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Psychological Assessment - Vol 27, Iss 2

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Psychological Assessment Psychological Assessment publishes mainly empirical articles concerning clinical assessment. Papers that fall within the domain of the journal include research on the development, validation, application, and evaluation of psychological assessment instruments. Diverse modalities (e.g., cognitive, physiologic, and motoric) and methods of assessment (e.g., questionnaires, interviews, natural environment and analog environment observation, self-monitoring, participant observation, physiological measurement, instrument-assisted and computer-assisted assessment) are within the domain of the journal, especially as they relate to clinical assessment. Also included are topics on clinical judgment and decision making (including diagnostic assessment), methods of measurement of treatment process and outcome, and dimensions of individual differences (e.g., race, ethnicity, age, gender, sexual orientation, economic status) as they relate to clinical assessment.
Copyright 2015 American Psychological Association
  • A contemporary taxometric analysis of the latent structure of self-monitoring.
    One of the most provocative findings in the personality psychology literature is evidence that the latent structure of self-monitoring is categorical. That is, individuals can be classified as either high or low self-monitors (Gangestad & Snyder, 1985). Surprisingly, in the three decades since its original publication, this study has never been replicated. Using the sample from the original study (N = 1,918) and a replication sample (N = 2,951), the latent structure of self-monitoring was retested using contemporary taxometric procedures. Preliminary analyses indicated that the eight-item indicator set used in the original study lacked sufficient indicator validities for unambiguously detecting latent categorical structure. In addition, the Other-Directedness subscale, one of the three factor analytically derived subscale indicators used in the original investigation, was likewise found to be unsuitable, because of a combination of low validity and relative orthogonality vis-à-vis its fellow subscales. The 2 remaining subscales, Acting and Extraversion, had excellent properties as indicators, and were subsequently subjected to multiple taxometric procedures and consistency tests. Results failed to support the original taxonic claim; to the contrary, multiple comparison curves and a grand mean comparison curve fit index (CCFI) of .214 provided strong, convergent evidence that the latent structure of self-monitoring is dimensional rather than categorical. Dimensional findings indicate that the conventional model of self-monitoring may merit reexamination, and that theoretical models, measurement practices, and data analytic procedures that assume taxonicity should be replaced by dimensional conceptualizations and corresponding statistical procedures. Findings underscore the importance of replication in psychological science. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Empirical recommendations for improving the stability of the dot-probe task in clinical research.
    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 27(2) of Psychological Assessment (see record 2015-09326-001). The hypothetical example provided when explaining the Winsorizing approach on the sixth page, first paragraph, is inaccurate because the interquartile range will always be equal to the 75th percentile value - the 25th percentile value. A corrected example is as follows: “For example, for a RT distribution with a 25th percentile value of 600 ms, a 75th percentile value of 800 ms, and an interquartile range of 200 ms, values >1100 would be rescaled to 1100 ms (the largest value in the distribution that is within the valid range) whereas values <300 ms would be rescaled to 300 ms (the smallest value in the distribution that is within the valid range).”] The dot-probe task has been widely used in research to produce an index of biased attention based on reaction times (RTs). Despite its popularity, very few published studies have examined psychometric properties of the task, including test–retest reliability, and no previous study has examined reliability in clinically anxious samples or systematically explored the effects of task design and analysis decisions on reliability. In the current analysis, we used dot-probe data from 3 studies in which attention bias toward threat-related faces was assessed at multiple (≥5) time-points. Two of the studies were similar (adults with social anxiety disorder, similar design features) whereas 1 was more disparate (pediatric healthy volunteers, distinct task design). We explored the effects of analysis choices (e.g., bias score formula, outlier handling method) on reliability and searched for convergent findings across the 3 studies. We found that, when concurrently considering the 3 studies, the most reliable RT index of bias used data from dot-bottom trials, comparing congruent to incongruent trials, with rescaled outliers, particularly after averaging across more than 1 assessment point. Although reliability of RT bias indices was moderate to low, within-session variability in bias (attention bias variability; ABV), a recently proposed RT index, was more reliable across sessions. Several eyetracking-based indices of attention bias (available in the pediatric healthy sample only) showed reliability that matched the optimal RT index (ABV). On the basis of these findings, we make specific recommendations to researchers using the dot-probe, particularly those wishing to investigate individual differences and/or single-patient applications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Correction to Price et al. (2014).
    Reports an error in "Empirical Recommendations for Improving the Stability of the Dot-Probe Task in Clinical Research" by Rebecca B. Price, Jennie M. Kuckertz, Greg J. Siegle, Cecile D. Ladouceur, Jennifer S. Silk, Neal D. Ryan, Ronald E. Dahl and Nader Amir (Psychological Assessment, Advanced Online Publication, Nov 24, 2014, np). The hypothetical example provided when explaining the Winsorizing approach on the sixth page, first paragraph, is inaccurate because the interquartile range will always be equal to the 75th percentile value - the 25th percentile value. A corrected example is as follows: “For example, for a RT distribution with a 25th percentile value of 600 ms, a 75th percentile value of 800 ms, and an interquartile range of 200 ms, values >1100 would be rescaled to 1100 ms (the largest value in the distribution that is within the valid range) whereas values 2014-49229-001.) The dot-probe task has been widely used in research to produce an index of biased attention based on reaction times (RTs). Despite its popularity, very few published studies have examined psychometric properties of the task, including test–retest reliability, and no previous study has examined reliability in clinically anxious samples or systematically explored the effects of task design and analysis decisions on reliability. In the current analysis, we used dot-probe data from 3 studies in which attention bias toward threat-related faces was assessed at multiple (≥5) time-points. Two of the studies were similar (adults with social anxiety disorder, similar design features) whereas 1 was more disparate (pediatric healthy volunteers, distinct task design). We explored the effects of analysis choices (e.g., bias score formula, outlier handling method) on reliability and searched for convergent findings across the 3 studies. We found that, when concurrently considering the 3 studies, the most reliable RT index of bias used data from dot-bottom trials, comparing congruent to incongruent trials, with rescaled outliers, particularly after averaging across more than 1 assessment point. Although reliability of RT bias indices was moderate to low, within-session variability in bias (attention bias variability; ABV), a recently proposed RT index, was more reliable across sessions. Several eyetracking-based indices of attention bias (available in the pediatric healthy sample only) showed reliability that matched the optimal RT index (ABV). On the basis of these findings, we make specific recommendations to researchers using the dot-probe, particularly those wishing to investigate individual differences and/or single-patient applications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Predictive validity of the Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability for violent behavior in outpatient forensic psychiatric patients.
