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Psychological Assessment - Vol 27, Iss 1

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Psychological Assessment Psychological Assessment publishes mainly empirical articles concerning clinical assessment. Papers that fall within the domain of the journal include research on the development, validation, application, and evaluation of psychological assessment instruments. Diverse modalities (e.g., cognitive, physiologic, and motoric) and methods of assessment (e.g., questionnaires, interviews, natural environment and analog environment observation, self-monitoring, participant observation, physiological measurement, instrument-assisted and computer-assisted assessment) are within the domain of the journal, especially as they relate to clinical assessment. Also included are topics on clinical judgment and decision making (including diagnostic assessment), methods of measurement of treatment process and outcome, and dimensions of individual differences (e.g., race, ethnicity, age, gender, sexual orientation, economic status) as they relate to clinical assessment.
Copyright 2015 American Psychological Association
  • Resilience through the lens of interactionism: A systematic review.
    This systematic review presents findings from a conceptual and methodological review of resilience measures using an interactionist theoretical framework. The review is also intended to update findings from previous systematic reviews. Two databases (EBSCOHost and Scopus) were searched to retrieve empirical studies published up until 2013, with no lower time limit. All articles had to meet specific inclusion criteria, which resulted in 17 resilience measures selected for full review. Measures were conceptually evaluated against an interactionist framework and methodologically reviewed using Skinner’s (1981) validity evidence framework. We conclude that inconsistencies associated with the definition and operationalization of resilience warrant further conceptual development to explain resilience as a dynamic and interactive phenomenon. In particular, measures of resilience may benefit from a greater focus on within-person variance typically associated with behavioral consistency across situations. The use of alternative measurement modalities to self-report scales, such as situational judgment tests, is proposed as a way of advancing knowledge in this area. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Structural invariance of General Behavior Inventory (GBI) scores in Black and White young adults.
    In the United States, Black and White individuals show discrepant rates of diagnosis of bipolar disorder versus schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder, as well as disparate access to and utilization of treatment for these disorders (e.g., Alegria, Chatterji, et al., 2008; Chrishon, Anderson, Arora, & Bailey, 2012). Such diagnostic discrepancies might stem from racially related cognitive biases in clinical judgment or from racial biases in measurements of bipolar disorder. The General Behavior Inventory (GBI) is among the most well-validated and widely used measures of bipolar mood symptoms, but the psychometric properties of the GBI have been examined primarily in predominantly White samples. In this study, we used multigroup confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) to examine the invariance of GBI scores across racial groups with a nonclinical sample. Fit was acceptable for tests of configural invariance, equal factor loadings, and equal intercepts, but not invariance of residuals. Findings indicate that GBI scores provide functionally invariant measurement of mood symptoms in both Black and White samples. The use of GBI scores may contribute consistent information to clinical assessments and could potentially reduce diagnostic discrepancies and associated differences in access to and utilization of mental health services. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Assessing DSM–5 nonsuicidal self-injury disorder in a clinical sample.
    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported online in Psychological Assessment on May 11 2015 (see record 2015-20490-001). In the Method section, in the subsection Alexian Brothers Assessment of Self-Injury (ABASI), the first sentence of the third paragraph should read: “Examination of the specific NSI disorder criteria indicates the prominence of the first symptom in Criterion C. Symptom C-1, which evaluates the experience of interpersonal difficulties or negative thoughts or feelings immediately prior to engaging in selfinjury, was the most endorsed symptom of NSI disorder; 100% of those meeting criteria for NSI Disorder endorsed Symptom C-1 on the ABASI.”] The entry for nonsuicidal self-injury (NSI) disorder in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–5) provides a criterion-based definition of clinically relevant NSI. NSI disorder is currently classified in the DSM–5 as a condition requiring further study. The present study aimed to examine the reliability, validity, and clinical utility of a self-report measure of NSI disorder, the Alexian Brothers Assessment of Self-Injury (ABASI). The sample included 511 patients admitted to an acute care treatment program designed to treat NSI. Patients were administered the ABASI as part of a clinical assessment and routine outcome evaluation. The sample included a broad age range, as well as sufficient numbers of males and Hispanics to examine sociodemographic differences. The ABASI demonstrated adequate internal consistency and test–retest reliability, and the factor structure reflects NSI disorder criteria. Among patients being treated for NSI, 74% met criteria for NSI disorder. No differences in the rate of NSI disorder were observed by sex, ethnicity, or age. Although NSI disorder is associated with a worse presentation of self-injurious behavior, NSI disorder provides limited clinical utility as a dichotomous diagnosis, at least when compared with common NSI characteristics such as number of methods of NSI and the urge to self-injure. Instead, findings support a dimensional approach to NSI disorder. Analyses of specific symptoms of NSI disorder indicate concerns with Criterion B as currently defined by the DSM–5. Recommendations for a more parsimonious revision of NSI disorder are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The Cross-Cultural Loss Scale: Development and psychometric evaluation.
