect on the psychometric properties of personality items and scales. Personality items were developed based on ideal-point and dominance models, analyzed using the generalized graded unfolding model, and empirically classified as having an ideal-point or dominance form. Results suggested that writing dominance items were slightly easier (more successful) than writing ideal-point items, but this varied slightly by personality dimensions. Of 3 ideal-point item writing tactics, the “neutral” tactic was least successful; success writing “double-barreled” and “average” ideal-point items was comparable to that of dominance items. Three personality scales were then constructed using successful ideal-point and dominance items. Scales constructed using ideal-point items had substantially inferior psychometric properties, including lower score reliability, lower correlations with important criteria, and mixed test information results. However, lower predictive validity of ideal-point scale scores may be due to lower reliability of the scores. Practical and methodological implications were also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Validation of direct and indirect measures of preference for sexualized violence.
    Individuals differ in the extent to which they are interested in sexualized violence, as displayed in the frequent but not ubiquitous sexual interest in consensual acts of violent sexual role play and violent pornographic media in the normal population. The present research sought to develop and validate a multi-method assessment battery to measure individual differences in the preference for sexualized violence. Three indirect measures (Implicit Association Test, Semantic Misattribution Procedure, Viewing Time) were combined in an online study with 107 men and 103 women. Participants with and without an affiliation with sadomasochistic sexual interest groups were recruited on corresponding Internet platforms. Results revealed that all 3 indirect measures converged in predicting self-reported sexual interest in non-consensual sexuality. Specifically, for men all indirect measures were related to non-consensual sadistic sexual interest, whereas for women an association with masochistic sexual interest was found. Stimulus artefacts versus genuine gender differences are discussed as potential explanations of this dissociation. An outlook on the usability of the assessment battery in applied settings is delivered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Factor mixture modeling of anxiety sensitivity: A three-class structure.
    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a multidimensional construct composed of several lower order factors and has been implicated in the development and maintenance of anxiety and depression symptoms and disorders. Recently, it has been suggested that AS is a dimensional-categorical construct, reflecting classes of individuals with different levels of and relations between AS factors. Factor mixture modeling was applied to examine the latent structure of AS in a sample of 1,151 college students (M age = 18.88, SD = 1.91). Results indicated that the best fitting model comprised three classes consisting of individuals with normative AS (n = 953), moderate AS (n = 124), and high AS (n = 74). Relations among the factors appeared to be different across groups, with the highest relations found in the normative AS class and the lowest relations found in the high AS class. There were significant differences in mean levels of anxiety and depression symptoms across classes, with the exception of social anxiety disorder symptoms. This study was the first to find and provide support for a third AS class. Implications for research and clinical utility are discussed, including the benefit of developing cut scores for AS classes based on this and similar studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Mokken scales for testing both pre- and postintervention: An analysis of the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation—Outcome Measure (CORE–OM) before and after counseling.
    Mokken scaling is increasingly being applied to assessing the extent to which clinical scales possess clinically useful properties, especially invariant item ordering (IIO). These scales are often used to track progress in symptoms over time to evaluate the success of an intervention. Such interventions are designed to affect psychopathological trait levels overall but may in some cases act disproportionately on some symptoms over others. As a result, there is no guarantee that the item orderings of a clinical scale will be preserved between the point at which individuals begin treatment and the point at which they can be considered recovered. In these situations, many of the potential benefits of IIO are undermined because an IIO identified at either time point will not be informative about changes in symptoms over time. In this study, we aimed to assess the extent to which the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation—Outcome Measure (CORE–OM) retained the same item orderings in a sample of individuals when initially presenting for counseling treatment and when discharged. From the 34 items of the CORE–OM we found a subset of 10 items exhibiting monotonicity, invariant item ordering, and highly similar item orderings when measured at both time points. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The clinical utility of the MMPI–2–RF Suicidal/Death Ideation Scale.
