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Rehabilitation Psychology - Vol 62, Iss 1

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Rehabilitation Psychology Rehabilitation Psychology is a quarterly peer-reviewed journal that publishes articles in furtherance of the mission of Division 22 (Rehabilitation Psychology) of the American Psychological Association and to advance the science and practice of rehabilitation psychology.
Copyright 2017 American Psychological Association
  • Hither and thither: How do we innovate?
    The Dembo-Wright Lecture provided a forum to discuss how innovation occurs in general and in rehabilitation psychology. The 21st Century will rely upon the creation and enhancement of knowledge. Universities, industries and professional disciplines are challenged to develop models that nurture their development of knowledge jobs that create new systems or products. A new model of nurturing innovation: The Rainforest, relies upon creating ecosystems that bring together and support the critical groups allowing instances that propel spontaneous growth of sustainable enterprises. Over the last 3 decades, rehabilitation psychology has seen disruptive—yet productive—innovation when thought leaders in the field have introduced ideas that move the discipline to entirely new areas of discussion. For rehabilitation psychology, consideration of new models of practice that address the huge needs of the developing world are warranted. The complexity of nurturing innovation in differing environments must be addressed. Progress to date indicates that understanding and defining the interface between machines and humans will be critical to the future of rehabilitation psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Workplace accommodations for employees with disabilities: A multilevel model of employer decision-making.
    Purpose: Existing research suggests that the decision to grant or deny workplace accommodations for people with disabilities is influenced by a range of legal and nonlegal factors. However, less is known about how these factors operate at the within-person level. Thus, we proposed and tested a multilevel model of the accommodation decision-making process, which we applied to better understand why people with psychological disabilities often experience greater challenges in obtaining accommodations. Method: A sample of 159 Australian adults, composed mostly of managers and HR professionals, read 12 vignettes involving requests for accommodations from existing employees. The requests differed in whether they were for psychological or physical disabilities. For each vignette, participants rated their empathy with the employee, the legitimacy of the employee’s disability, the necessity for productivity, the perceived cost, and the reasonableness, and indicated whether they would grant the accommodation. Results: Multilevel modeling indicated that greater empathy, legitimacy, and necessity, and lower perceived cost predicted perceptions of greater reasonableness and greater granting. Accommodation requests from employees with psychological disabilities were seen as less reasonable and were less likely to be granted; much of this effect seemed to be driven by perceptions that such accommodations were less necessary for productivity. Ratings on accommodations were influenced both by general between-person tendencies and within-person appraisals of particular scenarios. Conclusions: The study points to a need for organizations to more clearly establish guidelines for how decision-makers should fairly evaluate accommodation requests for employees with psychological disabilities and disability more broadly. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Comparing depression screening tools in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS).
    Objective: Depression is more common among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) than the general population. Depression in MS is associated with reduced quality of life, transition to unemployment, and cognitive impairment. Two proposed screening measures for depression in MS populations are the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen (BDI-FS). Our objective was to compared the associations of the BDI-FS and the HADS-D scores with history of depressive symptoms, fatigue, and functional outcomes to determine the differential clinical utility of these screening measures among persons with MS. Method: We reviewed charts of 133 persons with MS for demographic information; scores on the HADS, BDI-FS, a fatigue measure, and a processing speed measure; and employment status. Results: Structural equation modeling results indicated the HADS-D predicted employment status, disability status, and processing speed more effectively than did the BDI-FS, whereas both measures predicted fatigue. Conclusions: This study suggests the HADS-D is more effective than the BDI-FS in predicting functional outcomes known to be associated with depression among persons with MS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • African American Dementia Caregiver Problem Inventory: Descriptive analysis and initial psychometric evaluation.
    Objectives: The primary objectives of the present study were: (a) to develop the African American Dementia Caregiver Problem Inventory (DCPI-A) that assesses the types and frequency of problems reported by African American dementia caregivers seeking cognitive–behavioral intervention, (b) to evaluate the intercoder reliability of the DCPI-A, and (c) to measure the perceived severity of common problems reported by this caregiver population. Method: The development of the DCPI-A was divided into 3 major steps: (a) creating an initial sample pool of caregiver problems derived from 2 parent randomized clinical trials, (b) formulating a preliminary version of the DCPI-A, and (c) finalizing the development of the DCPI-A that includes 20 problem categories with explicit coding rules, definitions, and illustrative examples. Results: The most commonly reported caregiver problems fell into 5 major categories: (a) communication problems with care recipients, family members, and/or significant others, (b) problems with socialization, recreation, and personal enhancement time; (c) problems with physical health and health maintenance, (d) problems in managing care recipients’ activities of daily living; and (e) problems with care recipients’ difficult behaviors. Intercoder reliability was moderately high for both percent agreement and Cronbach’s kappa. A similar positive pattern of results was obtained for the analysis of coder drift. Conclusions: The descriptive analysis of the types and frequency of problems of African American dementia caregivers coupled with the outcomes of the psychometric evaluation bode well for the adoption of the DCPI-A in clinical settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Environmental barriers and social participation in individuals with spinal cord injury.