    The Cross-Cultural Loss Scale (CCLS), a measure of loss associated with crossing national boundaries, was developed across 2 samples of international students. With Sample 1 (N = 262), exploratory factor analyses were used to select the 14 CCLS items and to determine 3 factors: Belonging-Competency (α = .87), National Privileges (α = .68), and Access to Home Familiarity (α = .72). With Sample 2, confirmatory factor analyses (N = 256) cross-validated the 3-factor oblique model as well as a bifactor model. Cronbach alphas of CCLS subscale scores in Sample 2 ranged from .73 to .87. The validity of the CCLS scores was supported by its associations with related variables in the expected directions. Perceived cross-cultural losses were positively associated with negative affect, migration grief and loss, and discrimination and were negatively associated with life satisfaction, positive affect, general self-efficacy, and social connection with mainstream society. Moreover, the CCLS total and 2 subscale scores added significant incremental variance in predicting subjective well-being over and above related constructs. The results indicated measurement invariance and validity equivalency for the CCLS scores between men and women. The overall results from these 2 samples support CCLS as a psychometrically strong measure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Development and validation of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-4 (SATAQ-4).
    The Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) and its earlier versions are measures designed to assess societal and interpersonal aspects of appearance ideals. Correlational, structural equation modeling, and prospective studies of the SATAQ-3 have shown consistent and significant associations with measures of body image disturbance and eating pathology. In the current investigation, the SATAQ-3 was revised to improve upon some conceptual limitations and was evaluated in 4 U.S. and 3 international female samples, as well as a U.S. male sample. In Study 1, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses for a sample of women from the Southeastern United States (N = 859) indicated a 22-item scale with 5 factors: Internalization: Thin/Low Body Fat, Internalization: Muscular/Athletic, Pressures: Family, Pressures: Media, Pressures: Peers. This scale structure was confirmed in 3 independent and geographically diverse samples of women from the United States (East Coast N = 440, West Coast N = 304, and North/Midwest N = 349). SATAQ-4 scale scores demonstrated excellent reliability and good convergent validity with measures of body image, eating disturbance, and self-esteem. Study 2 replicated the factorial validity, reliability, and convergent validity of the SATAQ-4 in an international sample of women drawn from Italy, England, and Australia (N = 362). Study 3 examined a sample of college males from the United States (N = 271); the 5-factor solution was largely replicated, yet there was some evidence of an underlying structure unique to men. Future research avenues include additional item testing and modification of the scale for men, as well as adaptation of the measure for children and adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Cross-cultural examination of measurement invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory–II.
    Given substantial rates of major depressive disorder among college and university students, as well as the growing cultural diversity on many campuses, establishing the cross-cultural validity of relevant assessment tools is important. In the current investigation, we examined the Beck Depression Inventory—Second Edition (BDI–II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) among Chinese-heritage (n = 933) and European-heritage (n = 933) undergraduates in North America. The investigation integrated 3 distinct lines of inquiry: (a) the literature on cultural variation in depressive symptom reporting between people of Chinese and Western heritage; (b) recent developments regarding the factor structure of the BDI–II; and (c) the application of advanced statistical techniques to the issue of cross-cultural measurement invariance. A bifactor model was found to represent the optimal factor structure of the BDI–II. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showed that the BDI–II had strong measurement invariance across both culture and gender. In group comparisons with latent and observed variables, Chinese-heritage students scored higher than European-heritage students on cognitive symptoms of depression. This finding deviates from the commonly held view that those of Chinese heritage somatize depression. These findings hold implications for the study and use of the BDI–II, highlight the value of advanced statistical techniques such as multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, and offer methodological lessons for cross-cultural psychopathology research more broadly. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • A psychometric study of the Suicide Cognitions Scale with psychiatric inpatients.
    The cognitive model of suicide makes specific predictions about the role of cognition in suicide risk. This study examined psychometric properties of the Suicide Cognitions Scale (SCS), an instrument designed to measure suicide-specific cognitions, in a sample of 150 patients (age range, 18–75 years, SD = 14.42; 56% female, 94% White) hospitalized for suicide risk associated with multiple, treatment-resistant psychiatric conditions. Findings revealed strong psychometric properties, including internal consistency and test–retest reliability. Incremental validity beyond depression and hopelessness was demonstrated in the prediction of suicidal ideation. Confirmatory factor analysis examining previously reported factor solutions suggested more consistency with a three-factor solution (Unlovability, Unbearability, and Unsolvability) relative to a two-factor solution. Good sensitivity to treatment response over the course of hospitalization also was demonstrated. The hypothesis of residual risk, derived from cognitive theory and predicting that lack of change in suicide schemas would be associated with higher suicide risk at discharge, was supported. Overall, these findings suggest considerable promise for the SCS as a measure of suicide risk that adds predictive utility to measures of depression and hopelessness, with potential usefulness in planning and monitoring treatment for suicidal individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Psychometric analysis of the Ten-Item Perceived Stress Scale.
