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Psychological Assessment - Vol 27, Iss 3

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Psychological Assessment Psychological Assessment publishes mainly empirical articles concerning clinical assessment. Papers that fall within the domain of the journal include research on the development, validation, application, and evaluation of psychological assessment instruments. Diverse modalities (e.g., cognitive, physiologic, and motoric) and methods of assessment (e.g., questionnaires, interviews, natural environment and analog environment observation, self-monitoring, participant observation, physiological measurement, instrument-assisted and computer-assisted assessment) are within the domain of the journal, especially as they relate to clinical assessment. Also included are topics on clinical judgment and decision making (including diagnostic assessment), methods of measurement of treatment process and outcome, and dimensions of individual differences (e.g., race, ethnicity, age, gender, sexual orientation, economic status) as they relate to clinical assessment.
Copyright 2015 American Psychological Association
  • A new condition for assessing the clinical efficiency of a diagnostic test.
    When prediction using a diagnostic test outperforms simple prediction using base rates, the test is said to be “clinically efficient,” a term first introduced into the literature by Meehl and Rosen (1955) in Psychological Bulletin. This article provides three equivalent conditions for determining the clinical efficiency of a diagnostic test: (a) Meehl-Rosen (Meehl & Rosen, 1955); (b) Dawes (Dawes, 1962); and (c) the Bokhari-Hubert condition, introduced here for the first time. Clinical efficiency is then generalized to situations where misclassification costs are considered unequal (for example, false negatives are more costly than false positives). As an illustration, the clinical efficiency of an actuarial device for predicting violent and dangerous behavior is examined that was developed as part of the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The utility of set-loss error scores in the general population.
    Although the measurement of cognitive performance usually relies on achievement sum scores, a growing body of research suggests that the analysis of errors made may have a predictive validity beyond that provided by the number of items correct. This study examined the validity related to one such kind of error scores—the set-loss errors—in the general population of 8- to 11-year-old children. Set-loss errors (also called rule violations) can be conceptualized as a breakdown in the adherence to task-specific rules, and in clinical populations, the propensity to make these errors has shown some specificity for identifying disorders connected with frontal lobes dysfunction. The results, however, indicate that set-loss errors derived from distinct tests could not be effectively explained by a single latent dimension; hence, they do not tap a single construct that could be called set loss or the ability to maintain set. At the same time, there were only few weak associations between various kinds of error scores as well as between the set-loss error scores and relevant constructs such as the ability to learn, attentional control, working memory, fluid and crystallized intelligence, and executive functions–related real-world behaviors, indicating an overrepresentation of construct-irrelevant variance in these kinds of scores. These indications were further accentuated by the analysis of sensitivity and specificity where any elevated number of set-loss error scores was unable to classify individuals on theoretically relevant constructs beyond chance levels. The evidence thus speaks against the use of set-loss error scores in the general population of 8- to 11-year-old children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • A Bayesian approach to mixed group validation of performance validity tests.
    Mental health professionals often use structured assessment tools to help detect individuals who are feigning or exaggerating symptoms. Yet estimating the accuracy of these tools is problematic because no “gold standard” establishes whether someone is malingering or not. Several investigators have recommended using mixed group validation (MGV) to estimate the accuracy of malingering measures, but simulation studies show that typical implementations of MGV may yield vague, biased, or logically impossible results. In this article we describe a Bayesian approach to MGV that addresses and avoids these limitations. After explaining the concepts that underlie our approach, we use previously published data on the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM; Tombaugh, 1996) to illustrate how our method works. Our findings concerning the TOMM’s accuracy, which include insights about covariates such as study population and litigation status, are consistent with results that appear in previous publications. Unlike most investigations of the TOMM’s accuracy, our findings neither rely on possibly flawed assumptions about subjects’ intentions nor assume that experimental simulators can duplicate the behavior of real-world examinees. Our conceptual approach may prove helpful in evaluating the accuracy of many assessment tools used in clinical contexts and psycholegal determinations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The assessment of risky decision making: A factor analysis of performance on the Iowa Gambling Task, Balloon Analogue Risk Task, and Columbia Card Task.
    Researchers and clinicians frequently use behavioral measures to assess decision making. The most common task that is marketed to clinicians is the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), thought to assess risky decision making. How does performance on the IGT relate to performance on other common measures of decision making? The present study sought to examine relationships between the IGT, the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), and the Columbia Card Task (CCT). Participants were 390 undergraduate students who completed the IGT, BART, and either the “hot” or “cold” CCT. Principal components factor analysis on the IGT, BART, and CCT-cold (n = 112) indicated that the IGT measures a different component of decision making than the BART, and the CCT-cold weakly correlated with early IGT trials. Results of the exploratory factor analysis on the IGT, BART, and CCT-hot (n = 108) revealed a similar picture: the IGT and BART assessed different types of decision making, and the BART and CCT-hot were weakly correlated. A confirmatory factor analysis (n = 170) indicated that a 3-factor model without the CCT-cold (Factor 1: later IGT trials; Factor 2: BART; and Factor 3: early IGT trials) was a better fitting model than one that included the CCT-cold and early IGT trials on the same factor. Collectively, the present results suggest that the IGT, BART, and CCT all measure unique, nonoverlapping decision making processes. Further research is needed to more fully understand the neuropsychological construct of decision making. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Measurement of DSM-5 section II personality disorder constructs using the MMPI-2-RF in clinical and forensic samples.
