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Psychological Assessment - Vol 28, Iss 5

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Psychological Assessment Psychological Assessment publishes mainly empirical articles concerning clinical assessment. Papers that fall within the domain of the journal include research on the development, validation, application, and evaluation of psychological assessment instruments. Diverse modalities (e.g., cognitive, physiologic, and motoric) and methods of assessment (e.g., questionnaires, interviews, natural environment and analog environment observation, self-monitoring, participant observation, physiological measurement, instrument-assisted and computer-assisted assessment) are within the domain of the journal, especially as they relate to clinical assessment. Also included are topics on clinical judgment and decision making (including diagnostic assessment), methods of measurement of treatment process and outcome, and dimensions of individual differences (e.g., race, ethnicity, age, gender, sexual orientation, economic status) as they relate to clinical assessment.
Copyright 2016 American Psychological Association
  • The Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Version in a general population sample of emerging adults.
    Prior studies with children and adolescents have shown that Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Version (YPI-S) scores are internally consistent and manifest expected relations with external variables of interest. In the present study, the factor structure and the internal consistency of YPI-S scores, and the convergent validity of the interpretation of YPI-S scores were tested in a sample of 2,500 emerging adults from the general population in Sweden (aged 20–24 years; 52.6% women). Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses support a 3-factor structure among both men and women that is similar to prior YPI-S studies conducted with children and adolescents. The YPI-S total score and the 3 factor scores were internally consistent. Correlations with external variables, including aggression and delinquency, support the convergent validity of the interpretation of YPI-S scores. Finally, the strength of these zero-order and partial correlations, overall, was not significantly different across gender. In conclusion, this study provides initial evidence that the YPI-S may hold promise as a brief and time-effective self-report tool for assessing psychopathic traits in emerging adults. The present findings also suggest that the YPI-S performs in a consistent manner across gender. Recommendations for future research with the YPI-S are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • “False feigners”: Examining the impact of non-content-based invalid responding on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form content-based invalid responding indicators.
    Misinterpretation of non-content-based invalid (e.g., random, fixed) responding as overreporting or underreporting is likely to adversely impact test interpretation and could bias inferences about examinee intentions. We examined the impact of non-content-based invalid responding on the following Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) content-based invalid responding indicators: Infrequent Responses (F-r), Infrequent Psychopathology Responses (FP-r), Infrequent Somatic Responses (FS), Symptom Validity (FBS-r), Response Bias Scale (RBS), Uncommon Virtues (L-r), and Adjustment Validity (K-r). In 4 samples from which invalid responders were excluded, we systematically inserted increasing percentages of random, acquiescent, or counter-acquiescent item responses ranging from 0% to 100% and examined the impact that non-content-based invalid response styles had on the content-based invalid responding indicators. F-r, FP-r, FS, RBS, and L-r were susceptible to non-content-based invalid responding, whereas FBS-r and K-r were unaffected. Individuals with Variable Response Inconsistency (VRIN-r) and True Response Inconsistency (TRIN-r) elevations were removed, and the frequencies of content-based invalid responding elevations were then reexamined for false indications of feigning. Findings were consistent across samples and emphasize the need to screen for non-content-based invalid responding before screening for content-based invalid responding in the assessment of personality and psychopathology. VRIN-r and TRIN-r were useful in detecting most—but not all—cases of non-content-based invalid responding. A small but meaningful percentage of the remaining individuals were misclassified as overreporters (i.e., false feigners) by FP-r and FS. Clinicians should interpret FP-r and FS with some caution in the presence of moderate levels of non-content-based invalid responding. Post hoc examinations of scale characteristics indicated that the most susceptible scales were brief, consisted of rarely endorsed items, included a relatively high percentage of true-keyed items, and required a low percentage of endorsed items to reach clinical significance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Different types of well-being? A cross-cultural examination of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being.