    Although the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) is a popular measure, a review of the literature reveals 3 significant gaps: (a) There is some debate as to whether a 1- or a 2-factor model best describes the relationships among the PSS-10 items, (b) little information is available on the performance of the items on the scale, and (c) it is unclear whether PSS-10 scores are subject to gender bias. These gaps were addressed in this study using a sample of 1,236 adults from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States II. Based on self-identification, participants were 56.31% female, 77% White, 17.31% Black and/or African American, and the average age was 54.48 years (SD = 11.69). Findings from an ordinal confirmatory factor analysis suggested the relationships among the items are best described by an oblique 2-factor model. Item analysis using the graded response model provided no evidence of item misfit and indicated both subscales have a wide estimation range. Although t tests revealed a significant difference between the means of males and females on the Perceived Helplessness Subscale (t = 4.001, df = 1234, p <.001), measurement invariance tests suggest that PSS-10 scores may not be substantially affected by gender bias. Overall, the findings suggest that inferences made using PSS-10 scores are valid. However, this study calls into question inferences where the multidimensionality of the PSS-10 is ignored. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Examination of a bifactor model of the Three Domains of Disgust Scale: Specificity in relation to obsessive-compulsive symptoms.
    The current research evaluated a bifactor model for the Three Domains of Disgust Scale (TDDS) in 2 undergraduate samples. The goals were (a) to evaluate whether the TDDS should be scored as a unidimensional scale or whether subscales of pathogen, sex, and moral disgust should be additionally interpreted, and (b) to examine the utility of the TDDS subscales above and beyond the total score in predicting obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms. Results in Study 1 and Study 2 revealed that a bifactor model fit the TDDS data well and that all items were influenced by a general disgust dimension and by 1 of 3 content dimensions. However, model-based reliability estimated via omega hierarchical for the total score suggested that TDDS items are highly multidimensional. That is, the general disgust dimension only accounts for about half of the variability in the items of the total score, with the remaining variability accounted for by the specific disgust domains and other sources of variance. Despite the high degree of multidimensionality underlying the TDDS items, the pathogen and sex subscale scores were found to be relatively unreliable after controlling for the general disgust factor. Among the 3 domains, pathogen disgust had the most consistently significant relationship with an OCD symptom latent factor above and beyond the general disgust factor. The strengths and limitations of the TDDS are discussed in the context of these findings, and the implications for better understanding the structure of disgust and its relationship with OCD are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–2–Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF): Incremental validity in predicting early postoperative outcomes in spine surgery candidates.
    A substantial proportion of individuals who undergo surgical procedures to relieve spine pain continue to report significant pain and dysfunction after recovery. Psychopathology and patient expectations have been linked to poor results, leading to an increasing reliance on presurgical psychological screening (PPS) as part of the surgical diagnostic process. The original Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI; Hathaway & McKinley, 1943) and the MMPI-2 (Butcher, Graham, Ben-Porath, Tellegen, & Dahlstrom, 2001) were among the measures most commonly used in PPS evaluations and research. This study focuses on the newest version of the test, the MMPI-2–Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011; Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2008/2011) as a predictor of outcomes for spine surgery candidates. Using a sample of 172 men and 210 women who underwent a PPS, we examined the ability of MMPI-2-RF scale scores to predict early surgical outcomes independent of other presurgical risk factors identified by other means, as well as patients’ presurgical expectations. MMPI-2-RF results accounted for up to 11% of additional variance in measures of early postoperative functioning. MMPI-2-RF scales that assess for emotional/internalizing problems, specifically Demoralization, measures of somatoform dysfunction, and interpersonal problems contributed most to the prediction of diminished outcome. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF)predictors of police officer problem behavior and collateral self-report test scores.
    The current study examined the predictive validity of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011) scores in police officer screenings. We utilized a sample of 712 police officer candidates (82.6% male) from 2 Midwestern police departments. The sample included 426 hired officers, most of whom had supervisor ratings of problem behaviors and human resource records of civilian complaints. With the full sample, we calculated zero-order correlations between MMPI-2-RF scale scores and scale scores from the California Psychological Inventory (Gough, 1956) and Inwald Personality Inventory (Inwald, 2006) by gender. In the hired sample, we correlated MMPI-2-RF scale scores with the outcome data for males only, owing to the relatively small number of hired women. Several scales demonstrated meaningful correlations with the criteria, particularly in the thought dysfunction and behavioral/externalizing dysfunction domains. After applying a correction for range restriction, the correlation coefficient magnitudes were generally in the moderate to large range. The practical implications of these findings were explored by means of risk ratio analyses, which indicated that officers who produced elevations at cutscores lower than the traditionally used 65 T-score level were as much as 10 times more likely than those scoring below the cutoff to exhibit problem behaviors. Overall, the results supported the validity of the MMPI-2-RF in this setting. Implications and limitations of this study are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Psychometric validation of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX).