    It remains unclear whether prediction of violence based on historical factors can be improved by adding dynamic risks, protective strengths, selection of person-specific key strengths or critical vulnerabilities, and structured professional judgment (SPJ). We examine this in outpatient forensic psychiatry with the Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START) at 3 and 6 months follow-up. An incident occurred during 33 (13%) out of 252 3-month and 44 (21%) out of 211 6-month follow-up periods (n = 188 unique clients). Pearson correlations for all predictor variables were in the expected directions. Prediction of recidivism based on historical factor ratings (odds ratio [OR] = 1.10) could not be improved through the addition of dynamic risk, protective strength, or key or critical factor scores (all ORs ns). The addition of the SPJ improved the model to modest accuracy (area under the curve [AUC] = .64) but made no independent significant contribution (OR = 1.55, p = .21) for the 3-month follow-up. For the 6-month follow-up, SPJ scores also increased predictive accuracy to modest (AUC = .67) and made a significant independent contribution to the prediction of the outcome (OR = 1.98, p = .04). Multicollinearity limits were unviolated. Limitations apply, however, results are similar to those from clinical, researcher rated samples and are discussed in the light of setting specific characteristics. Although it is too early to advocate implementing risk assessment instruments in clinical practice, we can conclude that clinicians in a heterogeneous outpatient forensic psychiatric setting can achieve similar results with the START as clinicians and research staff in more homogeneous inpatient settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The validity of a regression-based procedure for detecting concealed psychopathology in structured personality assessment.
    Positive Impression Management (PIM) predicted scoring of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 2007) is a regression-based procedure designed to inform diagnostic hypotheses when respondents engage in positive response distortion (PRD). Observed scores that deviate above the PIM-predicted score are proposed to indicate areas of true psychopathology that are being concealed by the respondent. To test this proposition, the PAI was administered twice to 334 undergraduate students, using standard instructions and job applicant role-play instructions. For most PAI scales and subscales, the PIM-predicted deviation scores from the role-play condition were significantly correlated with scores on the corresponding scale obtained from the standard administration condition. Exceptions to the general findings are noted for some scales, and recommendations are offered for further research and clinical application of PIM-predicted scores. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The Circumscribed Fear Measure: Development and initial validation of a trans-stimulus phobia measure.
    Extant stimulus-specific fear measures are limited to a small number of stimuli and contain significantly different content. This article describes 2 studies that develop a more flexible fear measure—the Circumscribed Fear Measure (CFM)—and examine its psychometric properties. In Study 1, participants (N = 771) completed an initial item pool while considering their most feared stimulus. Results of factor analyses were used to propose a 25-item, 5-factor measure that would span the domain of specific phobia reactions, applicable to different stimuli. In Study 2, participants (N = 959) completed the 25-item CFM, extant phobia measures, and a measure of disability. The CFM exhibited a 5-scale structure that had an equivalent structure across different stimuli. It showed good factorial validity, reliability, and generally good convergent and discriminant validity. Criterion validity was commensurate with that of extant phobia measures. The use of the measure as an index of an individual’s greatest fear is also discussed. The CFM shows promise and could have substantial research and clinical utility. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Validating measures of psychological flexibility in a population with acquired brain injury.
    This study presents preliminary validation data on both the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire—Acquired Brain Injury (AAQ-ABI) and the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire—II (AAQ-II). Data from 150 participants with ABI was subject to exploratory factor analysis on the AAQ-ABI (15 items). A subset of 75 participants with ABI completed a larger battery of measures to test construct validity for the AAQ-ABI and to undertake a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on the AAQ-II (7 items). Three meaningful factors were identified on the AAQ-ABI: Reactive Avoidance, Denial, and Active Acceptance. Reactive Avoidance demonstrated good internal and test–retest consistency (α = .89) and correlated in expected directions with other related measures including the AAQ-II. CFA of the AAQ-II did not provide a good fit but did have similar correlations with measures of psychological distress as found in prior non-ABI samples. The results suggest both measures can be used with individuals following an ABI but they index different facets of psychological flexibility. The AAQ-ABI appears to measure psychological flexibility about the thoughts and feelings relating to the brain injury itself while the AAQ-II measures psychological flexibility around general psychological distress. Future research could explore the additional 2 factors of the AAQ-ABI and use these measures in outcome studies that promote psychological flexibility in individuals with an ABI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Brief Moral Decision-Making Questionnaire: A Rasch-derived short form of the Greene dilemmas.
    In this study, we developed the Brief Moral Decision-Making Questionnaire (BrMoD) as a standardized brief form of the dilemmas compiled by Greene and colleagues (Greene, Sommerville, Nystrom, Darley, & Cohen, 2001). An initial Rasch analysis was conducted over responses to 60 dilemmas to retain the most appropriate items. The psychometric properties of the 32-item brief instrument were determined in a community sample of 133 individuals using analyses from both the Rasch model and the classical test theory. The BrMoD scores showed appropriate reliability and construct validity. Differences between dilemma categories proposed by Greene et al. were observed in the BrMoD by measuring the difficulty of decisions and response times of the participants. In addition, there was no differential item functioning by the demographic variables. Therefore, the BrMoD is a good tool for assessing moral decision making in research or professional fields. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Reliability and validity of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) in evaluations of chronic low back pain patients.