    In the current study, we evaluated the associations between the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008) scale scores and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM–5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) Section II personality disorder (PD) criterion counts in inpatient and forensic psychiatric samples from The Netherlands using structured clinical interviews to operationalize PDs. The inpatient psychiatric sample included 190 male and female patients and the forensic sample included 162 male psychiatric patients. We conducted correlation and count regression analyses to evaluate the utility of relevant MMPI–2–RF scales in predicting PD criterion count scores. Generally, results from these analyses emerged as conceptually expected and provided evidence that MMPI–2–RF scales can be useful in assessing PDs. At the zero-order level, most hypothesized associations between Section II disorders and MMPI–2–RF scales were supported. Similarly, in the regression analyses, a unique set of predictors emerged for each PD that was generally in line with conceptual expectations. Additionally, the results provided general evidence that PDs can be captured by dimensional psychopathology constructs, which has implications for both DSM–5 Section III specifically and the personality psychopathology literature more broadly. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Associations between DSM-5 section III personality traits and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scales in a psychiatric patient sample.
    Our aim in the current study was to evaluate the convergence between Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) Section III dimensional personality traits, as operationalized via the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2–Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scale scores in a psychiatric patient sample. We used a sample of 346 (171 men, 175 women) patients who were recruited through a university-affiliated psychiatric facility in Toronto, Canada. We estimated zero-order correlations between the PID-5 and MMPI-2-RF substantive scale scores, as well as a series of exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) analyses to examine how these scales converged in multivariate latent space. Results generally showed empirical convergence between the scales of these two measures that were thematically meaningful and in accordance with conceptual expectations. Correlation analyses showed significant associations between conceptually expected scales, and the highest associations tended to be between scales that were theoretically related. ESEM analyses generated evidence for distinct internalizing, externalizing, and psychoticism factors across all analyses. These findings indicate convergence between these two measures and help further elucidate the associations between dysfunctional personality traits and general psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The Chinese–Western Intercultural Couple Standards Scale.
    We developed the Chinese–Western Intercultural Couple Standards Scale (CWICSS) to assess relationship standards that may differ between Chinese and Western partners and may challenge intercultural couples. The scale assesses 4 Western-derived relationship standards (demonstrations of love, demonstrations of caring, intimacy expression, and intimacy responsiveness) and 4 Chinese-derived relationship standards (relations with the extended family, relational harmony, face, and gender roles). We administered the CWICSS to 983 Chinese and Western participants living in Australia to assess the psychometric properties of the scores as measures of respondents’ relationship standards. The CWICSS has a 2-level factor structure with the items reflecting the 8 predicted standards. The 4 Western derived standards loaded onto a higher order factor of couple bond, and the 4 Chinese derived standards loaded onto a higher order factor of family responsibility. The scale scores were structurally equivalent across cultures, genders, and 2 independent samples, and good convergent and discriminant validity was found for the interpretation of scale scores as respondents’ endorsement of the predicted standards. Scores on the 8 scales and 2 superordinate scales showed high internal consistency and test–retest coefficients. Chinese endorsed all 4 family responsibility standards more strongly than did Westerners, but Chinese and Western participants were similar in endorsement of couple bond standards. Across both cultures, couple bond standards were endorsed more highly than were family responsibility standards. The CWICSS assesses potential areas of conflict in Chinese–Western relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The South African Personality Inventory (SAPI): A culture-informed instrument for the country’s main ethnocultural groups.
    We present the development and the underlying structure of a personality inventory for the main ethnocultural groups of South Africa, using an emic–etic approach. The South African Personality Inventory (SAPI) was developed based on an extensive qualitative study of the implicit personality conceptions in the country’s 11 official languages (Nel et al., 2012). Items were generated and selected (to a final set of 146) with a continuous focus on cultural adequacy and translatability. Students and community adults (671 Blacks, 198 Coloreds, 104 Indians, and 391 Whites) completed the inventory. A 6-dimensional structure (comprising a positive and a negative Social-Relational factor, Neuroticism, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Openness) was equivalent across groups and replicated in an independent sample of 139 Black and 270 White students. The SAPI correlated highly overall with impression-management aspects, but lower with lying aspects of social desirability. The SAPI social-relational factors were distinguishable from the Big Five in a joint factor analysis; the multiple correlations with the Big Five were .64 (positive) and .51 (negative social-relational). Implications and suggestions for emic–etic instrument and model development are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Development and validation of triarchic psychopathy scales from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire.
    Psychopathy is conceptualized by the triarchic model as encompassing 3 distinct phenotypic constructs: boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. In the current study, the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ), a normal-range personality measure, was evaluated for representation of these 3 constructs. Consensus ratings were used to identify MPQ items most related to each triarchic (Tri) construct. Scale measures were developed from items indicative of each construct, and scores for these scales were evaluated for convergent and discriminant validity in community (N = 176) and incarcerated samples (N = 240). Across the 2 samples, MPQ-Tri scale scores demonstrated good internal consistencies and relationships with criterion measures of various types consistent with predictions based on the triarchic model. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for further investigation of the triarchic model constructs in preexisting datasets that include the MPQ, in particular longitudinal and genetically informative datasets. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Item order effects in the evaluation of posttraumatic stress disorder symptom structure.
    Factor analytic research has demonstrated consistently that the 3-factor DSM–IV model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom structure provides a poorer fit than alternative 4- and 5-factor models. In the current study we examined whether order of item presentation accounts for these findings. In a large sample (N = 1,311) of trauma-exposed undergraduates we conducted a series of confirmatory factor analyses using the PTSD Checklist and Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, which present symptom items in the same order as DSM–IV, and the Detailed Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress, which presents items in a different order. Across all 3 measures the 3-factor DSM–IV model provided a relatively worse fit and the 5-factor dysphoric arousal model provided a relatively better fit compared with other tested models. We also examined the distinctiveness of 2 pairs of symptom clusters that appear in the dysphoric arousal model—avoidance versus numbing and dysphoric arousal versus anxious arousal—by comparing their patterns of associations with external correlates. Avoidance and numbing demonstrated differential associations with external correlates, as did dysphoric arousal and anxious arousal. Taken together, results indicate that order effects are unlikely to account for differences in relative fit between leading models of PTSD symptom structure. We discuss the need for future research in this area, especially studies designed to evaluate order effects more directly. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Does a web-based feedback training program result in improved reliability in clinicians’ ratings of the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale?