    This study reported on the validation of the psychometric properties, the factorability, validity, and sensitivity of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) in 3 clinical and nonclinical samples. A mixed sample of 997 participants—community (n = 663), psychiatric (depressed [n = 92] and anxious [n = 122]), and neurologically impaired (n = 120)—completed self-report questionnaires assessing executive dysfunction, depression, anxiety, stress, general self-efficacy, and satisfaction with life. Before analyses the data were randomly split into 2 subsets (A and B). Exploratory factor analysis performed on Subset A produced a 3-factor model (Factor 1: Inhibition, Factor 2: Volition, and Factor 3: Social Regulation) in which 15 of the original 20 items provided a revised factor structure that was superior to all other structures. A series of confirmatory factor analyses performed on Subset B confirmed that this revised factor structure was valid and reliable. The revised structure, labeled the DEX-R, was found to be a reliable and valid tool for assessing behavioral symptoms of dysexecutive functioning in mixed community, psychiatric, and neurological samples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • A validated measure of no sexual attraction: The Asexuality Identification Scale.
    Human asexuality has been described as a lack of sexual attraction toward anyone or anything. One percent of the adult population is thought to be asexual, and research suggests that asexuality is best conceptualized as a sexual orientation. A serious limitation in past research on asexuality has been the complete lack of a validated tool to measure asexuality. Due to limitations in recruiting sufficiently powered local samples, most studies have relied on recruiting via online web-based asexual communities. This is problematic because it limits the sample to individuals who have been recruited through established asexuality networks/communities. The present study aimed to develop and validate a self-report questionnaire to assess asexuality. The questionnaire was intended to provide a valid measure independent of whether the individual self-identified as asexual and was developed in several stages, including: development and administration of open-ended questions (209 participants: 139 asexual and 70 sexual); administration and analysis of resulting 111 items (917 participants: 165 asexual and 752 sexual); administration and analysis of 37 retained items (1,242 participants: 316 asexual and 926 sexual); and validity analysis of the final items. The resulting Asexuality Identification Scale (AIS), a 12-item questionnaire, is a brief, valid, and reliable self-report instrument for assessing asexuality. It is psychometrically sound, easy to administer, and has demonstrated ability to discriminate between sexual and asexual individuals. It should prove useful to allow researchers to recruit more representative samples of the asexual population, permitting for an increased understanding of asexuality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Time of day and caffeine influence some neuropsychological tests in the elderly.
    We report that performance on neuropsychological tests used in the diagnosis of dementia can be influenced by external factors such as time of day (TOD) and caffeine. This study investigates TOD effects on cognitive performance in the elderly. The optimal TOD at which an individual is at his or her maximal arousal alters with age, and in the elderly, typically occurs in the morning. Neuropsychological test scores from healthy elderly participants were analyzed to determine whether TOD affected performance. Interactions between caffeine and TOD were also investigated. Across 2 data sets that were analyzed, significant TOD effects were noted for Pattern-Comparison Speed (PCS), Letter-Comparison Speed (LCS; Salthouse & Babcock, 1991), Trail Making Test Part A (Reitan, 1958), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; Folstein, Folstein, & McHugh, 1975) and the Graded Naming Test (GNT; McKenna & Warrington, 1980), revealing a decline in test scores as TOD increases. Significant interactions between TOD, age, and the PCS, LCS, and Trail Making Part A were noted in Data Set 1. In Data Set 2, caffeine intake had been controlled for, and significant interactions between caffeine, TOD, and scores on the MMSE and GNT were found. The TOD and caffeine effects highlight the need to control for these external factors when scoring the assessments. This conclusion has implications for the clinical procedure of diagnosis and treatment of dementia and Alzheimer’s. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Development and validation of a 6-item working alliance questionnaire for repeated administrations during psychotherapy.
    Recently, researchers have started to measure the working alliance repeatedly across sessions of psychotherapy, relating the working alliance to symptom change session by session. Responding to questionnaires after each session can become tedious, leading to careless responses and/or increasing levels of missing data. Therefore, assessment with the briefest possible instrument is desirable. Because previous research on the Working Alliance Inventory has found the separation of the Goal and Task factors problematic, the present study examined the psychometric properties of a 2–factor, 6-item working alliance measure, adapted from the Working Alliance Inventory, in 3 patient samples (ns = 1,095, 235, and 234). Results showed that a bifactor model fit the data well across the 3 samples, and the factor structure was stable across 10 sessions of primary care counseling/psychotherapy. Although the bifactor model with 1 general and 2 specific factors outperformed the 1-factor model in terms of model fit, dimensionality analyses based on the bifactor model results indicated that in practice the instrument is best treated as unidimensional. Results support the use of composite scores of all 6 items. The instrument was validated by replicating previous findings of session-by-session prediction of symptom reduction using the Autoregressive Latent Trajectory model. The 6-item working alliance scale, called the Session Alliance Inventory, is a promising alternative for researchers in search for a brief alliance measure to administer after every session. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Dichotomous versus polytomous response options in psychopathology assessment: Method or meaningful variance?