    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the reliability and concurrent validity of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2-Restructured Form (2-RF) (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011) scores in a sample of 811 chronic low back pain patients (346 males, 529 females) beginning treatment in a short-term interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation program. We calculated internal consistency coefficients, mean-item correlations, and SEM for all substantive scales, as well as zero-order correlations with collateral medical record information and self-report testing. Results indicated reliability and validity for most of the MMPI-2-RF substantive scales. Implications of these findings and limitations of this study are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • How reliable are Psychopathy Checklist–Revised scores in Canadian criminal trials? A case law review.
    The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) is a professional rating scale that enjoys widespread use in forensic and correctional settings, primarily as a tool to inform risk assessments in a variety of types of cases (e.g., parole determinations, sexually violent predator [SVP] civil commitment). Although widely described as “reliable and valid” in research reports, several recent field studies have suggested that PCL-R scores provided by examiners in forensic cases are significantly less reliable than the interrater reliability values reported in research studies. Most of these field studies, however, have had small samples and only examined SVP civil commitment cases. This study builds on existing research by examining the reliability of PCL-R scores provided by forensic examiners in a much more extensive sample of Canadian criminal cases. Using the LexisNexis database, we identified 102 cases in which at least 2 scores were reported (of 257 total PCL-R scores). The single-rater intraclass correlation coefficient (ICCA1) was .59, indicating that a large percentage of the variance in individual scores was attributable to some form of error. ICC values were somewhat higher for sexual offending cases (.66) than they were for nonsexual offending cases (.46), indicating that poor interrater reliability was not restricted specifically to the assessment of sexual offenders. These and earlier findings concerning field reliability in legal cases suggest that the standard error of measurement for PCL-R scores that are provided to the courts is likely to be much larger than the value of 2.90 reported in the instrument’s manual. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Psychometric validation of the BDI-II among HIV-positive CHARTER study participants.
    Rates of depression are high among individuals living with HIV. Accurate assessment of depressive symptoms among this population is important for ensuring proper diagnosis and treatment. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is a widely used measure for assessing depression, however its psychometric properties have not yet been investigated for use with HIV-positive populations in the United States. The current study was the first to assess the psychometric properties of the BDI-II among a large cohort of HIV-positive participants sampled at multiple sites across the United States as part of the CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) study. The BDI-II test scores showed good internal consistency (α = .93) and adequate test–retest reliability (internal consistency coefficient = 0.83) over a 6-mo period. Using a “gold standard” of major depressive disorder determined by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, sensitivity and specificity were maximized at a total cut-off score of 17 and a receiver operating characteristic analysis confirmed that the BDI-II is an adequate diagnostic measure for the sample (area under the curve = 0.83). The sensitivity and specificity of each score are provided graphically. Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the best fit for a three-factor model over one-factor and two-factor models and models with a higher-order factor included. The results suggest that the BDI-II is an adequate measure for assessing depressive symptoms among U.S. HIV-positive patients. Cut-off scores should be adjusted to enhance sensitivity or specificity as needed and the measure can be differentiated into cognitive, affective, and somatic depressive symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Validation of the Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale (AIS) among treatment-seeking smokers.
    The Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale (AIS; Gifford et al., 2004) was derived as a smoking-specific measure of experiential avoidance. However, there has been little investigation of the psychometric proprieties of the AIS and no published work on the topic. The current study aimed to test the reliability and validity of the AIS among a sample of adult treatment-seeking daily smokers (n = 465; 48.2% female, 17.8 [SD = 9.60] cigarettes per day). The AIS was administered at 3 time points (baseline, quit-day, and 1 month postquit) as part of a larger smoking cessation trial. An exploratory factor analysis indicated a 2-factor solution, described by inflexibility and avoidance because of smoking related “thoughts/feelings” (9 items) and “somatic sensations” (4 items). Results revealed that the AIS-total and factor scores demonstrated high internal consistency and test–retest reliability. The AIS total and factor scores also displayed high convergent, discriminant, and incremental predictive validity with theoretically relevant smoking and affective variables. The present data suggest that the AIS measure appears to be a valid and reliable smoking-specific index of experiential avoidance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Defining early positive response to psychotherapy: An empirical comparison between clinically significant change criteria and growth mixture modeling.
    Several different approaches have been applied to identify early positive change in response to psychotherapy so as to predict later treatment outcome and length as well as use this information for outcome monitoring and treatment planning. In this study, simple methods based on clinically significant change criteria and computationally demanding growth mixture modeling (GMM) are compared with regard to their overlap and uniqueness as well as their characteristics in terms of initial impairment, therapy outcome, and treatment length. The GMM approach identified a highly specific subgroup of early improving patients. These patients were characterized by higher average intake impairments and higher pre- to-posttreatment score differences. Although being more specific for the prediction of treatment success, GMM was much less sensitive than clinically significant and reliable change criteria. There were no differences between the groups with regard to treatment length. Because each of the approaches had specific advantages, results suggest a combination of both methods for practical use in routine outcome monitoring and treatment planning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Development of the Abbreviated Masculine Gender Role Stress Scale.