    The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale is used in routine clinical practice and research to estimate symptom and functional severity and longitudinal change. Concerns about poor interrater reliability have been raised, and the present study evaluated the effect of a Web-based GAF training program designed to improve interrater reliability in routine clinical practice. Clinicians rated up to 20 vignettes online, and received deviation scores as immediate feedback (i.e., own scores compared with expert raters) after each rating. Growth curves of absolute SD scores across the vignettes were modeled. A linear mixed effects model, using the clinician’s deviation scores from expert raters as the dependent variable, indicated an improvement in reliability during training. Moderation by content of scale (symptoms; functioning), scale range (average; extreme), previous experience with GAF rating, profession, and postgraduate training were assessed. Training reduced deviation scores for inexperienced GAF raters, for individuals in clinical professions other than nursing and medicine, and for individuals with no postgraduate specialization. In addition, training was most beneficial for cases with average severity of symptoms compared with cases with extreme severity. The results support the use of Web-based training with feedback routines as a means to improve the reliability of GAF ratings performed by clinicians in mental health practice. These results especially pertain to clinicians in mental health practice who do not have a masters or doctoral degree. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • A contemporary psychometric evaluation of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory—Revised (OCI-R).
    Traditionally, hoarding symptoms were coded under obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), however, in DSM-5 hoarding symptoms are classified as a new independent diagnosis, hoarding disorder (HD). This change will likely have a considerable impact on the self-report scales that assess symptoms of OCD, since these scales often include items measuring symptoms of hoarding. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of one of the most commonly used self-report measures of OCD symptoms, the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory—Revised (OCI-R), in a sample of 474 individuals with either OCD (n = 118), HD (n = 201), or no current or past psychiatric disorders (n = 155). Participants with HD were diagnosed according to the proposed DSM-5 criteria. For the purposes of this study the OCI-R was divided into two scales: the OCI-OCD (measuring the five dimensions of OCD) and the OCI-HD (measuring the hoarding dimension). Evidence of validity for the OCI-OCD and OCI-HD was obtained by comparing scores with the Saving Inventory Revised (SI-R), the Hoarding Rating Scale (HRS) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Receiver operating curves for both subscales indicated good sensitivity and specificity for cut-scores determining diagnostic status. The results indicated that the OCI-OCD and OCI-HD subscales are reliable and valid measures that adequately differentiate between DSM-5 diagnostic groups. Implications for the future use of the OCI-R in OCD and HD samples are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS): Validation of a stroke-specific short cognitive screening tool.
    There is currently no existing freely available short screen for cognitive problems that targets stroke survivors specifically. We have developed a short cognitive screen, the Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS), to be completed in 15–20 min, designed for use with stroke patients. To maximize inclusion, the test is aphasia- and neglect friendly and covers domains of cognition where deficits frequently occur after stroke, including apraxia and unilateral neglect as well as memory, language, executive function, and number abilities. Domain-specific scores are returned to help direct rehabilitation. This article presents the normative data in a large sample of 140 neurologically healthy participants, a report on incidences of impairments in a sample of 208 acute stroke patients (within 3 weeks of stroke onset), measures of test–retest reliability on an alternate form and convergent and divergent validity. In addition, the full test materials are made freely available for clinical use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Is the Short Form of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) a better screening instrument for dementia in older primary care patients than the original MMSE? Results of the German study on ageing, cognition, and dementia in primary care patients (AgeCoDe).
    The aim of the study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a Short Form of the Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE) for the screening of dementia in older primary care patients. Data were obtained from a large longitudinal cohort study of initially nondemented individuals recruited via primary care chart registries and followed at 18-month intervals. Item and scale parameters for MMSE and SMMSE scores were analyzed and cross-validated for 2 follow-up assessments (n1 = 2,657 and n2 = 2,274). Binary logistic regression and receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were conducted in order to assess diagnostic accuracy parameters for MMSE and SMMSE scores. Cross-sectional differentiation between dementia-free and dementia patients yielded moderate to good results for MMSE and SMMSE scores. With regard to most diagnostic accuracy parameters, SMMSE scores did not outperform the MMSE scores. The current study provides first evidence regarding the psychometric properties of the SMMSE score in a sample of older primary care patients. However, our findings do not confirm previous findings that the SMMSE is a more accurate screening instrument for dementia than the original MMSE. Further studies are needed in order to assess and to develop short, reliable and valid instruments for routine cognitive screening in clinical practice and primary care settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Initial and noninitial name-letter preferences as obtained through repeated letter rating tasks continue to reflect (different aspects of) self-esteem.
    We tested the usefulness of name-letter preference scores as indirect indicators of self-esteem by exploring whether multiple unsupervised self-administrations of letter rating tasks within a short period of time yield useful data. We also examined whether preferences for initials and noninitial name-letters tap different aspects of self-esteem. Participants from a community sample (N = 164; 58 men and 106 women, 17–67 years, Mage = 34.57, SD = 13.28) completed daily letter rating tasks and state self-esteem questionnaires for 7 consecutive days. They also completed a trait self-esteem questionnaire on the first measurement day as well as 6 months later. Preference scores for first-name initials were stronger but more unstable than preference scores for other name-letters. Preferences for first-name initials were primarily associated with directly measured state self-esteem whereas preferences for noninitials were primarily associated with directly measured trait self-esteem even if the latter was measured 6 months later. Thus, we showed that preferences for initials and noninitials are not simply interchangeable. Previous letter rating studies, which almost exclusively used initial preferences, should be interpreted in terms of state rather than trait self-esteem. In future studies, researchers should focus on the name-letter preference that reflects the aspect of self-esteem they wish to address. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Factor structure and factorial invariance of the Multidimensional Acculturative Stress Inventory.