    A large international sample was used to test whether hedonia (the experience of positive emotional states and satisfaction of desires) and eudaimonia (the presence of meaning and development of one’s potentials) represent 1 overarching well-being construct or 2 related dimensions. A latent correlation of .96 presents negligible evidence for the discriminant validity between Diener’s (1984) subjective well-being model of hedonia and Ryff’s (1989) psychological well-being model of eudaimonia. When compared with known correlates of well-being (e.g., curiosity, gratitude), eudaimonia and hedonia showed very similar relationships, save goal-directed will and ways (i.e., hope), a meaning orientation to happiness, and grit. Identical analyses in subsamples of 7 geographical world regions revealed similar results around the globe. A single overarching construct more accurately reflects hedonia and eudaimonia when measured as self-reported subjective and psychological well-being. Nevertheless, measures of eudaimonia may contain aspects of meaningful goal-directedness unique from hedonia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Psychometric properties of the Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale: A Spanish-Language Version in a community sample of puerto rican adults.
    Performance-based measures have shown some limitation in the assessment of executive functioning (EF) and rating scales have been proposed as an alternative. Our aim was to conduct a comprehensive psychometric evaluation of the Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale (BDEFS), as administered in 452 Latino community adults (65.5% female). The BDEFS was back-translated into Spanish. We performed exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to assess the structure of the translated BDEFS and to compare it with the original five-factor structure based on the English-language version. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to test the original language structure of the instrument, and also a modified version with items that loaded equally in both versions. The Adult Self-Report Scale was used to screen for ADHD symptoms. We assessed invariance on the latent factor’s mean by age and gender, and to estimate associations with ADHD symptom dimensions. The five-factor structure of the BDEFS was partially supported by EFA/CFA, in which 78 out of 89 items loaded similar to the original English-language structure. Factor scores were significantly associated with ADHD symptom dimensions. Model-based contrasts revealed that inattention was primarily associated with disorganization, time-management and motivational aspects of EF; hyperactivity was predominantly related to self-restraint and self-regulation factors. The BDEFS seemingly assesses similar dimensions of the EF construct in English and in the present Spanish-language versions. Factor scores were differentially associated with ADHD subtypes. Replication and confirmation of the Spanish-language BDEFS in a larger sample is advised. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Psychometric properties of a brief version of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire in African Americans and European Americans.
    The reliable and valid assessment of chronic worry in African Americans is vital when attempting to draw cross-cultural comparisons between African Americans and other ethnic groups. As such, the current study examined the psychometric properties of a brief version of a gold standard assessment of chronic worry, specifically the Penn State Worry Questionnaire-Abbreviated (PSWQ-A; Hopko et al., 2003) in a college sample of African Americans (n = 100) and European Americans (n = 121). Results indicated that the PSWQ-A total score has good internal consistency and convergent validity with another measure of anxiety, but less than favorable discriminant validity with a measure of depression in African American and European American students. Also, the 1-factor solution for the 8-item PSWQ-A had excellent model fit in our full sample and was partially invariant between ethnic groups. Collectively, the present study provides evidence that the PSWQ-A is a psychometrically sound option for assessing chronic worry and suggests that this brief measure may enhance the time efficiency and clinical utility of research and clinical assessments in ethnically diverse samples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The Hispanic Stress Inventory Version 2: Improving the assessment of acculturation stress.
    This article reports on a 2-phase study to revise the Hispanic Stress Inventory (HSI; Cervantes, Padilla, & Salgado de Snyder, 1991). The necessity for a revised stress-assessment instrument was determined by demographic and political shifts affecting Latin American immigrants and later-generation Hispanics in the United States in the 2 decades since the development of the HSI. The data for the revision of the HSI (termed the HSI2) was collected at 4 sites: Los Angeles, El Paso, Miami, and Boston, and included 941 immigrants and 575 U.S.-born Hispanics and a diverse population of Hispanic subgroups. The immigrant version of the HSI2 includes 10 stress subscales, whereas the U.S.-born version includes 6 stress subscales. Both versions of the HSI2 are shown to possess satisfactory Cronbach’s alpha reliabilities and demonstrate expert-based content validity, as well as concurrent validity when correlated with subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis, 1993) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (Kroenke, Spitzer, & Williams, 2001). The new HSI2 instruments are recommended for use by clinicians and researchers interested in assessing psychosocial stress among diverse Hispanic populations of various ethnic subgroups, age groups, and geographic location. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Development and initial psychometric examination of the Home Safety and Beautification Assessment in mothers referred to treatment by child welfare agents.