    Data gathered from 6 independent samples (n = 1,729) that assessed men’s masculine gender role stress in college and community males were aggregated used to determine the reliability and validity of an abbreviated version of the Masculine Gender Role Stress (MGRS) Scale. The 15 items with the highest item-to-total scale correlations were used to create an abbreviated MGRS Scale. Psychometric properties of each of the 15 items were examined with item response theory (IRT) analysis, using the discrimination and threshold parameters. IRT results showed that the abbreviated scale may hold promise at capturing the same amount of information as the full 40-item scale. Relative to the 40-item scale, the total score of the abbreviated MGRS Scale demonstrated comparable convergent validity using the measurement domains of masculine identity, hypermasculinity, trait anger, anger expression, and alcohol involvement. An abbreviated MGRS Scale may be recommended for use in clinical practice and research settings to reduce cost, time, and patient/participant burden. Additionally, IRT analyses identified items with higher discrimination and threshold parameters that may be used to screen for problematic gender role stress in men who may be seen in routine clinical or medical practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • A systematic review and evaluation of measures for suicidal ideation and behaviors in population-based research.
    The use of measures of suicidal ideation and behavior with sound measurement properties is critical in identifying people most at risk of suicide. In particular, brief self-report measures of suicidal ideation and behaviors are needed for use in large-scale population-based research and in the development and evaluation of suicide prevention programs in the community. This review aimed to identify and recommend psychometrically sound self-report measures of suicidal ideation and behaviors that could be used in population-based research of adults. To identify existing self-report measures for adult use, a systematic search was conducted using MEDLINE (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online) and PsycINFO (Psychological Information Database) databases. Abstracts, reference lists, and previous review papers were screened. Once measures were identified, we used a hierarchical criterion-based approach to assess their utility, psychometric properties, and appropriateness for population-based research. Nineteen measures were evaluated against 6 criteria. Three brief measures that met all criteria of the evaluation and demonstrated adequate psychometric properties were the Depressive Symptom Index Suicidality Subscale (DSI-SS), Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire—Revised (SBQ-R), and Suicidal Ideation Attributes Scale (SIDAS). None of the comprehensive measures met all criteria for use in population-based studies, due to financial costs imposed on use, although the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSSI) and the Adult Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (ASIQ) had considerable evidence of psychometric robustness. Suicide researchers are encouraged to further establish the validity of scores on these measures across diverse adult populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The shortened Person’s Relating to Others Questionnaire (PROQ3): Comparison of the Internet-administered format with the standard-written one across four national samples.
    The study aims to validate the shortened version of the Person’s Relating to Others Questionnaire (PROQ3), a measure of negative and maladaptive relating to others, for data collection via the Internet across 4 national samples. The psychometric properties of the Internet-administered (IN) format of the PROQ3 in 4,802 participants (169 British; 360 Irish; 1,110 Dutch; and 3,163 Greek) were compared with that of the standard-written (SW) version in 1918 participants (338 British, 403 Irish, 204 Dutch, and 973 Greek), in respect of its measurement and structural equivalence. Internal consistency, as estimated by alpha coefficient and item-to-scale homogeneity, were consistently acceptable across nationality and modality. There was agreement in regard to the interscale correlations across nationality and modality. Lower mean scores for the British sample in the SW format, and lower mean scores for the Irish sample in the IN format were found. The structural equivalence across modality and nationality was also supported: A consistent 8-factor underlying structure, as supported by a multiple group factor analysis, and an octagonal higher order, as supported by a 3-way multidimensional scaling procedure, were found. It was concluded that the PROQ3 can be administered via the Internet with maintained psychometric properties for clinicians to screen people with interpersonal relating deficiencies and for researchers to collect data. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Psychometric properties and adaptation of the ASRS in a Spanish sample of patients with substance use disorders: Application of two IRT Rasch models.
    The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS; Kessler et al., 2005) is one of the most extensively used scales to detect attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. The aim of this work is to analyze the psychometric properties of the 18 ASRS items in people with substance use disorders (SUDs). Furthermore, we aimed to (a) confirm or, if necessary, modify the dichotomization criteria of the items proposed by the authors, and (b) identify the most informative items for a screening version or, when applicable, confirm the use of the 6 items that comprise the initially proposed short version. The ASRS was completed for 170 patients with SUD at the Provincial Unit for Drug Dependence of Huelva, Spain, aged 16 to 78 years. Two Rasch models—the dichotomous Rasch model and the Rating Scale Model (RSM) for polytomous items—were used in the psychometric analysis. The ASRS items fitted the RSM adequately, but the locations of the items along the underlying construct led us to propose new criteria of dichotomization. After analyzing the information function of dichotomized items, we identified 6 items that should integrate a new screening scale. Our dichotomization proposal is different from the original one and takes into account the different weights of the items. The selected screening version showed better metric properties than the other analyzed versions. Future research should test our proposal by using external criteria and to obtain evidences for other populations, cultures, or patient profiles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Personality Assessment Inventory scores as predictors of misconduct, recidivism, and violence: A meta-analytic review.
    More than 30 studies have examined the ability of scores on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991, 2007) to predict violence or misconduct. The Antisocial Features (ANT), Aggression (AGG), and Violence Potential Index (VPI) Scales of the PAI, in particular, have received substantial attention as predictors of institutional infractions and criminal recidivism. The current study used meta-analysis to provide a comprehensive review of the ability of scores on these and other PAI scales to predict misbehavior. Scores on the ANT (d = .26 to .39) and AGG (d = .23 to .40) scales consistently emerged as small to moderate predictors of misbehavior. Effects tended to be larger in correctional than treatment settings (e.g., ANT d = .44 vs. .20), for institutional misconduct than recidivism (e.g., AGG d = .37 vs. .23), and for institutional misconduct studies with follow up periods of at least 1.5 years (e.g., ANT d = .46). Overall, findings provide support for the predictive validity of multiple PAI scales. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Structural characteristics and external correlates of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short Form.