    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 27(3) of Psychological Assessment (see record 2015-38434-001). The institutional affiliation for Seth J. Schwartz was incorrectly listed as Miami University. Seth J. Schwartz is at the University of Miami. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Using a national data set, this study examined the factor structure and factorial invariance of the Multidimensional Acculturative Stress Inventory (MASI) across Latino and Asian Americans, gender, and nativity (U.S.- vs. foreign-born). Results showed that a 4-factor model of acculturative stress provided good fit to the data. Tests of factorial invariance provided evidence of measurement equivalence across all of the groupings tested. These findings suggest that the MASI operationalizes acculturative stress in an equivalent manner across Latino and Asian American students, gender, and nativity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Correction to Castillo et al. (2015).
    Reports an error in "Factor Structure and Factorial Invariance of the Multidimensional Acculturative Stress Inventory" by Linda G. Castillo, Miguel A. Cano, Myeongsun Yoon, Eunju Jung, Elissa J. Brown, Byron L. Zamboanga, Su Yeong Kim, Seth J. Schwartz, Que-Lam Huynh, Robert S. Weisskirch and Susan Krauss Whitbourne (Psychological Assessment, Advanced Online Publication, Mar 2, 2015, np). The institutional affiliation for Seth J. Schwartz was incorrectly listed as Miami University. Seth J. Schwartz is at the University of Miami. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-08361-001.) Using a national data set, this study examined the factor structure and factorial invariance of the Multidimensional Acculturative Stress Inventory (MASI) across Latino and Asian Americans, gender, and nativity (U.S.- vs. foreign-born). Results showed that a 4-factor model of acculturative stress provided good fit to the data. Tests of factorial invariance provided evidence of measurement equivalence across all of the groupings tested. These findings suggest that the MASI operationalizes acculturative stress in an equivalent manner across Latino and Asian American students, gender, and nativity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Test–retest reliability of the Tower of London Planning Task (TOL-F).
    Test–retest reliability is difficult to establish for measures of executive functioning that rely on task novelty. Correspondingly, evidence on the test–retest reliability of the commonly used Tower of London (TOL) planning task is, as yet, equivocal and only based on indices of relative consistency, rather than absolute agreement of individual scores. Further, the stability of planning latencies over repeated testing has not been investigated. The present study assessed test–retest reliability of planning performance measures using a structurally balanced problem set implemented in the TOL-Freiburg version (TOL-F). The TOL-F was administered in 2 structurally identical versions to a sample of young, healthy adults over a 1-week interval. For planning accuracy, the Pearson correlation and intraclass correlation coefficient for relative consistency were adequate (r = .739 and .734), with the intraclass correlation coefficient for absolute agreement only slightly decreased (r = .690). For initial thinking and movement execution times, relative consistency and absolute agreement reliability indices were uniformly low (all r between .274 and .519). Given adequate planning accuracy test–retest reliability, the TOL-F can be reliably used to measure planning ability in group-based studies and with individual participants, as is important for clinical testing. Planning latencies, however, should only be used as complementary, but not sole measures of planning ability, particularly for normative evaluations in clinical assessment. In sum, TOL-F planning accuracy possesses adequate absolute and relative test–retest reliability for experimental utility. Future studies should assess whether this indeed translates into clinical utility of the TOL-F for measuring planning ability in patients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • From “aisle” to “labile”: A hierarchical National Adult Reading Test scale revealed by Mokken scaling.
    Decline in cognitive ability is a core diagnostic criterion for dementia. Knowing the extent of decline requires a baseline score from which change can be reckoned. In the absence of prior cognitive ability scores, vocabulary-based cognitive tests are used to estimate premorbid cognitive ability. It is important that such tests are short yet informative, to maximize information and practicability. The National Adult Reading Test (NART) is commonly used to estimate premorbid intelligence. People are asked to pronounce 50 words ranging from easy to difficult but whether its words conform to a hierarchy is unknown. Five hundred eighty-seven healthy community-dwelling older people with known age 11 IQ scores completed the NART as part of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 study. Mokken analysis was used to explore item responses for unidimensional, ordinal, and hierarchical scales. A strong hierarchical scale (“mini-NART”) of 23 of the 50 items was identified. These items are invariantly ordered across all ability levels. The validity of the interpretation of this briefer scale’s score as an estimate of premorbid ability was examined using the actual age 11 IQ score. The mini-NART accounted for a similar amount of the variance in age 11 IQ as the full NART (NART = 46.5%, mini-NART = 44.8%). The mini-NART is proposed as a useful short clinical tool to estimate prior cognitive ability. The mini-NART has clinical relevance, comprising highly discriminatory, invariantly ordered items allowing for sensitive measurement, and adaptive testing, reducing test administration time, and patient stress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Psychometric properties of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale across demographic groups.
    The Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) is commonly used to assess difficulties recognizing and managing negative affect. Scores on the scale are strongly correlated with measures of psychopathology and are inversely correlated with measures of psychological well-being. Evidence supports the use of the DERS with adolescents and adults; to date, however, few studies have investigated the extent to which the psychometric properties of the DERS are consistent across demographic groups. The overarching goal of the present study was to examine the extent to which the factor structure of the DERS and the reliability and validity of DERS scores are consistent across gender and race in a diverse sample of adults. A total of 1,050 students from a medium-sized, urban university were included in the present study. Participants included 75.6% women and 24.4% men; 42.5% of participants identified as Caucasian, 40.4% as African American, and 17.1% as Asian American. Results showed that the DERS exhibits similar psychometric properties across men and women and all 3 racial groups that were included in this study. As such, the overall scale, as well as the original 6-factor solution of the DERS, can be reliably applied to individuals from the demographic groups investigated in the current study, and results can be interpreted in accordance with those from the preliminary DERS validation sample. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Correction to Washburn et al. (2015).
