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Dreaming - Vol 27, Iss 3

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Dreaming Dreaming is a multidisciplinary journal, the only professional journal devoted specifically to dreaming. The journal publishes scholarly articles related to dreaming from any discipline and viewpoint. This includes biological aspects of dreaming and sleep/dream laboratory research; psychological articles of any kind related to dreaming; clinical work on dreams regardless of theoretical perspective (Freudian, Jungian, existential, eclectic, etc.); anthropological, sociological, and philosophical articles related to dreaming; and articles about dreaming from any of the arts and humanities.
Copyright 2017 American Psychological Association
  • What medical students dream of: A standardized and data-driven approach.
    Medical students face specific challenges during their studies. This investigation was based on the analysis of more than 600 dreams of medical students by means of the Hall and van de Castle coding system, complemented by data-driven explorative and thematic analyses. The results revealed (a) the influence of the medical students’ context (curriculum and hidden curriculum) on dream contents and (b) the importance of performance and evaluation in medical students’ dreams. Medical students’ dreams seem to be an interesting way to better understand their lived experiences and preoccupations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Cognitive differences in dream content between Japanese males and females using quantitative content analysis.
    This study asked the question, “Are there significant content differences between male and female dream reports obtained in dream seminars conducted in Japan?” Each of the 100 female and 100 male research participants contributed 1 recent dream report during dream seminars that were held in Japan between 1990 and 1998 and in 2004. Dream reports were scored using Hall and Van de Castle’s (1966) system of content analysis. Major findings showed that Japanese males dreamed much more of male characters, whereas Japanese females dreamed more equally of female and male characters, a finding in line with Hall’s (1984) “ubiquitous sex difference” (p. 1109). Japanese females were also friendlier with other females, not other males, an uncommon finding (Domhoff, 1996). Results are discussed in terms of Hall’s (1953) continuity hypothesis and Domhoff’s (1996, 2003) cognitive model of dreaming (i.e., dreaming is a cognitive process and is based on the same conceptions and concerns as in the waking cognition). The findings illuminate some underlying cultural patterns of the contemporary roles of Japanese men and women. Future researchers should consider gender and socioeconomic status to better represent Japan’s social–economic diversity and obtain more dreams per participant to better represent the totality of participants’ dream lives. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Reality testing and the mnemonic induction of lucid dreams: Findings from the national Australian lucid dream induction study.
    Lucid dreaming is a learnable skill and has a wide range of potential applications. However, research in this area has been limited by a lack of effective and reliable lucid dream induction techniques. The present study provides a thorough investigation into 3 of the most promising cognitive lucid dream induction techniques—reality testing, wake back to bed (WBTB), and the mnemonic induction of lucid dreams (MILD) technique. A sample of 169 Australian participants completed a pretest questionnaire, provided baseline logbook data in Week 1, and practiced lucid dream induction techniques in Week 2. Results showed that the combination of reality testing, WBTB and the MILD technique was effective at inducing lucid dreams. Several factors that influenced the effectiveness of the MILD technique were identified, including general dream recall and the amount of time taken to fall asleep after finishing the technique. Recommendations for future research on lucid dream induction are provided. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • German versions of the Nightmare Effects Survey (NES) and the Nightmare Frequency Questionnaire (NFQ): Psychometric properties in a sample of adult chronic nightmare sufferers.
    The Nightmare Effects Survey (NES) and the Nightmare Frequency Questionnaire (NFQ), 2 widely used questionnaires in nightmare research, were translated into German and tested in a sample of 86 adult chronic nightmare sufferers. Participants completed the questionnaires together with measures of nightmare- and sleep-related factors and psychopathology and kept a nightmare diary for 3 weeks. Psychometric properties were determined: The German NES showed high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = .898) and split-half reliability (r = .889) and a unifactorial structure (46.33% variance explained). The German NFQ and the prospective nightmare diary yielded similar frequencies for nights with nightmares, a significantly higher value for number of nightmares in the diary, and correlations of .621 and .570 between measures of nights with nightmares and number of nightmares, respectively. The 2 scores of the German NFQ were highly intercorrelated (r = .838). Correlations with related constructs were insignificant or low for the German NFQ (between r = .09 and r = .28) and medium for the German NES (between r = .27 and r = .59). The German NFQ and NES proved to be reliable, useful, and efficient to quantify nightmares and their effects. The findings demonstrate the questionnaires’ construct validity and support theories that differentiate between nightmare frequency, nightmare effects, and nightmare distress. German translations are provided as supplemental material. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Sex dreams in married women: Prevalence, frequency, content, and drives.
    Although sex dreams (SD) are of common occurrence, studies dealing with them are still restricted. SD had been reported as accompanying nocturnal orgasms in women and they were reported usually as a reflection of their actual experience. This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed to provide information about SD prevalence, frequency, content, and drives in a group of Egyptian married women. Overall, 211 married women answered a self-report questionnaire including 23 items covering the epidemiology of participants, sexual activity, and SD details. Overall, 106 of the participants (51.3%) experienced the occurrence of SD. The most common frequency of SD was once/month occurring in 25.6% of the participants; most common content seen was kissing (39.6%), most commonly occurring in familiar places (62.3%), most common persons seen were husbands (33.6%), feeling pleasure after it (54.7%) with increased emotional satisfaction (46.2%). The most common drive to have SD was to be in a sexually stimulating situation (51.8%). Occurrence of SD was more common in women aged 20–29, in those having a university degree and in house wives. SD was proportional to coital frequency and the frequency of orgasm. It is concluded that SD is not uncommon in married women where sexual thoughts and motives are represented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Sensory modalities during dreams in migraine: Case-control study using a daily questionnaire.
    The migrainous brain is known to have a series of peculiarity in terms of metabolism, performances, emotions, and pain perception. This particularity seems to involve also the oneiric activity. Aimed to increase our knowledge about this topic, the present study tries to investigate migraineurs’ dreams by both an analytic qualitative and a semiquantitative perspectives. With an ad hoc questionnaire compiled each day at the awakening, we explored the frequency of dreams, the involved sensory system (visual, auditory, olfactory, and gustative), and the fragmentation of sleep. We found a higher frequency of dreams among migraineurs, partially linked to sleep discontinuation. The most relevant qualitative difference that emerged was the absolute higher frequency of gustative and olfactory dreams among migraineurs. All these peculiar characteristics were typical of the patients without aura, whereas the subgroup with aura did not differ from controls. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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