    Suicide is a major public health concern, with over 100 individuals dying by suicide per day in the United States alone. Therefore, suicide risk assessment is an essential aspect of mental health care. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory—2—Restructured Form (MMPI–2–RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008–2011; Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2008) has a Suicidal/Death Ideation (SUI) scale consisting of 5 items that describe recent suicidal ideation or behaviors. Although this scale has clear face validity, few studies have examined the clinical utility of this scale. The purpose of the current study was to examine associations between the SUI scale and other established measures of suicidal ideation and behavior, including the Depressive Symptom Inventory Suicidality Subscale (DSI–SS; Metalsky & Joiner, 1997), Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS; Beck & Steer, 1991; Beck, Steer, & Ranieri, 1988), self-report of lifetime suicide attempts, and clinician ratings of suicide risk. Participants were 998 therapy- and assessment-seeking outpatients. Analyses indicated that the SUI scale was positively associated with other self-reported measures of suicidal ideation and behavior. Significant differences in SUI scale scores also emerged among the clinician rating categories of suicide risk. The SUI scale was able to predict previous suicide attempts over and above age, gender, and other MMPI–2–RF scales related to depression. Finally, relative risk ratios for suicide attempts indicate increased risk of suicidality, with higher T scores on the SUI scale. Overall, findings suggest that the MMPI–2–RF SUI scale may be a useful tool for identifying individuals at risk for suicidal ideation and behavior in clinical settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Initial interpretation and evaluation of a profile-based classification system for the anxiety and mood disorders: Incremental validity compared to DSM-IV categories.
    Limitations in anxiety and mood disorder diagnostic reliability and validity due to the categorical approach to classification used by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) have been long recognized. Although these limitations have led researchers to forward alternative classification schemes, few have been empirically evaluated. In a sample of 1,218 outpatients with anxiety and mood disorders, the present study examined the validity of Brown and Barlow’s (2009) proposal to classify the anxiety and mood disorders using an integrated dimensional-categorical approach based on transdiagnostic emotional disorder vulnerabilities and phenotypes. Latent class analyses of 7 transdiagnostic dimensional indicators suggested that a 6-class (i.e., profile) solution provided the best model fit and was the most conceptually interpretable. Interpretation of the classes was further supported when compared with DSM diagnoses (i.e., within-class prevalence of diagnoses, using diagnoses to predict class membership). In addition, hierarchical multiple regression models were used to demonstrate the incremental validity of the profiles; class probabilities consistently accounted for unique variance in anxiety and mood disorder outcomes above and beyond DSM diagnoses. These results provide support for the potential development and utility of a hybrid dimensional-categorical profile approach to anxiety and mood disorder classification. In particular, the availability of dimensional indicators and corresponding profiles may serve as a useful complement to DSM diagnoses for both researchers and clinicians. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Measurement of math beliefs and their associations with math behaviors in college students.
    Our purpose in the present study was to expand understanding of math beliefs in college students by developing 3 new psychometrically tested scales as guided by expectancy-value theory, self-efficacy theory, and health belief model. Additionally, we identified which math beliefs (and which theory) best explained variance in math behaviors and performance by college students and which students were most likely to have problematic math beliefs. Study participants included 368 college math students who completed questionnaires to report math behaviors (attending class, doing homework, reading textbooks, asking for help) and used a 5-point rating scale to indicate a variety of math beliefs. For a subset of 84 students, math professors provided final math grades. Factor analyses produced a 10-item Math Value Scale with 2 subscales (Class Devaluation, No Future Value), a 7-item single-dimension Math Confidence Scale, and an 11-item Math Barriers Scale with 2 subscales (Math Anxiety, Discouraging Words). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that high levels of the newly discovered class devaluation belief (guided by expectancy-value theory) were most consistently associated with poor math behaviors in college students, with high math anxiety (guided by health belief model) and low math confidence (guided by self-efficacy theory) also found to be significant. Analyses of covariance revealed that younger and male students were at increased risk for class devaluation and older students were at increased risk for poor math confidence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Development and validation of the Peer Interaction Macro-Coding System Scales (PIMS): A new tool for observational measurement of social competence in youth with spina bifida.