    Reports an error in "Assessing DSM–5 nonsuicidal self-injury disorder in a clinical sample" by Jason J. Washburn, Lauren M. Potthoff, K. R. Juzwin and Denise M. Styer (Psychological Assessment, 2015[Mar], Vol 27[1], 31-41). In the Method section, in the subsection Alexian Brothers Assessment of Self-Injury (ABASI), the first sentence of the third paragraph should read: “Examination of the specific NSI disorder criteria indicates the prominence of the first symptom in Criterion C. Symptom C-1, which evaluates the experience of interpersonal difficulties or negative thoughts or feelings immediately prior to engaging in selfinjury, was the most endorsed symptom of NSI disorder; 100% of those meeting criteria for NSI Disorder endorsed Symptom C-1 on the ABASI.” (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2014-40800-001.) The entry for nonsuicidal self-injury (NSI) disorder in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–5) provides a criterion-based definition of clinically relevant NSI. NSI disorder is currently classified in the DSM–5 as a condition requiring further study. The present study aimed to examine the reliability, validity, and clinical utility of a self-report measure of NSI disorder, the Alexian Brothers Assessment of Self-Injury (ABASI). The sample included 511 patients admitted to an acute care treatment program designed to treat NSI. Patients were administered the ABASI as part of a clinical assessment and routine outcome evaluation. The sample included a broad age range, as well as sufficient numbers of males and Hispanics to examine sociodemographic differences. The ABASI demonstrated adequate internal consistency and test–retest reliability, and the factor structure reflects NSI disorder criteria. Among patients being treated for NSI, 74% met criteria for NSI disorder. No differences in the rate of NSI disorder were observed by sex, ethnicity, or age. Although NSI disorder is associated with a worse presentation of self-injurious behavior, NSI disorder provides limited clinical utility as a dichotomous diagnosis, at least when compared with common NSI characteristics such as number of methods of NSI and the urge to self-injure. Instead, findings support a dimensional approach to NSI disorder. Analyses of specific symptoms of NSI disorder indicate concerns with Criterion B as currently defined by the DSM–5. Recommendations for a more parsimonious revision of NSI disorder are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Development of an abbreviated form of the Penn Line Orientation Test using large samples and computerized adaptive test simulation.
    Visuospatial processing is a commonly assessed neurocognitive domain with deficits linked to dysfunction in right posterior regions of the brain. With the growth of large-scale clinical research studies, there is an increased need for efficient and scalable assessments of neurocognition, including visuospatial processing. The purpose of the current study was to use a novel method that combines item response theory (IRT) and computerized adaptive testing (CAT) approaches to create an abbreviated form of the computerized Penn Line Orientation Test (PLOT). The 24-item PLOT was administered to 8,498 youths (aged 8–21 years) as part of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort study and, by Web-based data collection, in an independent sample of 4,593 adults from Great Britain as part of a TV documentary. IRT-based CAT simulations were used to select the best PLOT items for an abbreviated form by performing separate simulations in each group and choosing only items that were selected as useful (i.e., high item discrimination and in the appropriate difficulty range) in at least 1 of the simulations. Fifteen items were chosen for the final, short form of the PLOT, indicating substantial agreement among the models in how they evaluated each item’s usefulness. Moreover, this abbreviated version performed comparably to the full version in tests of sensitivity to age and sex effects. This abbreviated version of the PLOT cuts administration time by 50% without detectable loss of information, which points to its feasibility for large-scale clinical and genomic studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Development of a composite trauma exposure risk index.
    The high burden of exposure to chronic life adversities and trauma is quite prevalent, but assessment of this risk burden is uncommon in primary care settings. This calls for a brief, multiple dimensional mental health risk screening tool in primary care settings. We aimed to develop such a screening tool named the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Life Adversities Screener (LADS). Using pooled data across 4 studies from the UCLA Center for Culture, Trauma, and Mental Health Disparities, 5 domains of mental health risk including perceived discrimination, sexual abuse histories, family adversity, intimate partner violence, and trauma histories, were identified. Regression models for depression (Centers for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale) and posttraumatic stress disorder (Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale), controlling for demographic factors, were fitted to develop a weighted continuous scale score for the UCLA LADS. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the 5-domain structure, while item response theory endorsed the inclusion of each item. Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that the score was predictive for classifying subjects as reaching clinical threshold criteria for either depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II ≥ 14 or Patient Health Questionnaire-9 ≥ 10) or anxiety (Patient Health Questionnaire-13 ≥10). An optimal cut of 0.33 is suggested based on maximizing sensitivity and specificity of the LADS score, identifying patients at high risk for mental health problems. Given its predictive utility and ease of administration, the UCLA LADS could be useful as a screener to identify racial minority individuals in primary care settings who have a high trauma burden, needing more extensive evaluation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • A latent transition analysis for the assessment of structured diagnostic interviews.