    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death among children, with approximately 45% of injuries occurring in and around the home. Rates of home injury are particularly high in the homes of caregivers who are referred for intervention services by child welfare agents. However, there are few validated methods of home safety assessment available. The Home Safety and Beautification Assessment (HSBA) was developed to assist intervention planning specific to home safety and appearance in a sample of 77 mothers who were referred to treatment by Child Welfare Services. Exploratory factor analysis of HSBA items indicated that safety and appearance factors emerged across rooms in the home, and internal consistencies were good. For each room, the sums of assessors’ safety and appearance intervention priority item scores were correlated with the assessors’ global safety and appearance ratings of the entire home, respectively. The participants’ overall room attractiveness scores were correlated with the assessors’ overall room appearance intervention priority scores, whereas the participants’ ratings of overall room safety were not correlated with the assessors’ overall room safety intervention priority scores. Participants’ scores on the Abuse subscale of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, personal income, and education level were not associated with the assessors’ home safety and appearance intervention priority ratings, suggesting the HSBA is assessing constructs that are distinct from child abuse potential and socioeconomic status. The results support the HSBA in a sample referred to treatment by child welfare agents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Reliability, factor structure, and measurement invariance of the Dominic Interactive across European countries: Cross-country utility of a child mental health self-report.
    Large-scale international surveys are important to globally evaluate, monitor, and promote children’s mental health. However, use of young children’s self-reports in these studies is still controversial. The Dominic Interactive, a computerized DSM-IV–based child mental health self-report questionnaire, has unique characteristics that may make it preeminently appropriate for usage in cross-country comparisons. This study aimed to determine scale score reliabilities (omega) of the Dominic Interactive in a sample of 8,135 primary school children, ages 6–11 years old, in 7 European countries, to confirm the proposed 7-scale factor structure, and to test for measurement invariance of scale and item scores across countries. Omega reliability values for scale scores were good to high in every country, and the factor structure was confirmed for all countries. A thorough examination of measurement invariance provided evidence for cross-country test score comparability of 5 of the 7 scales and partial scale score invariance of 2 anxiety scales. Possible explanations for this partial invariance include cross-country differences in conceptualizing items and defining what is socially and culturally acceptable anxiety. The convincing evidence for validity of score interpretation makes the Dominic Interactive an indispensable tool for cross-country screening purposes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Development and validation of the Adolescent Shame-Proneness Scale.
    Like other self-conscious emotions, shame takes on particular significance during late childhood and adolescence because of a developing capacity for self-reflection, self-other comparisons, and sensitivity to the views of others. Shame is a potentially important variable in adolescent well-being given its established associations with depression, reduced feelings of self-worth, and problematic anger. Three studies are reported that describe the development and validation of the Adolescent Shame-Proneness Scale (ASPS), a novel semi-idiographic measure of shame-proneness. The ASPS is a 19-item measure assessing 3 components of shame-proneness—negative self-evaluation, externalization, and emotional discomfort. Taken together, the studies support the reliability and validity of the ASPS as a semi-idiographic measure of shame-proneness in adolescents aged 11 to 18 years. ASPS scores correlate as expected with scores on existing measure of shame-proneness and with measures of anger, negative affect, and self-esteem. More important, the data suggest that ASPS scores are related to, but distinct from, guilt. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity of the ASPS factor structure (RMSEA = .08, SRMR = .05, CFI = .97, NNFI = .97). The ASPS represents a unique contribution to existing options for measuring shame-proneness in research and clinical contexts. Further work is required to assess the ASPS’ temporal stability and its viability and psychometric properties in more culturally diverse samples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The Strengths Assessment Inventory–Youth Version: An evaluation of the psychometric properties with male and female justice-involved youth.