    Many children with chronic health conditions encounter enduring difficulties in their peer interactions and friendships. This study aimed to create and validate scales derived from an observational coding system (i.e., Peer Interaction Macro-Coding System, or PIMS) in a sample of children with spina bifida and their peers. Participants were 106 target child–peer dyads who completed a battery of questionnaires and interviews and were videotaped performing 4 interaction tasks, which were then coded across multiple domains of social functioning. Five scales (i.e., Control, Prosocial Skills, Positive Affect, Conflict, and Dyadic Cohesion) were rationally derived based on a review of the literature and a panel of experts. Internal consistency and interrater reliability at the scale level were good to excellent for all 5 scales. Interscale correlations were in the low-to-moderate range for 4 of the scales, although the Dyadic Cohesion Scale was highly correlated with two other scales and was subsequently dropped. Convergent validity and discriminant validity were established by examining the 4 remaining scales in association with comparable questionnaire and interview data. The 4 PIMS scales appear to be reliable and valid measures of social competence and may enhance future multimethod research efforts aimed at learning more about peer interactions and overall social competence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Ratings of ADHD symptoms and academic impairment by mothers, fathers, teachers, and aides: Construct validity within and across settings as well as occasions.
    A Multiple Indicator × Multiple Trait × Multiple Source × Multiple Occasion design was used to evaluate invariance, convergent and discriminant validity of ADHD-inattention (IN), ADHD-hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), and academic impairment scores from the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory (CADBI) using confirmatory factor analysis. Mothers, fathers, teachers, and aides completed the CADBI on 811 Spanish 1st-grade children (54% boys) twice (6-week separation). For mothers and fathers, like loadings, thresholds/intercepts, factor means, factor variances, and factor covariances/correlations were invariant across sources and occasions. All 3 factors also showed convergent (convergent correlations from .69 to .83) and significant discriminant validity. For teachers and aides, there was also invariance of parameters along with convergent and discriminant validity over sources and occasions (convergent correlations from .67 to .87). With construct validity established for home and school, it was meaningful to test construct validity between home and school. Like-item loadings and thresholds/intercepts were invariant between home and school, with the ADHD-HI factor mean being lower at school. Convergent validity of ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI, and academic impairment factors, especially ADHD-IN and ADHD-HI, was much weaker between home and school (convergent correlations from .36 to .47 for IN and HI). The strong convergent validity of ADHD-IN and ADHD-HI scores within home and school in conjunction with weak convergent validity across home and school has implications for the assessment and diagnosis of ADHD (i.e., the diagnostic criteria of symptom occurrence in 2 or more settings). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Examining the factor structure and etiology of prosociality.
    Prosociality is one construct included in the developmental propensity model proposed by Lahey and Waldman (2003, 2005) to explain the development of conduct problems in childhood and adolescence. Findings from previous literature on 2 facets of prosociality, dispositional sympathy and respect for rules, suggest that both may have genetic and nonshared environmental influences, but only the latter may have shared environmental influence. The goal of the current article was to explore the structure of the prosociality disposition from a measurement perspective as well as to examine the etiology of this construct. The sample consisted of 686 twin pairs ages 7 to 13. Parents rated their children’s prosociality using the Child and Adolescent Dispositions Scale. The factor structure of the prosociality scale was examined using confirmatory factor analysis to compare a 1-factor model with a 2-factor model. Twin analyses were used to examine the proportion of variance associated with genetic and environmental effects on the latent factor(s) from the best fitting model. Results of the current study suggest that prosociality is a disposition that can be conceptualized as 2 related factors rather than a unitary dimension. These 2 factors map onto the subscales of the prosociality dimension (dispositional sympathy and respect for rules). Both factors had significant genetic and nonshared environmental influences, but only respect for rules had significant shared environmental influences. Examining the dispositional sympathy and respect for rules facets of prosociality separately allowed for the discovery that shared environmental factors may have more impact on respect for rules than sympathy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The influence of contextual information on lay judgments of childhood mental health concerns.