    Structured diagnostic interviews administered by lay people are commonly used to assess psychiatric disorders, including depression, in large epidemiologic studies. Many interviews utilize “gate” questions, such as screening questions, that allow interviewers to skip entire survey sections for a particular respondent, saving time and reducing respondent fatigue. However, most depression estimates based on these response data are predicated on the assumption that the gate questions function without measurement error or bias. The tenability of this assumption is questionable, and its violation could compromise the reliability and validity of those estimates of depression. In this study, we used a novel application of latent transition analysis to cross-sectional data, accounting for measurement error in different response pathways through the depression module in the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The analysis included data from 19,734 participants ≥18 years of age in the Comprehensive Psychiatric Epidemiologic Surveys. The latent transition analysis, allowing for measurement error in screening questions and exclusion criteria, produced a higher estimate of the lifetime probability of experiencing depression than did the algorithm based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision. This illustration of latent transition analysis applied to item-level data from a complex structured diagnostic tool with gate questions demonstrates the potential utility of an analytic approach that does not automatically assume gate questions function without measurement error. This model could also be used to probe for evidence of measurement bias in the form of differential item function when using structured diagnostic tools in different cultures and languages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Criterion validation of a stress measure: The Stress Overload Scale.
    Validating stress scales poses problems beyond those of other psychological measures. Here, 3 studies were conducted to address those problems and assess the criterion validity of scores from a new theory-derived measure, the Stress Overload Scale (SOS; Amirkhan, 2012). In Study 1, the SOS was tested for its ability to predict postsemester illness in a sample of college students (n = 127). Even with precautions to minimize criterion contamination, scores were found to predict health problems in the month following a final exam on all of 5 different criteria. In Study 2, a community sample (n = 231) was used to test the SOS’ ability to differentiate people in stressful circumstances from those in more relaxed contexts. SOS scores demonstrated excellent sensitivity (96%) and specificity (100%) in this general population application. In Study 3, the SOS was tested for its ability to differentiate salivary cortisol responses to a laboratory stressor in a group of pregnant women (n = 40). High scores were found to be associated with a blunted cortisol response, which is indicative of HPA-axis overload and typical of persons suffering chronic stress and stress-related pathology. Across all 3 studies, despite variations in the stressor, criterion, population, and methods, SOS scores emerged as valid indicators of stress. However, each study also introduced new problems that beg additional corrective steps in future stress-scale validity tests. These strategies, and the SOS’ utility as a research and diagnostic tool in varied applications and populations, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Psychometric properties of an innovative self-report measure: The Social Anxiety Questionnaire for adults.
    This article presents the psychometric properties of a new measure of social anxiety, the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for adults (SAQ), composed of 30 items that were developed based on participants from 16 Latin American countries, Spain, and Portugal. Two groups of participants were included in the study: a nonclinical group involving 18,133 persons and a clinical group comprising 334 patients with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (social phobia). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 5-factor structure of the questionnaire. The factors were labeled as follows: (1) Interactions with strangers, (2) Speaking in public/talking with people in authority, (3) Interactions with the opposite sex, (4) Criticism and embarrassment, and (5) Assertive expression of annoyance, disgust, or displeasure. Psychometric evidence supported the internal consistency, convergent validity, and measurement invariance of the SAQ. To facilitate clinical applications, a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis identified cut scores for men and women for each factor and for the global score. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Dimensional structure of the Spanish version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in adolescents and young adults.
    The main purpose of this study was to examine the dimensional structure of the Spanish version of the PANAS, using a large sample of adolescents and young adults (N = 1103, age range 14 to 23). Furthermore, measurement invariance across gender and educational level was tested. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a bifactor model and a 3-factor model Positive Affect (PA), Negative Affect (NA) Upset, and NA Afraid (PA and NA uncorrelated) provided the best fit to the data. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses showed that the 3-factor model of the PANAS had strong measurement invariance across gender and educational level. Results showed statistically significant differences in the latent mean scores. University students scored higher than adolescents in PA, NA Upset, and NA Afraid. Men scored higher than women in PA. The PANAS scores also showed acceptable internal consistency scores (range from .80 to .86). The results found support for the PANAS as a brief and useful tool for the screening PA and NA in adolescents and young adult’s populations. These findings hold implications for the study and use of the PANAS in nonclinical populations. Future studies should test measurement invariance of the PANAS scores across cultures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Assessing youth offenders in a non-Western context: The predictive validity of the YLS/CMI ratings.
    Empirical support for the usage of the Youth Level of Service measures has been reported in studies conducted in the North America, United Kingdom, and Australia. Recent meta-analytic studies on the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) have revealed that the measure has modest to moderate predictive validity for general recidivism, but there are very few studies on the predictive validity of the YLS/CMI ratings for recidivism in non-Western contexts. This study examined the predictive validity of the YLS/CMI 2.0 ratings for general recidivism in a sample of 3,264 youth offenders within a Singaporean context (Mfollow-up = 1,764.5 days; SDfollow-up = 521.5). Results showed that the YLS/CMI 2.0 overall risk ratings and total scores significantly predicted general recidivism for both male and female youth offenders. Overall, the results suggest that the YLS/CMI 2.0 is suited for assessing youth offenders in terms of their risk for general recidivism within a non-Western context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • An examination of the factor structure of the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory in a sample of detained adolescent boys.
    Prior empirical examinations of the factor structure of the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI; Millon, 1993, 2006) have produced mixed results and have not included confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In this study, we examined the internal structure of the MACI in a sample of 1,015 detained adolescent boys (ages 13 to 19). The sample was randomly divided into independent samples. Replication of prior factor models was first attempted in one half (n = 505) of the sample (Sample 1) and disconfirmed these models on the current data. An exploratory factor analysis was then conducted and revealed a 2-factor model representing internalizing and externalizing dimensions. Next, CFA was conducted with Sample 2 (n = 510) and revealed acceptable fit when the model was revised to include correlated error terms among certain scales and factor cross-loadings. Implications for the use of the MACI with adolescents as well as directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The Child Concentration Inventory (CCI): Initial validation of a child self-report measure of sluggish cognitive tempo.