    Strengths constitute an important element of developmental assessments. It is consistent with evidence-based practice to use assessment tools that adequately measure a given construct and are appropriate for use with their targeted population. The Strengths Assessment Inventory–Youth Version (SAI-Y; Rawana & Brownlee, 2010)—a self-report measure of personal strengths, self-concept, and emotional functioning—was administered to 230 male and female adolescent offenders. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the SAI-Y’s factor structure demonstrated an acceptable fit overall, while some factors fit the data well, and fewer factors displayed a questionable fit. A majority of scale scores were found to exhibit good reliability for both sexes, with three empirical scale scores demonstrating poor reliability. In addition, scores on the SAI-Y also achieved satisfactory convergent and divergent validity. Total strength scores were significantly correlated in the expected direction with most theoretically related measures of emotional and behavioral functioning (e.g., self-esteem, treatment readiness, antisocial attitudes). Lastly, moderate gender effects and small ethnicity differences in response patterns were found. This was the first validation study of the SAI-Y with a justice-involved sample and the results suggest it is an appropriate measure for use with both male and female justice-involved young persons in detention and in the community. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • How differentiated do children experience affect? An investigation of the within- and between-person structure of children’s affect.
    Research on the structure of children’s affect is limited. It is possible that children’s perception of their own affect might be less differentiated than that of adults. Support for the 2-factor model of positive and negative affect and the pleasure-arousal model suggests that children in middle childhood can distinguish positive and negative affect as well as valence and arousal. Whether children are able to differentiate further aspects of affect, as proposed by the 3-dimensional model of affect (good-bad mood, alertness-tiredness, calmness-tension), is an unresolved issue. The aim of our study was the comparison of these 3 affect models to establish how differentiated children experience their affect and which model best describes affect in children. We examined affect structures on the between- and within-person level, acknowledging that affect varies across time and that no valid interpretation of either level is feasible if both are confounded. For this purpose, 214 children (age 8–11 years) answered affect items once a day for 5 consecutive days on smartphones. We tested all affect models by means of 2-level confirmatory factor analysis. Although all affect models had an acceptable fit, the 3-dimensional model best described affect in children on both the within- and between-person level. Thus, children in middle childhood can already describe affect in a differentiated way. Also, affect structures were similar on the within- and between-person level. We conclude that in order to acquire a thorough picture of children’s affect, measures for children should include items of all 3 affect dimensions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The EPOCH Measure of Adolescent Well-Being.
    We introduce the EPOCH Measure of Adolescent Well-Being, which assesses 5 positive psychological characteristics (Engagement, Perseverance, Optimism, Connectedness, and Happiness) that might foster well-being, physical health, and other positive outcomes in adulthood. To create the measure, a pool of 60 items was compiled, and a series of 10 studies with 4,480 adolescents (age 10–18) from the United States and Australia were used to develop and test the measure, including the factor structure, internal and test–retest reliability, and convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. The final 20-item measure demonstrated adequate psychometric properties, although additional studies are needed to further validate the measure, extend to other population groups, and examine the extent to which it predicts long-term outcomes. As a brief multidimensional measure, the EPOCH measure contributes to the empirical testing and application of well-being theory, and offers a valuable addition to batteries designed to assess adolescent positive psychological functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Identifying an efficient set of items sensitive to clinical-range externalizing problems in children.
    The present study applied item response theory to identify an efficient set of items of the Achenbach Externalizing scale from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; 33 items) and Teacher’s Report Form (TRF; 35 items) that were sensitive to clinical-range scores. Mothers and teachers rated children’s externalizing problems annually from ages 5 to 13 years in 2 independent samples (Ns = 585 and 1,199). Item properties for each rater across ages 5–8 and 9–13 were examined with item response theory. We identified 10 mother- and teacher-reported items from both samples based on the items’ measurement precision for subclinical and clinical levels of externalizing problems: externalizing problems that involve meanness to others, destroying others’ things, fighting, lying and cheating, attacking people, screaming, swearing/obscene language, temper tantrums, threatening people, and being loud. Scores on the scales using these items had strong reliability and psychometric properties, capturing nearly as much information as the full Externalizing scale for classifying clinical levels of externalizing problems. Scores on the scale with the 10 CBCL items had moderate accuracy, equivalent to the full Externalizing scale, in classifying diagnoses of conduct disorder based on a research diagnostic interview. Of course, comprehensive clinical assessment would consider additional items, dimensions of behavior, and sources of information, too, but it appears that the behaviors tapped by this select set of items may be core to externalizing psychopathology in children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Examining the validity of the adapted Alabama Parenting Questionnaire—Parent Global Report Version.