    Controversy remains on the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory–Short Form (WAI-S). In the present study we first examined the factor structure and reliability of WAI-S scores in a sample of 557 Flemish mental health consumers. Subsequently, we investigated the relationship between early alliance quality and client’s psychological dysfunctioning (symptomatic distress, interpersonal functioning and personality pathology). Participants completed the Outcome Questionnaire and the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology–Short Form at start of treatment. The WAI-S was completed after the third treatment session. The structure of the WAI-S was examined using confirmatory factor analysis. Four different factor models were compared. Internal consistencies of the scales were ascertained using the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Pearson correlations were calculated to determine the relationships between alliance ratings and the independent variables. CFA resulted in a two-factor model, with a Bond component (Contact) and a Task-Goal (Contract) component. Reliability of the WAI-S subscale scores proved to be very good. Symptomatic distress, interpersonal dysfunctioning and personality traits were associated to the Contract component of the alliance, but not to the Contact component. Clinical implications, limitations and suggestions for further research are formulated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Item response theory analyses of the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT).
    We evaluated the psychometric properties of the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT; Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006). First, we assessed the dimensionality of the test with a bifactor exploratory factor analysis (EFA). This EFA analysis revealed a general factor and 3 specific factors clustered by targets of CFMT. However, the 3 specific factors appeared to be minor factors that can be ignored. Second, we fit a unidimensional item response model. This item response model showed that the CFMT items could discriminate individuals at different ability levels and covered a wide range of the ability continuum. We found the CFMT to be particularly precise for a wide range of ability levels. Third, we implemented item response theory (IRT) differential item functioning (DIF) analyses for each gender group and 2 age groups (age ≤ 20 vs. age > 21). This DIF analysis suggested little evidence of consequential differential functioning on the CFMT for these groups, supporting the use of the test to compare older to younger, or male to female, individuals. Fourth, we tested for a gender difference on the latent facial recognition ability with an explanatory item response model. We found a significant but small gender difference on the latent ability for face recognition, which was higher for women than men by 0.184, at age mean 23.2, controlling for linear and quadratic age effects. Finally, we discuss the practical considerations of the use of total scores versus IRT scale scores in applications of the CFMT. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale.
    Recently, the American Psychiatric Association included Internet gaming disorder (IGD) in the appendix of the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–5). The main aim of the current study was to test the reliability and validity of 4 survey instruments to measure IGD on the basis of the 9 criteria from the DSM–5: a long (27-item) and short (9-item) polytomous scale and a long (27-item) and short (9-item) dichotomous scale. The psychometric properties of these scales were tested among a representative sample of 2,444 Dutch adolescents and adults, ages 13–40 years. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that the structural validity (i.e., the dimensional structure) of all scales was satisfactory. Both types of assessment (polytomous and dichotomous) were also reliable (i.e., internally consistent) and showed good criterion-related validity, as indicated by positive correlations with time spent playing games, loneliness, and aggression and negative correlations with self-esteem, prosocial behavior, and life satisfaction. The dichotomous 9-item IGD scale showed solid psychometric properties and was the most practical scale for diagnostic purposes. Latent class analysis of this dichotomous scale indicated that 3 groups could be discerned: normal gamers, risky gamers, and disordered gamers. On the basis of the number of people in this last group, the prevalence of IGD among 13- through 40-year-olds in the Netherlands is approximately 4%. If the DSM–5 threshold for diagnosis (experiencing 5 or more criteria) is applied, the prevalence of disordered gamers is more than 5%. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Psychopathy factor interactions and co-occurring psychopathology: Does measurement approach matter?
    The 2 dimensions of psychopathy as operationalized by various measurement tools show differential associations with psychopathology; however, evidence suggests that the statistical interaction of Factor 1 (F1) and Factor 2 (F2) may be important in understanding associations with psychopathology. Findings regarding the interactive effects of F1 and F2 are mixed, as both potentiating and protective effects have emerged. Moreover, approaches to measuring F1 (e.g., clinical interview vs. self-report) are based on different conceptualizations of F1, which may influence the interactive effects. The current study aims to (a) elucidate the influence of F1 and F2 on psychopathology by using both variable-centered and person-centered approaches and (b) determine whether the measurement of F1 influences the interactive effects of F1 and F2 by comparing the strength of interactive effects across F1 measures in a sample of over 1,500 offenders. Across analytic methods, there were very few cases in which F1 statistically influenced the association between F2 and psychopathology, such that F1 failed to evidence either potentiating or protective effects on F2. Furthermore, the conceptualization of F1 across psychopathy measures did not impact the interactive effects of F1 and F2. These findings suggest that F2 is probably driving the relations between psychopathy and other forms of psychopathology and that F1 may play less of a role in interacting with F2 than previously believed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Investigating the structure of the autism-spectrum quotient using Mokken scaling.
    Traits similar to those shown in autism spectrum condition (ASC) are apparent in relatives of individuals with ASC, and in the general population without necessarily meeting diagnostic criteria for an ASC. We assess whether the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), a self-report measure, has hierarchical properties using Mokken scaling. Hierarchical scales allow the presence of a latent trait to be identified by discovering whether and how many specific items form an ordered array along it. Data were collected from 2 groups: (1) people with ASC (n = 449: 240 males, 209 females, Mage 35.4 years, SD = 12.8) and (2) university students (n = 943: 465 males, 475 females, Mage = 23.0 years, SD = 8.4). A single Mokken scale was obtained in the data from university students and 3 scales were obtained in the data from people with ASC. The scales all showed moderate Mokken scaling properties with the single scale obtained from university students showing weak invariant item ordering and 2 of the scales from people with ASC showing weak invariant item ordering. The AQ formed reliable Mokken scales. There was a large overlap between the scale from the university student sample and the sample with ASC, with the first scale, relating to social interaction, being almost identical. The present study confirms the utility of the AQ as a single instrument that can dimensionalize autistic traits in both university student and clinical samples of ASC, and confirms that items of the AQ are consistently ordered relative to one another. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Further clarifying prospective and inhibitory intolerance of uncertainty: Factorial and construct validity of test scores from the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale.