    Decisions about whether a person is in need of mental health care are often made by laypeople with no training in the identification of mental health concerns. For example, the parent of a child displaying problematic behavior has to decide whether this behavior is likely related to mental health concerns and necessitates professional care. The process of identifying mental health concerns is made more complicated by the rich background of real-world environmental factors or contexts in which concerns can present—contexts that might or might not relate to the presence of mental health concerns. We investigated whether laypeople use contextual information to make judgments regarding childhood mental health disorder symptoms. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated that laypeople’s judgments of the likelihood of a mental disorder are influenced by non-diagnostic contextual information that surrounds symptoms of the disorder. In Experiment 2, we demonstrated that providing a causal origin for such disorder symptoms accentuates the use of context, regardless of the nature of the causal process (i.e., environmental vs. biological). These findings indicate that contextual influences on judgments about mental health concerns may reflect a more general set of mental reasoning processes than indicated by previous work focused on clinicians’ judgments. Consequently, these findings have important implications for how we think about the influence of contextual information on decision making more generally as well as for improving our ability to both reliably identify children in need of mental health care and increase children’s access to such care. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS): A comparison of two short-form versions.
    The widespread use of Mattick and Clarke’s (1998) Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and Social Phobia Scale (SPS) led 2 independent groups of researchers to develop short forms of these measures (Fergus, Valentiner, McGrath, Gier-Lonsway, & Kim, 2012; Peters, Sunderland, Andrews, Rapee, & Mattick, 2012). This 3-part study examined the psychometric properties of Fergus et al.’s and Peters et al.’s short forms of the SIAS and SPS using an American nonclinical adolescent sample in Study 1 (N = 98), American patient sample with an anxiety disorder in Study 2 (N = 117), and both a South Korean college student sample (N = 341) and an American college student sample (N = 550) in Study 3. Scores on both sets of short forms evidenced adequate internal consistency, interitem correlations, and measurement invariance. Scores on Fergus et al.’s short forms, particularly their SIAS short form, tended to capture more unique variance in scores of criterion measures than did scores on Peters et al.’s short forms. Implications for the use of these 2 sets of short forms are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Self-consciousness and social anxiety in youth: The Revised Self-Consciousness Scales for Children.
    Despite the established relationship between self-consciousness (SC) and anxiety and depression in adults, there is a paucity of research examining SC in children and adolescents. We therefore sought to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of scores for a revised version of the Self-Consciousness Scales for Children, a measure of SC in youth. The Revised Self-Consciousness Scale for Children (R-SCS-C) was examined in 2 studies using a community sample of children and adolescents. In the 1st study, 1,207 youth (685 girls) ages 7 to 18 completed the R-SCS-C as well as measures of imaginary audience, anxiety, depression, and positive and negative affect. Results of an exploratory factor analysis of the R-SCS-C conducted on a randomly selected subsample (n = 603) supported a 3-factor solution, including the subscales of Public Self-Consciousness, Private Self-Consciousness, and Social Anxiety. A subsequent confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) conducted on the remaining half of the sample (n = 604) revealed that this model fit the data well. Additionally, subsequent multigroup CFAs by gender and age demonstrated good model fit across both gender and younger (ages 7 to 12 years) and older (ages 13 to 18 years) cohorts. In the 2nd study, 245 youth completed the R-SCS-C twice, approximately 2 weeks apart. The R-SCS-C scores in these samples demonstrated acceptable internal consistency, convergent and divergent validity, and test–retest reliability. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Confirmatory factor analysis, latent profile analysis, and factor mixture modeling of the syndromes of the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher Report Form.
    The current study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), latent profile analysis (LPA), and factor mixture modeling (FMM) to examine the co-occurrence of the childhood syndromes using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Teacher Report Form (TRF). Parents and teachers completed the CBCL and TRF, respectively, for a clinic-referred sample of 720 children, ages 7–12 years. For the CBCL, the analyses indicated most support a 2-class 2-factor FMM, and for the TRF, there was most support for a 2-class 3-factor model. The classes were all syndromes at average levels and all syndromes at high levels. The findings indicate high syndrome co-occurrence. The implications of the findings for understanding syndrome co-occurrence in the CBCL and TRF, theories of syndrome co-occurrence, and the clinical use of the CBCL and TRF are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The manifestation of depression in the context of urban poverty: A factor analysis of the Children’s Depression Inventory in low-income urban youth.