    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is characterized by excessive daydreaming, mental confusion, slowness, and low motivation. Several teacher- and parent-report measures of SCT have recently been developed but a child self-report measure of SCT does not yet exist despite clear links between SCT and internalizing psychopathology (for which self-report is often desired). This study examined the initial reliability and validity of the Child Concentration Inventory (CCI), a child self-report measure of SCT symptoms, in a school-based sample of 124 children (ages 8–13; 55% female). Children completed the CCI and measures of academic/social functioning, emotion regulation, and self-esteem. Teachers completed measures of psychopathology symptoms (including SCT) and academic/social functioning. Although exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) supported a 3-factor model of the CCI (consisting of slow, sleepy, and daydreamer scales closely resembling the factor structure of the parent-report version of this measure), bifactor modeling and omega reliability indices indicated that the CCI is best conceptualized as unidimensional. CCI scores were significantly correlated with teacher-rated SCT and were statistically distinct from teacher-rated ADHD and child-rated anxiety/depression. After controlling for sex, grade, and other psychopathology symptoms, the CCI total score was significantly associated with poorer child-reported academic/social functioning and self-worth in addition to increased loneliness and emotion dysregulation. Child ratings on the CCI were moderately to strongly correlated with poorer teacher-rated academic/social functioning but these associations were reduced to nonsignificance after controlling for demographics and other psychopathology symptoms. Findings provide preliminary support for the CCI, and future directions include replication with adolescents and clinical samples in order to further examine the CCI’s factor structure, reliability, validity, and clinical utility. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Communication preferences of chronically ill adolescents: Development of an assessment instrument.
    The purpose of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a patient-oriented, theory-based questionnaire to capture the communication preferences of chronically ill adolescents in provider–patient interaction. In a qualitative prestudy, patients were asked to express their preferences in focus groups. From those results and relying on previous research findings, we generated questionnaire items and in a second pretest, examined them in 1-to-1 cognitive interviews for comprehensibility and acceptance. The resultant questionnaire was then psychometrically tested in the main study on 423 chronically ill inpatient adolescents aged 12 to 17 years in 14 rehabilitation clinics in Germany. Numerous preferences were extractable from the focus-group interviews and transferred into 106 Items. Psychometric testing of the questionnaire resulted in 3 scales encompassing 27 items. These we describe as the emotional-affective communication component (EAC), instrumental communication component (IC), and adolescent-specific communication component (ASC). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed the scales EAC und IC to be good to very good, and the ASC scale as satisfactory regarding unidimensionality. The participants gave the questionnaire high marks for comprehensibility, acceptance, and relevance. The 3 scales’ Cronbach’s alpha falls between .78 and .92. A questionnaire with 27 items is now available for application as a psychometrically tested and simple-to-use measuring instrument. Research is still needed concerning the generalizability to other patient groups (e.g., the acutely ill or outpatients) and whether it can be tailored for use by different types of care providers or to accommodate the communication preferences of parents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Integration of symptom ratings from multiple informants in ADHD diagnosis: A psychometric model with clinical utility.
    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder—Fifth Edition explicitly requires that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms should be apparent across settings, taking into account reports from multiple informants. Yet, it provides no guidelines how information from different raters should be combined in ADHD diagnosis. We examined the validity of different approaches using structural equation modeling (SEM) for multiple-informant data. Participants were 725 children, 6 to 17 years old, and their primary caregivers and teachers, recruited from the community and completing a thorough research-based diagnostic assessment, including a clinician-administered diagnostic interview, parent and teacher standardized rating scales, and cognitive testing. A best-estimate ADHD diagnosis was generated by a diagnostic team. An SEM model demonstrated convergent validity among raters. We found relatively weak symptom-specific agreement among raters, suggesting that a general average scoring algorithm is preferable to symptom-specific scoring algorithms such as the “or” and “and” algorithms. Finally, to illustrate the validity of this approach, we show that averaging makes it possible to reduce the number of items from 18 items to 8 items without a significant decrease in validity. In conclusion, information from multiple raters increases the validity of ADHD diagnosis, and averaging appears to be the optimal way to integrate information from multiple raters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Preliminary development of a revised version of the School Climate Measure.
    The School Climate Measure (SCM) was developed and preliminarily validated in 2010 and extended upon in 2013 in response to a dearth of psychometrically sound school climate instruments. This study sought to further validate the SCM on a large diverse sample of Arizona public school adolescents (N = 1,643) with two new domains. The eight original SCM domains (Positive Student-Teacher Relationships, School Connectedness, Academic Support, Order and Discipline, Physical Environment, Social Environment, Perceived Exclusion, and Academic Satisfaction) and two newly developed domains (Parental Involvement and Opportunities for Student Engagement) were subjected to psychometric analysis. The sample was randomly split into exploratory and confirmatory halves and subjected to factor analytic and structural equation modeling techniques. Factor analysis confirmed a 10-factor solution (loadings with absolute values > .40). Item factor loadings ranged from .47 to .95. Coefficient alphas ranged from .70 to .92. Fit statistics indicated a good fitting model (χ2 = 1452.67 [df = 734, p <.01], CFI = .94, TLI = .93, RMSEA = .039). This process eliminated some original SCM items, but the overall SCM increased only from 39 to 42 items with the newly developed domains. This investigation adds to the existing evidence for the SCM and offers support for a more comprehensive version of the SCM. The addition of the Parental Involvement and Opportunities for Student Engagement domains should further enhance the usefulness of the SCM. The SCM can facilitate data-driven decisions and may be incorporated into evidenced-based processes designed to improve important student learning and well-being outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Development and initial validation of the Child Disgust Scale.