    The Intolerance to Uncertainty Scale (IUS) was developed to measure a dispositional tendency to react negatively to uncertain events, regardless of the occurrence probability of those events. Recent evidence suggests a 2-factor structure underlying the IUS; 1 factor measuring a prospective aspect (i.e., desire for predictability) and the other assessing an inhibitory aspect (i.e., uncertainty paralysis). The factorial and construct validity of the IUS test scores among undergraduate students in Singapore were examined in the present research using exploratory (n = 565) and confirmatory (n = 898) factor analyses. Results indicated that a 2-factor model was preferred over a unitary-factor model. The construct validity of the IUS (and subscale) scores was examined using a comprehensive nomological network of psychopathology and personality/affectivity variables. Differential relations were observed for the prospective and inhibitory components, providing support that the 2 subscales assessed unique aspects of the intolerance of uncertainty construct. An 18-item modified version of IUS was also proposed and its test scores had stronger validity evidence than scores from the widely used 12-item version. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • On the factor structure of the Rosenberg (1965) General Self-Esteem Scale.
    Since its introduction, the Rosenberg General Self-Esteem Scale (RGSE, Rosenberg, 1965) has been 1 of the most widely used measures of global self-esteem. We conducted 4 studies to investigate (a) the goodness-of-fit of a bifactor model positing a general self-esteem (GSE) factor and 2 specific factors grouping positive (MFP) and negative items (MFN) and (b) different kinds of validity of the GSE, MFN, and MFP factors of the RSGE. In the first study (n = 11,028), the fit of the bifactor model was compared with those of 9 alternative models proposed in literature for the RGSE. In Study 2 (n = 357), the external validities of GSE, MFP, and MFN were evaluated using objective grade point average data and multimethod measures of prosociality, aggression, and depression. In Study 3 (n = 565), the across-rater robustness of the bifactor model was evaluated. In Study 4, measurement invariance of the RGSE was further supported across samples in 3 European countries, Serbia (n = 1,010), Poland (n = 699), and Italy (n = 707), and in the United States (n = 1,192). All in all, psychometric findings corroborate the value and the robustness of the bifactor structure and its substantive interpretation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Connecting clinical and actuarial prediction with rule-based methods.
    Meta-analyses comparing the accuracy of clinical versus actuarial prediction have shown actuarial methods to outperform clinical methods, on average. However, actuarial methods are still not widely used in clinical practice, and there has been a call for the development of actuarial prediction methods for clinical practice. We argue that rule-based methods may be more useful than the linear main effect models usually employed in prediction studies, from a data and decision analytic as well as a practical perspective. In addition, decision rules derived with rule-based methods can be represented as fast and frugal trees, which, unlike main effects models, can be used in a sequential fashion, reducing the number of cues that have to be evaluated before making a prediction. We illustrate the usability of rule-based methods by applying RuleFit, an algorithm for deriving decision rules for classification and regression problems, to a dataset on prediction of the course of depressive and anxiety disorders from Penninx et al. (2011). The RuleFit algorithm provided a model consisting of 2 simple decision rules, requiring evaluation of only 2 to 4 cues. Predictive accuracy of the 2-rule model was very similar to that of a logistic regression model incorporating 20 predictor variables, originally applied to the dataset. In addition, the 2-rule model required, on average, evaluation of only 3 cues. Therefore, the RuleFit algorithm appears to be a promising method for creating decision tools that are less time consuming and easier to apply in psychological practice, and with accuracy comparable to traditional actuarial methods. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Distinguishing between demoralization and specific personality traits in clinical assessment with the NEO-PI-R.
    Demoralization, a nonspecific unpleasant state that is common in clinical practice, has been identified as a potential source of nonspecificity in the assessment of personality and psychopathology. The aim of this research was to distinguish between Demoralization and specific personality traits in a widely used measure of personality: the Neuroticism–Extraversion–Openness Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R). NEO-PI-R and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 questionnaires were completed by 278 patients of a specialized clinic for personality disorders in The Netherlands. Furthermore, a replication sample was used consisting of 405 patients from the same institution who completed NEO-PI-R questionnaires, as well. A measure of Demoralization was derived (NEOdem, a NEO-PI-R-based Demoralization scale) using factor analytic techniques. Results indicated that the Demoralization Scale scores were reliable and showed expected patterns of convergence and divergence with conceptually relevant Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-RF scales. When items contributing to Demoralization-related variance were removed from the NEO-PI-R scales, increased specificity was notable with regard to external correlates. These results provide supportive evidence for the validity and heuristic potential of distinguishing between Demoralization and specific personality traits within the NEO-PI-R. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Assessing invariance across sex and race/ethnicity in measures of youth psychopathic characteristics.
    The aim of this study was to assess the measurement invariance of 2 commonly used measures of youth psychopathic characteristics across sex and racial/ethnic groups. Among a community sample of Hispanic and Black adolescents (N = 355; 50.5% female; mean age = 15.09) and their parents, this study tested the configural and metric invariance of the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP; Levenson, Fitzpatrick, & Kiehl, 1995) and the parent-report version of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (Frick, 2004). Preliminary analyses indicated that the adolescents in the present study reported similar rates of psychopathic characteristics as those reported by other studies of adolescents and young adults. Results of the multigroup invariance analyses indicated that these measures are invariant across sex and between Hispanic and Black youth. In addition, further analyses assessing associations between these measures and a number of behavioral and emotional characteristics indicated that scores on the LSRP Scale and Callous-Unemotional Traits demonstrate good convergent and discriminant validity with few differences by sex or race/ethnicity. To date, research on psychopathy has focused predominantly on samples of White males. Therefore, it is important that research examines the equivalence of measures of psychopathic characteristics across different populations, so that accurate assessments can be made to inform intervention and treatment efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth in a large community sample of young adult males and females: The TRAILS study.