    In previous studies, researchers have examined the optimal number of response options for psychological questionnaires. Several have reported increased scale score reliabilities, but few have documented improved external validities. In the present investigation, we followed-up on Cox (2011) and Cox et al.’s (2012) extensive analyses of a clinical assessment instrument, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). We compared the dichotomous (true/false) response format of this inventory with a 4-choice format. Our sample consisted of 406 undergraduate students from a large Midwestern university who were largely female (64.3%), predominantly Caucasian (76.4%), and had a mean age of 19.24 years. Internal-structural analyses confirmed that more response options increase reliabilities, but the effects were small. The differences between correlations with external criteria were very rarely statistically significant, and the few that were did not consistently favor either format. We recommend that in future response-format investigations the internal-structural analyses continue to be combined with evaluations of relevant external correlations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Using a genetic algorithm to abbreviate the Psychopathic Personality Inventory–Revised (PPI-R).
    Some self-report measures of personality and personality disorders, including the widely used Psychopathic Personality Inventory–Revised (PPI-R), are lengthy and time-intensive. In recent work, we introduced an automated genetic algorithm (GA)-based method for abbreviating psychometric measures. In Study 1, we used this approach to generate a short (40-item) version of the PPI-R using 3 large-N German student samples (total N = 1,590). The abbreviated measure displayed high convergent correlations with the original PPI-R, and outperformed an alternative measure constructed using a conventional approach. Study 2 tested the convergent and discriminant validity of this short version in a fourth student sample (N = 206) using sensation-seeking and sensitivity to reward and punishment scales, again demonstrating similar convergent and discriminant validity for the PPI-R-40 compared with the full version. In a fifth community sample of North American participants acquired using Amazon Mechanical Turk, the PPI-R-40 showed similarly high convergent correlations, demonstrating stability across language, culture, and data-collection method. Taken together, these studies suggest that the GA approach is a viable method for abbreviating measures of psychopathy, and perhaps personality measures in general. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Two types of disengagement during couples’ conflicts: Withdrawal and passive immobility.
    A series of 3 studies using nonclinical samples investigated validity associated with the Conflict Disengagement Inventory (CDI), a questionnaire developed to measure passive immobility and withdrawal as context-specific forms of disengagement in couples’ conflicts. In the first study, 2,588 married participants completed the CDI, and an expected 2-dimensional factor structure was confirmed. Additionally, results demonstrated measurement invariance across racial/ethnic and gender groups. In the second study, 223 adults in committed romantic relationships completed the CDI along with measures of attachment, emotion, underlying concerns, withdrawal, relationship expectations, relationship satisfaction, and communication behavior. Although the disengagement scales were moderately correlated, the results provided consistent evidence of convergent and divergent validity. In the third study, a sample of 135 undergraduate students in romantic relationships completed the CDI and measures of emotion on up to 5 separate assessment sessions, with sessions spaced at least 2 weeks apart. Analyses of within-person effects using hierarchical linear modeling provide evidence that the CDI captures meaningful variance at the context-specific level. There was substantial variance within persons across different episodes of conflict and within-person changes in disengagement predicted corresponding within-person changes in emotion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Mental health screening in kindergarten youth: A multistudy examination of the concurrent and diagnostic validity of the Impairment Rating Scale.
    Using a multistudy approach, we examined the utility of the Impairment Rating Scale (IRS; Fabiano et al., 2006) as a screening tool for detecting kindergarten children who are at risk for social, emotional, academic, and behavioral problems. In Study 1 (N = 568), we evaluated the concurrent validity, discriminant validity, and diagnostic efficiency of the parent and teacher IRS test score inferences in relation to scores from the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC-2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004). In Study 2 (N = 242), we addressed limitations in Study 1 and evaluated the concurrent validity, discriminant validity, and diagnostic efficiency of the parent and teacher IRS test score inferences in relation to scores from BASC-2 Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS; Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007), quarterly grades, kindergarten reading competency tests, and daily behavior outcomes on a classwide discipline system. Results indicate moderate to strong concurrent and diagnostic validity utility for the teacher IRS test score inferences and low to moderate concurrent and diagnostic validity utility for the parent IRS test score inferences. IRS scores of 3 or 4 may represent appropriate cutpoints for determining risk status in kindergarten youth depending on school districts’ intended use of the tool for screening. Implications for future research and practice in universal school-based screening are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The performance of the K6 Scale in a large school sample.
    Timely prevalence data of psychiatric morbidity among adolescents in small areas remains vital for mental health policy planning at the regional and local levels. Furthermore, effective regional policy planning also requires the measurement of psychiatric morbidity using clinically validated instruments. The K6 scale was therefore included on the 2012 administration of the Kentucky Incentives for Prevention Survey as a measure of serious emotional disturbance in the past 30 days. Principal axis and confirmatory factor analyses were performed to determine the unidimensional structure of the K6 in a school-based sample of Kentucky students (n = 108,736). The documented cutoff of 13 on the K6 was then used to screen Kentucky students for serious emotional disturbance, estimate the state prevalence, and define epidemiologic correlates. Overall, the K6 performed well, with factor analyses confirming the 1-factor solution of the K6. Based upon the established cutoff, the prevalence of serious emotional disturbance was 13.9% in Kentucky. Grade, gender, race and ethnicity, and family structure emerged as significant predictors in a multivariable logistic regression model. Substance abuse, antisocial behavior, role impairments, and peer victimization were significantly higher among students with a positive screen. These results indicate the K6 is particularly useful for inclusion in large epidemiologic surveys that have limited space and logistics that demand timely administration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Parent–teacher agreement on ADHD symptoms across development.