    The purpose of the present study was to comprehensively examine the validity of an adapted version of the parent global report form of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ) with respect to its factor structure, relationships with demographic and response style covariates, and differential item functioning (DIF). The APQ was adapted by omitting the corporal punishment and the other discipline items. The sample consisted of 674 Canadian and United States families having a 9- to 12-year-old child and at least 1 parent figure who had received treatment within the past 5 years for alcohol problems or met criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence. The primary parent in each family completed the APQ. The 4-factor CFA model of the 4 published scales used and the 3-factor CFA model of those scales from prior research were rejected. Exploratory structural equation modeling was then used. The final 3-factor model combined the author-defined Involvement and Positive Parenting scales and retained the original Poor Monitoring/Supervision and Inconsistent Discipline scales. However, there were substantial numbers of moderate magnitude cross-loadings and large magnitude residual covariances. Differential item functioning (DIF) was observed for a number of APQ items. Controlling for DIF, response style and demographic variables were related significantly to the factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Validation of the Spanish Version of the Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire (S-YAACQ).
    The present work was aimed at analyzing the psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the 48-item Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire (YAACQ) by applying the item response theory. Participants were 247 college students (75.7% female) who reported drinking alcohol within the last 3 months. The 48-item YAACQ was translated into Spanish and back to English. The psychometric properties of the Spanish YAACQ (S-YAACQ) were analyzed applying the Rasch model, as well as group difference and correlational analyses. Factor structure of the S-YAACQ was analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis. The verification of the global fit of the data showed adequate indexes for persons and items. The reliability estimates for the items and the persons were both high. Scores on the S-YAACQ were strongly correlated with scores on the Spanish versions of the AUDIT and the RAPI and with frequency of binge drinking. Five of 48 items showed different item functioning (DIF) as a function of gender. These biases were in opposite directions, resulting in DIF cancellation. The item severity continuum was largely similar to that found with the Spanish brief YAACQ and to that found in U.S. and Dutch samples. Overall, results from the present study suggest that this translated full version is better suited than the brief YAACQ for the identification of youth who are experiencing problems with alcohol. Findings suggest that the Spanish version of the full YAACQ may be used to identify a broad diversity of alcohol-related problems in Spanish-speaking college students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Development and evaluation of a Spanish-language version of the Relational Health Indices.
    We reported the development and evaluation of a Spanish-language version of the Relational Health Indices (RHI; Liang et al., 2002) for use in clinical and research settings. Participants were 348 men and women from international (n = 201) and domestic (n = 147) locations who were heritage Spanish speakers. A multistage translation of the RHI is described as well as the procedure used to evaluate the internal structure of the translated assessment. The results indicated a modest 3-factor structure, χ2(628) = 1397.16, p <.001; comparative fit index (CFI) = .86, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = .85, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .06 for the amigo (peer), mentor (mentor), and comunidad (community) subscales that has practical implications for treatment planning, outcome evaluation, and program development. Implications for counseling practice and future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • General inattentiveness is a long-term reliable trait independently predictive of psychological health: Danish validation studies of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale.