    This study examined associations between the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY; Borum, Bartel, & Forth, 2002) risk and protective items, identified clusters of SAVRY items, and used these clusters to predict police contact and violence. SAVRY items were assessed in a community sample of adolescent boys and girls (N = 963, 46.5% boys) via self-, parent, and teacher reports at ages 11 and 13.5 as part of a longitudinal cohort study. Police contact and violence were assessed at age 19. Correlations between risk and protective items and police contact and violence were largely similar in boys and girls, though there were some differences with regard to outcome measure. Principal factor analysis on the SAVRY items yielded a 2-factor model, distinguishing between History of Violence/Dysregulation and Social Support factors. Follow-up analyses showed incremental validity of the Social Support factor over and beyond the History of Violence/Dysregulation factor and sex in the prediction of violence. The findings provide new insights into the SAVRY factor structure and show that the SAVRY was able to predict violence in a community sample of adolescents over a period of 4 to 7 years. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Relations between response trajectories on the continuous performance test and teacher-rated problem behaviors in preschoolers.
    Although both the continuous performance test (CPT) and behavior rating scales are used in both practice and research to assess inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behaviors, the correlations between performance on the CPT and teachers’ ratings are typically only small-to-moderate. This study examined trajectories of performance on a low target-frequency visual CPT in a sample of preschool children and how these trajectories were associated with teacher-ratings of problem behaviors (i.e., inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity [H/I], and oppositional/defiant behavior). Participants included 399 preschool children (mean age = 56 months; 49.4% female; 73.7% White/Caucasian). An attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) rating scale was completed by teachers, and the CPT was completed by the preschoolers. Results showed that children’s performance across 4 temporal blocks on the CPT was not stable across the duration of the task, with error rates generally increasing from initial to later blocks. The predictive relations of teacher-rated problem behaviors to performance trajectories on the CPT were examined using growth curve models. Higher rates of teacher-reported inattention and H/I were uniquely associated with higher rates of initial omission errors and initial commission errors, respectively. Higher rates of teacher-reported overall problem behaviors were associated with increasing rates of omission but not commission errors during the CPT; however, the relation was not specific to 1 type of problem behavior. The results of this study indicate that the pattern of errors on the CPT in preschool samples is complex and may be determined by multiple behavioral factors. These findings have implications for the interpretation of CPT performance in young children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Structure of the Woodcock–Johnson III cognitive tests in a referral sample of elementary school students.
    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 27(2) of Psychological Assessment (see record 2015-17977-001). Linda C. Caterino’s name and affiliation were not included in the byline or author note. All versions of this article have been corrected.] The structure of the Woodcock–Johnson Cognitive Battery-Third Edition (WJ Cog) has been extensively explored via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with its normative sample, but there has been little research to verify that the same structure holds for students referred for special education services. Likewise, research on the structure of the WJ Cog with exploratory factor analysis (EFA) methods has been rare. Consequently, this study applied both EFA and CFA methods to the scores of 529 elementary school students referred for special education services (95.5% eligible) on the 14 tests of the WJ Cog extended battery. EFA results suggested only 2 or 3 factors, whereas CFA results favored the theoretical 7 factors posited by McGrew and Woodcock. In this theoretical model, a strong general factor accounted for 27% of the total variance and 57% of the common variance, whereas the 7 group factors combined accounted for 21% of the total variance and 43% of the common variance. Reliability, as quantified by ωH, was good for the general factor, marginal for the Gs factor, and poor for the other group factors. Nine of the 14 WJ Cog tests displayed uniqueness values that exceeded their communality. On the basis of this evidence from a referral sample, interpretation of the WJ Cog should be restricted to the Gs and g factors: the Gs factor because it exhibited considerable independence and precision of measurement and the g factor because it has emerged in all investigations of the WJ Cog. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Correction to Strickland, Watkins, and Caterino (2015).
    Reports an error in "Structure of the Woodcock–Johnson III Cognitive Tests in a Referral Sample of Elementary School Students" by Tracy Strickland, Marley W. Watkins and Linda C. Caterino (Psychological Assessment, Advanced Online Publication, Feb 2, 2015, np). Linda C. Caterino’s name and affiliation were not included in the byline or author note. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-04304-001.) The structure of the Woodcock–Johnson Cognitive Battery-Third Edition (WJ Cog) has been extensively explored via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with its normative sample, but there has been little research to verify that the same structure holds for students referred for special education services. Likewise, research on the structure of the WJ Cog with exploratory factor analysis (EFA) methods has been rare. Consequently, this study applied both EFA and CFA methods to the scores of 529 elementary school students referred for special education services (95.5% eligible) on the 14 tests of the WJ Cog extended battery. EFA results suggested only 2 or 3 factors, whereas CFA results favored the theoretical 7 factors posited by McGrew and Woodcock. In this theoretical model, a strong general factor accounted for 27% of the total variance and 57% of the common variance, whereas the 7 group factors combined accounted for 21% of the total variance and 43% of the common variance. Reliability, as quantified by ωH, was good for the general factor, marginal for the Gs factor, and poor for the other group factors. Nine of the 14 WJ Cog tests displayed uniqueness values that exceeded their communality. On the basis of this evidence from a referral sample, interpretation of the WJ Cog should be restricted to the Gs and g factors: the Gs factor because it exhibited considerable independence and precision of measurement and the g factor because it has emerged in all investigations of the WJ Cog. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Internal consistency and stability of the CANTAB neuropsychological test battery in children.