    The current study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to compare the fit of 2 factor structures for the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI) in an urban community sample of low-income youth. Results suggest that the 6-factor model developed by Craighead and colleagues (1998) was a strong fit to the pattern of symptoms reported by low-income urban youth and was a superior fit with these data than the original 5-factor model of the CDI (Kovacs, 1992). Additionally, results indicated that all 6 factors from the Craighead model contributed to the measurement of depression, including School Problems and Externalizing Problems especially for older adolescents. This pattern of findings may reflect distinct contextual influences of urban poverty on the manifestation and measurement of depression in youth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • An examination of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) among male adolescent offenders: An item response theory analysis.
    This study examined the applicability of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV; Forth, Kosson, & Hare, 2003) among a large sample of serious offending adolescent males. Adopting an item response theory approach, item properties of the PCL:YV were examined using the generalized partial credit model. Results showed that need for stimulation, “irresponsibility,” and callous & unemotional were sensitive to changes in respondents’ varying psychopathy levels, whereas lack of realistic, long-term goals; superficial charm; and revocation of conditional release were less so (quoted PCL:YV item published with permission by Multi-Health Systems, Inc.; see full permissions statement in footnote 1 in the article; other items are paraphrased). Substantial differential item functioning was also found in 15 of the 20 PCL:YV items among Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic offending boys, indicating that item functioning was not invariant across race/ethnicity. Questions remain regarding whether the construct of psychopathy as assessed with the PCL:YV is equivalent across adolescents in general and across different race/ethnic groups in particular. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • A longitudinal examination of the measurement properties and predictive utility of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale among North American Indigenous adolescents.
    We examined the longitudinal measurement properties and predictive utility of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) from early to late adolescence among a sample of North American Indigenous youths. Participants were 632 North American Indigenous adolescents (n = 632; 50.3% girls; M age at baseline = 11.11 years) participating in an 8-year, 8-wave longitudinal study. Via in-person interviews, participants completed the CES-D at Waves 1, 3, 5, and 7, and the major depressive disorder (MDD) module of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children at Waves 1, 4, 6, and 8. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that responses to the CES-D were similarly explained by 2-, 3-, and 4-factor models, as well as a 1-factor model with correlations between the error variances for the positively worded items. Longitudinal measurement equivalence analyses indicated full structural (i.e., factor structure), metric (i.e., factor loadings), and scalar (i.e., observed item intercepts) equivalence for each factor structure. Substantive analyses showed that the CES-D was significantly associated with MDD both concurrently and prospectively, although these effects were smaller than might be expected. Finally, the CES-D negative affect and somatic complaints subscales were the strongest and most consistent predictors of MDD. Among our sample of North American Indigenous youths, the measurement properties of the CES-D were stable from early to late adolescence. Moreover, somatic difficulties and depressed affect were the strongest predictors of MDD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Psychometric structure of the Chinese Multiethnic Adolescent Cultural Identity Questionnaire.
    In this study, we used the Chinese Multiethnic Adolescent Cultural Identity Questionnaire (CMACIQ) and collected valid data from 1,036 participants to systematically examine the mental model of cultural identity in Chinese multiethnic adolescents. Exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were performed on the data to discover the factor structure and dimensions of cultural identity. The psychometric properties of the scale were rigorously validated in 2,744 new multiethnic participants from 5 native ethnic groups in Yunnan province in China. The results indicated that CMACIQ had reasonable metric properties and good fit indices. The hierarchical model of cultural identity consisted of 2 second-order factors, Ethnic Cultural Identity and Mainstream Cultural Identity in School. The first higher order factor was composed of preference for ethnic things, ethnic acceptance, religious belief, and ethnic convention, while the second comprised 2 first-order factors, Social Norms and Dominant Culture. The potential application and limitations of CMACIQ are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Agreement between veteran and partner reports of intimate partner aggression.