    Although disgust sensitivity (DS) has been implicated in the development of anxiety disorders in children, the absence of a measure of DS specifically for children has not allowed for an adequate test of this claim. To fill this important gap in the literature, this investigation presents a series of studies on the development and examination of the psychometric properties (including reliability, validity, and factor structure) of scores on a newly developed Child Disgust Scale (CDS). Exploratory factor analysis in Study 1 (N = 1,500) found that a bifactor model, which allows for a “g” DS factor in addition to 2 distinct factors of Disgust Avoidance and Disgust Affect, was the best fit for the data. Study 2 (N = 573) confirmed a two-factor bifactor model above and beyond a 1-factor model that controlled for method effects due to reverse-worded items. Results from Study 3 (N = 50) provided support for convergent and discriminant validity such that scores on the CDS were significantly correlated with measures of anxiety and fear, but not depression. Finally, Study 4 (N = 86) found that the CDS differentiated children with a diagnosis of specific phobia (n = 43) from a matched nonclinical community sample of children (n = 43), such that those with a specific phobia reported greater DS compared with controls. Results from these studies suggest that the CDS is a developmentally appropriate measure with good psychometric properties that can aid research on the role of disgust sensitivity in anxiety-related disorders in children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Multilevel multitrait–multimethod latent analysis of structurally different and interchangeable raters of school climate.
    Informant-based systems of assessment are common platforms for measuring a variety of educational and psychological constructs where the use of multiple informants is considered best practice. In many instances, structurally different informant types (e.g., students and teachers) are solicited on the basis of their unique roles with the target of measurement. The use of multiple informants provides an opportunity to evaluate the degree to which the obtained ratings are influenced by the trait of focus and extraneous sources that can be attributed to the rater. Data from a multilevel multitrait–multimethod design in which students (N = 35,565) and teachers (N = 9,112), from 340 middle schools, responded to items measuring 3 dimensions of school climate were evaluated through a multilevel correlated trait–correlated method latent variable model. Results indicated that ratings of school climate obtained by students and teachers demonstrated high levels of convergent validity, and that school-level ratings obtained by students and teachers were equitable in the assessment of teasing and bullying. Student ratings of support and structure yielded somewhat stronger evidence of convergent validity than ratings obtained by teachers as revealed by their respective trait factor loadings. This was explained in part by the higher levels of common method effects that were observed for teachers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Development of a Short Form of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory: The FFNI-SF.
    The Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI; Glover, Miller, Lynam, Crego, & Widiger, 2012) is a 148-item self-report inventory of 15 traits designed to assess the basic elements of narcissism from the perspective of a 5-factor model. The FFNI assesses both vulnerable (i.e., cynicism/distrust, need for admiration, reactive anger, and shame) and grandiose (i.e., acclaim seeking, arrogance, authoritativeness, entitlement, exhibitionism, exploitativeness, grandiose fantasies, indifference, lack of empathy, manipulativeness, and thrill seeking) variants of narcissism. The present study reports the development of a short-form version of the FFNI in 4 diverse samples (i.e., 2 undergraduate samples, a sample recruited from MTurk, and a clinical community sample) using item response theory. The validity of the resultant 60-item short form was compared against the validity of the full scale in the 4 samples at both the subscale level and the level of the grandiose and vulnerable composites. Results indicated that the 15 subscales remain relatively reliable, possess a factor structure identical to the structure of the long-form scales, and manifest correlational profiles highly similar to those of the long-form scales in relation to a variety of criterion measures, including basic personality dimensions, other measures of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, and indicators of externalizing and internalizing psychopathology. Grandiose and vulnerable composites also behave almost identically across the short- and long-form versions. It is concluded that the FFNI–Short Form (FFNI-SF) offers a well-articulated assessment of the basic traits comprising grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, particularly when assessment time is limited. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Data concerning the psychometric properties of the Behavioral Inhibition/Behavioral Activation Scales for the Portuguese population.
    The behavioral inhibition/behavioral activation (BIS/BAS) scales (Carver & White, 1994), which allow rating the Gray’s motivational systems, were translated and adapted into Portuguese. In this study, the authors present the procedure and the psychometric analyses of the Portuguese version of the scales, which included basic item and scales psychometric characteristics, as well as confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses. After the psychometric analyses provided evidence for the quality of the Portuguese version of the scales, the normative data was provided by age and school grade. The confirmatory factor analysis of the BIS/BAS scales that the authors performed did not demonstrate satisfactory fit for the 2- or 4-factor solution. The authors also tested the more recent 5-factor model, but the fit indices remained inadequate. As fit indices were not satisfactory they proceeded with an exploratory factor analysis to examine the structure of the Portuguese scales. These psychometric analyses provided evidence of a successful translation of the original scales. Therefore these scales can now be used in future research with Portuguese or Brazilian population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Evaluation of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 among treatment-seeking smokers.
    The Anxiety Sensitivity Index–3 (ASI-3; Taylor et al., 2007) is a self-report assessment of anxiety sensitivity, reflecting an individual’s tendency to misinterpret the meaning of anxiety-relevant sensations. Despite this construct being related to a wide array of clinically significant smoking maintenance and relapse processes, the psychometric properties of scores on the ASI-3 have not yet been investigated for use among smokers. Therefore, the current study aimed to test the psychometric properties of the scores on the ASI-3 in a sample of cigarette smokers. Participants were treatment-seeking daily smokers who completed the ASI-3 at a precessation visit (Time 1, N = 464) and 3 months postcessation attempt (Time 2, n = 137). Confirmatory factor analyses results of the scores on ASI-3 at Time 1 and Time 2 revealed the hypothesized 3-factor model, including physical, social, and cognitive concerns. In addition, the ASI-3 factor scores evidenced factor stability, test–retest reliability, internal consistency, and convergent, and discriminant, and predictive validity. The present study provides evidence in support of the validity and reliability of scores on the ASI-3 as a measure of anxiety sensitivity among treatment-seeking cigarette smokers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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