    The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) measures perceived degree of inattentiveness in different contexts and is often used as a reversed indicator of mindfulness. MAAS is hypothesized to reflect a psychological trait or disposition when used outside attentional training contexts, but the long-term test–retest reliability of MAAS scores is virtually untested. It is unknown whether MAAS predicts psychological health after controlling for standardized socioeconomic status classifications. First, MAAS translated to Danish was validated psychometrically within a randomly invited healthy adult community sample (N = 490). Factor analysis confirmed that MAAS scores quantified a unifactorial construct of excellent composite reliability and consistent convergent validity. Structural equation modeling revealed that MAAS scores contributed independently to predicting psychological distress and mental health, after controlling for age, gender, income, socioeconomic occupational class, stressful life events, and social desirability (β = 0.32–.42, ps <.001). Second, MAAS scores showed satisfactory short-term test–retest reliability in 100 retested healthy university students. Finally, MAAS sample mean scores as well as individuals’ scores demonstrated satisfactory test–retest reliability across a 6 months interval in the adult community (retested N = 407), intraclass correlations ≥ .74. MAAS scores displayed significantly stronger long-term test–retest reliability than scores measuring psychological distress (z = 2.78, p = .005). Test–retest reliability estimates did not differ within demographic and socioeconomic strata. Scores on the Danish MAAS were psychometrically validated in healthy adults. MAAS’s inattentiveness scores reflected a unidimensional construct, long-term reliable disposition, and a factor of independent significance for predicting psychological health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Cross-cultural validation of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale–21 in China.
    The gap between the demand and delivery of mental health services in mainland China can be reduced by validating freely available and psychometrically sound psychological instruments. The present research examined the Chinese version of the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS–21). Study 1 administered the DASS–21 to 1,815 Chinese college students and found internal consistency indices (Cronbach’s alpha) of .83, .80, and .82 for the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress subscales, respectively, and .92 for the total DASS total. Test–retest reliability over a 6-month interval was .39 to .46 for each of the 3 subscales and .46 for the total DASS. Moderate convergent validity of the Depression and Anxiety subscales was demonstrated via significant correlations with the Chinese Beck Depression Inventory (r = .51 at Time 1 and r = .64 at Time 2) and the Chinese State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = .41), respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the original 3-factor model with 1 minor change (nonnormed fit index [NNFI] = .964, comparative fit index [CFI] = .968, and root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = .079). Study 2 examined the clinical utility of the Chinese DASS–21 in 166 patients with schizophrenia and 90 matched healthy controls. Patients had higher Depression and Anxiety but not Stress subscale scores than healthy controls. A discriminant function composed of the linear combination of 3 subscale scores correctly discriminated 69.92% of participants, which again supported the potential clinical utility of the DASS in mainland China. Taken together, findings in these studies support the cross-cultural validity of the DASS–21 in China. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Reliability and validity of the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) Spanish Version.
    Resilience is defined as the ability to recover from stress. However, all resilience measures with exception of the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) assess resources that make resilience possible instead of recovery. The purpose of this study was to translate the BRS to Spanish and to analyze the reliability and validity of its scores. The psychometric properties of its scores were examined in a heterogeneous sample of 620 Spanish adults. Confirmatory factor analyses were carried out to study its scores’ evidence of structural validity. Besides, to study its scores’ evidence of convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity in relation to other resilience questionnaires (Connor Davidson Resilience Scale 10-item version, Situated Subjective Resilience Questionnaire for Adults and Resiliency Questionnaire for Adults) and to variables such as emotions (Modified Differential Emotions Scale), coping (Person-situation Coping Questionnaire for Adults), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), posttraumatic growth (Posttraumatic Growth Inventory), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and posttraumatic stress (Davidson Trauma Scale), correlation and regression analyses were conducted. To study its sensitivity, we assessed the effect of sociodemographics and the ability of the scale to identify high-risk populations by conducting analyses of variance and Pearson correlations. The BRS scores showed adequate reliability (α = .83; intraclass coefficient = .69). Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the Spanish version of the BRS is mono-factorial (χ2/df = 2.36; standardized root mean square residual = .036; goodness-of-fit index = .980; comparative fit index = .984; incremental fit index = .984; root mean square error of approximation = .067). They also showed adequate evidence of the scores’ convergent, concurrent and predictive validity. The Spanish version of the BRS is a reliable and valid means to assess resilience as the ability to bounce back. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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