    Parent–teacher agreement on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom ratings ranges from low to moderate. Most studies evaluating parent–teacher agreement have not assessed measurement invariance across raters. Hence, it is unclear whether discordance across raters is due to differing ADHD constructs across raters or other factors (e.g., subjective differences across raters). Additionally, the effect of development on parent–teacher agreement is relatively unknown. To address these limitations, the present study used parent and teacher ADHD ratings from a large (N = 6,659) developmentally diverse (ages 4–17) sample. Using exploratory structural equation modeling on half the sample, and then confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on the other half of the sample, confirmed a 2-factor structure with significant cross-loadings for the 18 ADHD symptoms. CFA invariance analyses demonstrated that the 2-factor symptom structure was similar across raters and age groups. After confirming measurement invariance, the correlation between latent factors within and across raters was examined for each age group as well as across age groups. Parents reported greater severity of ADHD symptoms than did teachers, and both parents and teachers reported higher levels of hyperactivity/impulsivity in younger children than in older children and consistent levels of inattention across development. Finally, correlations between parent–teacher ratings of like factors were weak for inattention and moderate–strong for hyperactivity/impulsivity, and the magnitude of parent–teacher agreement did not vary across development. In conclusion, while parent and teacher ratings of ADHD behaviors are only weakly to moderately correlated, each reporter provides unique and valid clinical information as it relates to ADHD symptom presentation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Development of a Cultural Connectedness Scale for First Nations youth.
    Despite a growing recognition of cultural connectedness as an important protective factor for First Nations (FN) peoples’ health, there remains a clear need for a conceptual model that organizes, explains, and leads to an understanding of the resiliency mechanisms underlying this concept for FN youth. The current study involved the development of the Cultural Connectedness Scale (CCS) to identify a new scale of cultural connectedness. A sample of 319 FN, Métis, and Inuit youths enrolled in Grades 8–12 from reserve and urban areas in Saskatchewan and Southwestern Ontario, Canada, participated in the current study. A combination of rational expert judgments and empirical data were used to refine the pool of items to a set that is a representative sample of the indicators of the cultural connectedness construct. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to examine the latent structure of the cultural connectedness items, and a confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the fit of a more parsimonious version of the final EFA model. The resulting 29-item inventory consisted of 3 dimensions: identity, traditions, and spirituality. Criterion validity was demonstrated with cultural connectedness dimensions correlating well with other youth well-being indicators. The conceptualization and operationalization of the cultural connectedness has a number of potential applications both for research and prevention. This study provides an orienting framework that guides measurement of cultural connectedness that researchers need to further explore the role of culture in enhancing resiliency and well-being among FN youth in Canada. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Metacognitive planning: Development and validation of an online measure.
    Planning is the critical first stage of metacognition. Although it has long been emphasized theoretically, it has not been the subject of much empirical study due to the lack of a valid assessment tool. Because planning is a metacognitive process, online methods that collect data during task performance would much better capture it. The present study was conducted to develop an online measure of metacognitive planning. Researchers designed a puzzle task that took the form of the popular game Sokoban, and the ratio between planning time and total time of each item was chosen as the metacognitive planning index. The task was administered to a heterogeneous sample of 440 participants composed of college students as well as 5th-, 7th-, and 10th-grade students. The results showed that valid inference could be made from the time ratio score. Cronbach’s alpha and test–retest correlation provided robust evidence of reliability of the time ratio score. Confirmatory factor analysis further confirmed its unidimensionality. Validity evidence also supported the use of the time ratio score. After controlling for demographic variables, intelligence, and motivation, the time ratio score still accounted for a significant proportion of variance of Sokoban performance, the Tower of London performance, and academic achievement. The time ratio score was also found to increase with age. Taken together, the results of the study revealed that the time ratio is a psychometrically sound online measure of metacognitive planning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Behavioral phenotype in children with 22q11DS: Agreement between parents and teachers.
    Patients with the 22q11-deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at an increased risk of developing schizophrenia. Besides the effects of genetic variation, environmental factors could also be important in modifying the risk of schizophrenia in 22q11DS patients. In particular, previous studies have shown the importance of stress as a precipitating factor of psychosis. An incongruence between the perceived and actual severity of behavioral and cognitive domains could lead caregivers, and even the children themselves, to make demands that are insufficiently adapted to the child’s abilities, causing stress and anxiety. Here, we investigate whether such diagnostic discrepancies are indeed present by comparing parent and teacher reports on behavioral concerns in children with 22q11DS. Behavioral questionnaires (CBCL and TRF) were prepared for both parents and teachers of 146 children with 22q11DS. We found that in line with previous reports, internalizing behavior was more frequently reported than externalizing behavior. While the behavioral profiles reported by parents and teachers were remarkably similar, the teachers’ ratings were significantly lower (Total problem score p = .002). Age and IQ were not significantly associated with the severity of reported concerns. Our results indicate that indeed a disparity often exists between parents’ and teachers’ perceptions of the severity of a child’s behavioral deficits. This may result in (substantially) different demands and expectations being placed on the child from the two fronts. We speculate that the stress resulting from this lack of cohesion between parents and teachers could precipitate, at least in some 22q11DS children, the emergence of psychosis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Ecological validity of laboratory assessments of child temperament: Evidence from parent perspectives.