    We examined intimate partner aggression (IPA) reporting concordance between veterans and their partners and investigated relationship satisfaction, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and relationship attributions as correlates of IPA reporting discrepancies. The sample consisted of 239 veterans of different service eras and their intimate partners. Veterans and partners reported their physical and psychological IPA perpetration and victimization over the past 6 months. Methodological improvements over prior concordance studies included the use of clinician-assessed PTSD symptoms and the assessment of relationship attributions via observational coding of couples’ conflict interactions. Results suggested low to moderate levels of agreement between veterans and partners and indicated that relationship satisfaction was associated with reporting less IPA than one’s partner reported, replicating prior concordance findings. Previous concordance findings with self-reported PTSD symptoms were also reproduced in the current study using clinician-assessed PTSD symptoms. Veterans’ PTSD symptoms were associated with reporting less IPA than their partners reported and partners’ PTSD symptoms were associated with reporting more IPA than the veterans reported. Additionally, we found an association between relationship attributions and reporting discrepancies. For both dyad members, making more positive and less negative relationship attributions was associated with reporting less IPA than one’s partner reported. Findings underscore the difficulty of obtaining objective self-reports of adverse behavior and highlight factors that may influence such reports. Clinically, this information could be used to better identify cases in which obtaining collateral reports of IPA are particularly warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2–Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) predictors of violating probation after felonious crimes.
    We compared Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2–Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scores of 25 individuals convicted of felonies who violated probation within 1 year of sentencing with those of 45 similarly sentenced defendants who completed probation successfully. The sample (51 males, 19 females) ranged in age from 18 to 81 years (M = 35.2, SD = 13.8) and had 8 to 16 years of education (M = 11.7, SD = 2.1). The majority were Caucasian (85.7%), but African Americans were also represented (14.3%). Individuals in the sample were primarily convicted of mid-level felonies (F-1: 2.9%; F-2: 14.3%; F-3: 22.9%; F-4: 31.4%; F-5: 12.9%). As hypothesized, moderate to large statistically significant differences between probation completers and violators were found on several MMPI-2-RF scales, including Behavioral/Externalizing Dysfunction, Antisocial Behavior, Juvenile Conduct Problems, Substance Abuse, Aggression, Activation, and Disconstraint. Relative risk ratio analyses indicated that probationers who produced elevated scores on these scales were up to 3 times more likely to violate probation than were those with non-elevated scores. Implications of these results and limitations of our findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Reliability and validity of two self-report measures of cognitive flexibility.
    Neuropsychological testing currently represents the gold standard in assessing cognitive flexibility. However, this format presents some challenges in terms of time and skills required for administration, scoring, and interpretation. Two self-report measures of cognitive flexibility have been developed to measure aspects of cognitive flexibility in everyday settings, although neither has been validated in an older sample. In this study, we investigated the psychometric properties of 2 self-report measures of cognitive flexibility, the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI; Dennis & Vander Wal, 2010) and the Cognitive Flexibility Scale (CFS; Martin & Rubin, 1995), against neuropsychological measures of cognitive flexibility in a clinical sample of 47 older adults with comorbid anxiety and depression and a nonclinical sample of 53 community-dwelling older adults. Internal consistency was good for the CFS and CFI in all samples. The clinical sample reported poorer cognitive flexibility than did the nonclinical sample on self-report measures and performed more poorly on some neuropsychological measures. There was evidence of convergent validity between the 2 self-report measures but little relationship between the self-report and neuropsychological measures of cognitive flexibility, suggesting that self-report measures assess a different aspect of cognitive flexibility than does neuropsychological testing. Divergent validity was weak from measures of anxiety and depression in the combined and nonclinical samples but acceptable in the clinical sample. Results suggest that these measures are suitable for use with an older adult sample but do not assess the same aspects of cognitive flexibility as are assessed by neuropsychological assessment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The validity and scalability of the Theory of Mind Scale with toddlers and preschoolers.