    The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a computer-assessed test battery widely use in different populations. The internal consistency and 1-year stability of CANTAB tests were examined in school-age children. Two hundred-thirty children (57% girls) from five schools in the Jyväskylä school district in Finland participated in the study in spring 2011. The children completed the following CANTAB tests: (a) visual memory (pattern recognition memory [PRM] and spatial recognition memory [SRM]), (b) executive function (spatial span [SSP], Stockings of Cambridge [SOC], and intra-extra dimensional set shift [IED]), and (c) attention (reaction time [RTI] and rapid visual information processing [RVP]). Seventy-four children participated in the follow-up measurements (64% girls) in spring 2012. Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient was used to estimate the internal consistency of the nonhampering test, and structural equation models were applied to examine the stability of these tests. The reliability and the stability could not be determined for IED or SSP because of the nature of these tests. The internal consistency was acceptable only in the RTI task. The 1-year stability was moderate-to-good for the PRM, RTI, and RVP. The SSP and IED showed a moderate correlation between the two measurement points. The SRM and the SOC tasks were not reliable or stable measures in this study population. For research purposes, we recommend using structural equation modeling to improve reliability. The results suggest that the reliability and the stability of computer-based test batteries should be confirmed in the target population before using them for clinical or research purposes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Therapist perception of treatment outcome: Evaluating treatment outcomes among youth with antisocial behavior problems.
    Effective evaluation of treatment requires the use of measurement tools producing reliable scores that can be used to make valid decisions about the outcomes of interest. Therapist-rated treatment outcome scores that are obtained within the context of empirically supported treatments (ESTs) could provide clinicians and researchers with data that are easily accessible and complimentary to existing instrumentation. We examined the psychometric properties of scores from the Therapist Perception of Treatment Outcome: Youth Antisocial Behavior (TPTO:YAB), an instrument developed to assess therapist judgments of treatment success among families participating in an EST, Multisystemic Therapy (MST), for youth with antisocial behavior problems. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of MST. The initial 20-item TPTO:YAB was completed by therapists of 111 families at midtreatment and 163 families at treatment termination. Rasch model dimensionality analyses provided evidence for 2 dimensions reflecting youth- and caregiver-related aspects of treatment outcome, although a bifactor analyses suggested that these dimensions reflected a single more general construct. Rasch analyses were also used to assess item and rating scale characteristics and refine the number of items. These analyses suggested items performed similarly across time and that scores reflect treatment outcome in similar ways at mid and posttreatment. Multilevel and zero-order analyses provided evidence for the validity of TPTO:YAB scores. TPTO:YAB scores were moderately correlated with scores of youth and caregiver behaviors targeted in treatment, adding support to its use as a treatment outcome measurement instrument. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Clinical assessment of organizational strategy: An examination of healthy adults.
    During the assessment of patients with cognitive difficulties, clinicians often examine strategic processing, particularly the ability to use organization-based strategies to efficiently complete various tasks. Several commonly used neuropsychological tasks are currently thought to provide measures of organizational strategic processing, but empirical evidence for the construct validity of these strategic measures is needed before interpreting them as measuring the same underlying ability. This is particularly important for the assessment of organizational strategic processing because the measures span cognitive domains (e.g., memory strategy, language strategy) as well as types of organization. In the present study, 200 adults were administered cognitive tasks commonly used in clinical practice to assess organizational strategic processing. Factor analysis was used to examine whether these measures of organizational strategic processing, which involved different cognitive domains and types of organization, could be operationalized as measuring a unitary construct. A very good-fitting model of the data demonstrated no significant shared variance among any of the strategic variables from different tasks (root mean square error of approximation <.0001, standardized root-mean-square residual = .045, comparative fit index = 1.000). These findings suggest that organizational strategic processing is highly specific to the demands and goals of individual tasks even when tasks share commonalities such as involving the same cognitive domain. In the design of neuropsychological batteries involving the assessment of organizational strategic processing, it is recommended that various strategic measures across cognitive domains and types of organizational processing are selected as guided by each patient’s individual cognitive difficulties. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Analysis of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form response bias indicators as suppressors or moderators in a medical setting.
    The use of response bias indicators in psychological measurement has been contentious, with debate as to whether they actually suppress or moderate the ability of substantive psychological indicators to identify the construct of interest. Suppression would indicate that predictor variables contain invalid variance that the bias indicators can suppress, while moderation would indicate differential levels of predictive validity at different levels of bias. Response bias indicators on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) [infrequent responses (F-r), infrequent somatic responses (Fs), infrequent psychopathology responses (Fp-r), adjustment validity (K-r), uncommon virtues (L-r), symptom validity (FBS-r), and Response Bias Scale (RBS)] were tested to determine whether they suppressed or moderated the ability of the Restructured Clinical Scale 1 (RC1) and Neurologic Complaints (NUC) scale to discriminate between epileptic seizures (ES) and nonepileptic seizures (NES, a conversion disorder that is often misdiagnosed as ES). The MMPI-2-RF was completed by 399 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of ES or NES via Epilepsy Monitoring Unit evaluation. Moderated logistic regression was used to test for moderation, and logistic regression was used to test for suppression. Most of the response bias variables showed a suppressor effect, but moderator effects were not found. These findings extend the use of bias indicators to a psychomedical context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Psychometric analysis of the BASC–2 Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS) student form: Results from high school student samples.
    The Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS) is a relatively new method for identifying behavior and emotional risk (BER) in children and adolescents. Psychometric evidence regarding this instrument is important for researchers and practitioners considering the use of the BESS for identifying BER in students. Previous psychometric research specifically regarding the BESS Student Form involved the use of samples of elementary and middle school-age children. This study adds to the psychometric evidence for scores on the BESS Student Form by using samples of high school aged students to assess both the factor structure reported by Dowdy, Twyford et al. (2011) and the measurement invariance of the BESS items with regard to ethnicity, English language proficiency, and socioeconomic status. The results indicate that while the proposed 4-factor structure of the BESS Student Form is appropriate, lower than preferred reliabilities for some of the factors indicates that reporting the overall risk T score is more appropriate than reporting factor scores for risk classification purposes. Additionally, the BESS Student Form items did not exhibit measurement bias when comparing across ethnicities, language proficiency classification, or socioeconomic status (via free/reduced lunch classification). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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