    The structure, stability, and validity of child temperament traits have primarily been examined with parent questionnaire methods, but laboratory methods represent an important complement. However, the novel setting and contrived scenarios of laboratory methods and their low convergence with parent questionnaire methods have led some to question their ecological validity. We tested this assumption by employing parents as sources of information regarding the ecological validity of laboratory assessments of child temperament. Parents observed their child participating in 10 different laboratory tasks and reported on the typicality of their child’s behavior. The results suggested parents considered their child’s responses during the laboratory tasks as highly typical representations of their child’s behavior outside of the lab, supporting the ecological validity of trait-relevant behavior elicited with laboratory tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Antisocial thinking in adolescents: Further psychometric development of the Antisocial Beliefs and Attitudes Scale (ABAS).
    Investigating the impact of “off-line” cognitive structures on the broad range of antisocial behaviors shown by young people has been hampered by the absence of psychometrically robust measures of antisocial cognitions. This study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Antisocial Beliefs and Attitudes Scale (ABAS), a developmentally sensitive measure of young people’s beliefs and attitudes toward social standards of acceptable behavior at home and at school. The reliability and validity of the ABAS was assessed in a sample of British school children (N = 486) aged 9–16 years (M = 12.79, SD = 1.90) and male young offenders (N = 84) aged 13–17 years (M = 15.15, SD = 0.27). Participants completed the ABAS, together with a self-report measure of antisocial behavior; maternal reports of antisocial activity were also collected in the offending sample. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the 2-factor structure of Rule Noncompliance and Peer Conflict previously derived from a sample of Canadian school children, and these factors showed good test–retest reliability. Rule Noncompliance predicted self-reported antisocial behavior for ages 11–16 years, while Peer Conflict predicted antisocial behavior for ages 9–16 years. Comparisons between young offenders and an age-matched subsample of males from the school group showed significant differences. In young offenders, Rule Noncompliance and Peer Conflict were significantly predictive of self-reported antisocial behavior, while Rule Noncompliance independently predicted mothers’ ratings of their sons’ antisocial behavior. These findings provide support for the ABAS as a psychometrically sound measure of antisocial thinking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Functions of nonsuicidal self-injury: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in a large community sample of adolescents.
    Given that nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is prevalent in adolescents, structured assessment is an essential tool to guide treatment interventions. The Functional Assessment of Self-Mutilation (FASM) is a self-report scale that assesses frequency, methods, and functions of NSSI. FASM was administered to 3,097 Swedish adolescents in a community sample. With the aim of examining the underlying factor structure of the functions of FASM in this sample, the adolescents with NSSI who completed all function items (n = 836) were randomly divided into 2 subsamples for cross-validation purposes. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was followed by a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using the mean and variance adjusted weighted least squares (WLSMV) estimator in the Mplus statistical modeling program. The results of the EFA suggested a 3-factor model (social influence, automatic functions, and nonconformist peer identification), which was supported by a good fit in the CFA. Factors differentiated between social/interpersonal and automatic/intrapersonal functions. Based on learning theory and the specific concepts of negative and positive reinforcement, the nonconformist peer identification factor was then split into 2 factors (peer identification and avoiding demands). The resulting 4-factor model showed an excellent fit. Dividing social functions into separate factors (social influence, peer identification, and avoiding demands) can be helpful in clinical practice, where the assessment of NSSI functions is an important tool with direct implications for treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Measuring treatment differentiation for implementation research: The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy Revised Strategies Scale.
    Observational measures to assess implementation integrity (the extent to which components of an evidence-based treatment are delivered as intended) are needed. The authors evaluated the reliability of the scores and the validity of the score interpretations for the Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy—Revised Strategies scale (TPOCS-RS; McLeod, 2010) and assessed the potential of the TPOCS-RS to assess treatment differentiation, a component of implementation integrity. The TPOCS-RS includes 5 theory-based subscales (Cognitive, Behavioral, Psychodynamic, Client-Centered, and Family). Using the TPOCS-RS, coders independently rated 954 sessions conducted with 89 children (M age = 10.56, SD = 2.00; age 7–15 years; 65.20% White) diagnosed with a primary anxiety disorder who received different treatments (manual-based vs. nonmanualized) across settings (research vs. practice). Coders produced reliable ratings at the item level (M intraclass correlation coefficient = .76, SD = .18). Analyses support the construct validity of the Cognitive and Behavioral subscale scores and, to a lesser extent, the Psychodynamic, Family, and Client-Centered subscale scores. Correlations among the TPOCS-RS subscale scores and between the TPOCS-RS subscale scores and observational ratings of the alliance and client involvement were moderate suggesting independence of the subscale scores. Moreover, the TPOCS-RS showed promise for assessing implementation integrity as the TPOCS-RS subscale scores, as hypothesized, discriminated between manual-guided treatment delivered across research and practice settings and nonmanualized usual care. The findings support the potential of the TPOCS-RS Cognitive and Behavioral subscales to assess treatment differentiation in implementation research. Results for the remaining subscales are promising, although further research is needed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The dimensionality of defense-mechanism parcels in the Defense Style Questionnaire–40.