    Despite the importance of theory of mind (ToM) for typical development, there remain 2 key issues affecting our ability to draw robust conclusions. One is the continued focus on false belief as the sole measure of ToM. The second is the lack of empirically validated measures of ToM as a broad construct. Our key aim was to examine the validity and reliability of the 5-item ToM scale (Peterson, Wellman, & Liu, 2005). In particular, we extended on previous research of this scale by assessing its scalability and validity for use with children from 2 years of age. Sixty-eight typically developing children (aged 24 to 61 months) were assessed on the scale’s 5 tasks, along with a sixth Sally–Anne false-belief task. Our data replicated the scalability of the 5 tasks for a Rasch—but not Guttman—scale. Guttman analysis showed that a 4-item scale may be more suitable for this age range. Further, the tasks showed good internal consistency and validity for use with children as young as 2 years of age. Overall, the measure provides a valid and reliable tool for the assessment of ToM, and in particular, the longitudinal assessment of this ability as a construct. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Invariance in the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales for Black and White referred students.
    An important part of validity evidence for a test’s scores is that they are invariant—measuring the same constructs the same way across different groups. Although published a decade ago, no independent investigation of invariance has been conducted on the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS). In the current study, we investigated invariance of the RIAS’s measurement of general cognitive ability (g) between Black and White students who were referred for special education services. Results indicated that the subtest scores showed strict invariance, but g’s variance was not the same across groups. Specifically, the White group exhibited a higher mean (d = 0.60) and almost twice the variability in g as the Black group did. Thus, although the between-group mean differences in subtest scores and the Composite Intelligence Index are due to between-group differences in g, the Black group used a narrower range of g than the White group did in answering the RIAS items. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • "A dispositional framework elucidates differences between interview and questionnaire measurement of childhood attention problems": Correction to Herzhoff, Tackett, and Martel (2013).
    Reports an error in "A dispositional trait framework elucidates differences between interview and questionnaire measurement of childhood attention problems" by Kathrin Herzhoff, Jennifer L. Tackett and Michelle M. Martel (Psychological Assessment, 2013[Dec], Vol 25[4], 1079-1090). In the article, the Child Behavior Checklist Attention Problem (AP) scale was scored incorrectly. Correcting this error did not change the interpretation of the results, but did change the numbers in the table and text and resulted in Table 5 not being a suitable reference for the text on page 1087 in the discussion section that describes the relationship between the AP scale and the lower-order facet Fear. That reference should now include only Table 2, and not Table 5. The revised column from Table 2 presented in the erratum reports the results with the correctly scored AP scale. A summary of the revised Tables 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6 is also provided. There is also an error in the text on page 1081 in the methods section that describes the scoring of the CBCL. The corrected text is provided in the erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2013-19092-001.) At present, no single attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) measure completely and comprehensively captures all ADHD diagnostic criteria (Anastopoulos, 2001). This represents a notable limitation in the assessment of attention problems and suggests the need for research that reconciles differences in information across measures purporting to measure the same or similar constructs. For example, by analyzing differences in measures in relation to a third construct, the third construct can provide an illuminative backdrop against which to view and ultimately reconcile differences between measures of the same attention problem construct. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to draw on a dispositional trait framework to illustrate differences in the ADHD construct assessed by 2 widely used attention problem measures. Parents of 346 children (51% girls) ranging in age from 7 to 12 years (M = 9.92 years, SD = 0.83 years) completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001), a structured clinical interview based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM–IV–TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000), and dispositional trait questionnaires about their child. Both low Conscientiousness/Effortful Control and high Neuroticism/Negative Affect showed strong, unique associations with the CBCL Attention Problem score, whereas only low Conscientiousness/Effortful Control showed a strong, unique association with DSM–IV–TR ADHD symptoms assessed by clinical interview. These discriminant dispositional trait correlates help us understand the nature of the attention problem construct as assessed by each measure, with important implications for the practice of cross-measure integration in both research and applied settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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