    Objective: The study aimed to examine the relationship between environmental barriers and social participation among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Method: Individuals admitted to regional centers of the Model Spinal Cord Injury System in the United States due to traumatic SCI were interviewed and included in the National Spinal Cord Injury Database. This cross-sectional study applied a secondary analysis with a mixed effect model on the data from 3,162 individuals who received interviews from 2000 through 2005. Five dimensions of environmental barriers were estimated using the short form of the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors—Short Form (CHIEF-SF). Social participation was measured with the short form of the Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique—Short Form (CHART-SF) and their employment status. Results: Subscales of environmental barriers were negatively associated with the social participation measures. Each 1 point increase in CHIEF-SF total score (indicated greater environmental barriers) was associated with a 0.82 point reduction in CHART-SF total score (95% CI: −1.07, −0.57) (decreased social participation) and 4% reduction in the odds of being employed. Among the 5 CHIEF-SF dimensions, assistance barriers exhibited the strongest negative association with CHART-SF social participation score when compared to other dimensions, while work/school dimension demonstrated the weakest association with CHART-SF. Conclusions: Environmental barriers are negatively associated with social participation in the SCI population. Working toward eliminating environmental barriers, especially assistance/service barriers, may help enhance social participation for people with SCI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Job matching: An interdisciplinary scoping study with implications for vocational rehabilitation counseling.
    Purpose: Matching a person’s capabilities and characteristics with the demands and characteristics of their job is crucial for sustainable employment, in particular for persons with disabilities. The present study aims to summarize and synthesize conceptual and empirical knowledge on job matching (JM) from industrial and organizational psychology (IOP), vocational psychology (VP), and return to work (RTW) research. Research Method: We conducted a scoping study applying Arksey and O’Malley’s (2005) framework and using eight electronic databases from psychology, economics, and medicine. The literature search covered studies in English and German published between 1945 and 2015. Results: A total of 312 studies were selected and analyzed. Of these, 205 were assigned to IOP, 45 to VP, 31 to both IOP and VP, and 17 to RTW research. Fourteen studies were allocated to both RTW and VP research, representing the field of vocational rehabilitation counseling. IOP and VP studies predominantly investigated the effects of JM on work-related outcomes, such as job satisfaction, tenure, or career development. RTW research focused on the development of mainly generic JM tools for job placement of persons with disabilities. Limited cross-fertilization between IOP and VP and the RTW context became evident. Conclusions: Unlike in IOP and VP, there is a dearth of JM research in the RTW context. Integrating the broad organizational and occupational JM knowledge from IOP and VP with the biopsychosocial framework of RTW could provide a sound basis for developing JM applications in vocational rehabilitation counseling that promote sustainable work reintegration of persons with disabilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Social competence in pediatric burn survivors: A systematic review.
    Objective: Youth sustaining burn injuries during childhood have dramatically increased survival rates due to improvements in medical treatment and multidisciplinary approaches to burn critical care and recovery. Despite positive advancements in burn treatment, youth sustaining such injuries may experience social deficits. Thus, this systematic review without meta-analysis investigation contributes to the growing literature on this topic by comparing social competence of pediatric burn survivors to youth without burns, and examining potential correlates of social competence among children and adolescents who have sustained burn injuries. Method: Fifteen empirical studies assessing social competence among youth with burns and published in the last 4 decades (i.e., 1980–2015) were identified. Data from youth, parent, and teacher perspectives related to social competence in pediatric burn survivors were extracted from studies meeting inclusion criteria. Results: Results comparing social competence levels between pediatric burn survivors and youth without burns were mixed; some studies indicate that the social competence levels of pediatric burn survivors fell within the normal range, whereas other work found these youth to display social deficits. Conclusions: Implications for clinical practitioners, methodological strengths and limitations of the included research studies, and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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