    The Defense Style Questionnaire–40 (DSQ-40; Andrews, Singh, & Bond, 1993) uses pairs of items to measure 20 individual defense mechanisms. In a statistical sense, these item pairs represent parcels and are subject to the standards of unidimensionality demanded of parcels in general. Using a 2-facet modeling approach (N = 672), the present study examined the dimensionality of the defense-mechanism parcels in the DSQ-40 and found that the majority of the parcels did not satisfy the criteria for unidimensionality. In addition, the original 3-factor model of defense styles was not tenable with the present data. Overall, the results suggest caution when attempting to assess individual defense mechanisms using the DSQ-40. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Elaborating on the construct validity of the Minnesota Borderline Personality Disorder Scale (MBPD): A multi-sample, longitudinal examination.
    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is frequently conceptualized as an extreme variant of normal personality traits. A previous study successfully developed and validated a self-report BPD measure, the Minnesota Borderline Personality Disorder Scale (MBPD). We conducted 2 studies aimed at providing further validation for this measure. Results from Study 1 (clinical sample of substance users) indicated that the MBPD exhibited strong positive correlations with measures of convergent validity. In addition, the MBPD showed similar correlations with external correlates as those of the convergent validity measures as well as incremental utility in predicting these external correlates above and beyond negative affect and adult antisocial behavior. Also, a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that diagnostic accuracy of the MBPD was excellent for differentiation between BPD and non-BPD individuals. Likewise, Study 2 (nonclinical sample of undergraduate students followed over 6 months) showed strong correlations with an index of convergent validity, similar correlations with external correlates as that of the convergent validity index, and incremental predictive utility. Finally, in this study, the MBPD exhibited high rank-order stability. These data provide further evidence that the MBPD is a valid indicator of BPD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The Protective Behavioral Strategies Scale-20: Improved content validity of the Serious Harm Reduction subscale.
    Excessive drinking in college leads to serious harms, but students who use protective behavioral strategies (PBS) avoid negative consequences by drinking in a safer manner. This study aimed to increase the content validity of the Serious Harm Reduction (SHR) subscale of the most widely used measure of PBS, the Protective Behavioral Strategies Scale (PBSS: Martens et al., 2005). An initial item pool was developed from literature on college student drinking, existing lists of drinking control strategies, and an online pilot survey of college students (N = 1,832). Items were also evaluated by focus groups of experts and members of the target population. Next, 1,376 students (57.9% women; Mage = 18.5 years; 86.3% White) completed questionnaires online. A subset (n = 170; 12.4%) completed a second survey 4–6 weeks later to examine test–retest reliability and criterion-related validity. The remaining students (n = 1,206) were divided into equal development and validation samples. Analyses included exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the development sample, factor structure replication, and gender invariance testing in the validity sample. Results of this process produced the PBSS-20, with an expanded SHR scale of eight items. The revised SHR scale demonstrated improved internal consistency and was associated with a broader range of alcohol-related negative consequences at follow-up. Given its focus on reducing serious harms, the SHR scale is arguably the most clinically relevant PBSS factor, and those who use this measure will benefit from the expanded breadth of SHR content and improved psychometric properties of the PBSS-20. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Child, caregiver, and therapist perspectives on therapeutic alliance in usual care child psychotherapy.
    This study examined the temporal stability and cross-informant agreement on multiple perspectives of child and caregiver alliance with therapists in usual care psychotherapy. Baseline predictors of alliance were also examined. Children with disruptive behavior problems (n = 209) and their caregivers were followed for up to 16 months after initiating psychotherapy at a community-based clinic. Alliance was rated by children, caregivers, and therapists every 4 months for as long as families participated in treatment. Repeated-measures analyses using linear mixed models with random intercepts were conducted to determine whether child and caregiver alliance differed across time, as well to examine factors associated with each perspective on alliance. Intraclass correlations between child, caregiver, and therapist reports of alliance were also examined. Alliance was rated relatively high overall across perspectives. Clients (children and caregivers) tended to report the strongest and most stable alliance, while therapists reported the weakest alliance and perceived deteriorations in child alliance over time. Inter-informant agreement was variable for child and caregiver alliance; agreement was moderate between clients and therapists. Several predictors of alliance emerged, including child gender, anxiety diagnosis, caregiver race/ethnicity, and therapist experience. This study provides methodological information about reports of therapeutic alliance across time and informants that can inform current efforts to understand the alliance-outcome association. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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