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Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology - Vol 24, Iss 3

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Experimental & Clinical Psychopharmacology Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology seeks to promote the discipline of psychopharmacology in its fullest diversity. Psychopharmacology necessarily involves behavioral change, psychological processes, or their physiological substrates as one central variable and psychopharmacological agents as a second central variable. Such agents will include drugs, medications, and chemicals encountered in the workplace or environment.
Copyright 2016 American Psychological Association
  • The roles of sex, anxious reactivity to bodily arousal, and anxiety sensitivity in coping motives for cigarette smoking among adolescents.
    Evidence suggests that smoking to cope among adolescents is associated with a number of problematic outcomes (e.g., greater smoking frequency, higher rates of dependence). It is thus imperative to better understand factors that may increase the likelihood of smoking to cope among adolescents. Research suggests anxiety sensitivity (AS) is associated with smoking to cope among adults, although the link between AS and coping motives for cigarette use among youth is less clear. Gender differences have also been noted in AS. The current study investigates this association using a biological challenge paradigm. Specifically, the indirect effects of anxious reactivity to bodily arousal on the relation between the physical and mental AS factors and coping motives for cigarette smoking were examined within a sample of 108 adolescent cigarette smokers. Gender was examined as a moderator. Results suggested significant indirect effects of self-reported anxiety in response to bodily arousal on the relation between physical AS and coping motives for cigarette smoking. This indirect effect was moderated by gender, such that it was significant for females but not males. Models examining AS mental concerns and psychophysiological responding to the challenge were not significant. These results suggest that, relative to their low AS counterparts, female adolescents high in physical concerns respond with elevated anxiety in response to interoceptive arousal and, in turn, endorse elevated coping-related smoking motives. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for understanding the nature and origins of coping-related smoking motives and how such information can be used to inform intervention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Potential sex differences in the pattern of sensory reinforcers enhanced by nicotine.
    Along with its primary and secondary reinforcing effects, nicotine acutely enhances reinforcement from rewards not directly related to nicotine, particularly those consisting of “sensory” stimuli. Less certain is the magnitude of these effects across types of sensory reinforcers commonly available in the natural environment, especially under different smoking exposure conditions of clinical relevance. This study compared reinforced responding for immediate auditory (music) or visual (video) sensory rewards, or no reward (nonspecific control), due to nicotine via ad lib smoking versus no nicotine (overnight abstinence), in a within-subjects design. Dependent smokers (N = 48; 21 male, 27 female) responded on an operant computer task for small units of the designated rewards during 2 sessions, following overnight abstinence (>12 hr; CO ≤ 10 ppm) or no abstinence (i.e., ad lib smoking). Preferred music and video rewards were each selected by participants to ensure their equal initial reinforcing efficacy. Responding reinforced by music and by video rewards, but not by no reward, was similarly enhanced by ad lib smoking in the entire sample. Yet, in post hoc follow-ups, the smoking-induced increase in responding for music was greater in women versus men, while the increase in responding for video was greater in men versus women. Results confirm the comparability of the reinforcement enhancing effects of nicotine via smoking on both auditory and visual rewards, consistent with the notion that enhanced sensory reinforcement may contribute to persistence of smoking behavior. However, findings also suggest the specific pattern of sensory reinforcers enhanced by nicotine may differ between men and women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Buspirone reduces sexual risk-taking intent but not cocaine self-administration.
    Impulsive sexual decision-making may underlie sexual risk-taking behavior that contributes to the disproportionately high prevalence of HIV infection among cocaine users. Delay-discounting procedures measure impulsive decision-making and may provide insight into the underlying mechanisms of sexual risk-taking behavior. The anxiolytic drug buspirone reduces delay discounting in rats and blunts the reinforcing effects of cocaine in some preclinical studies suggesting that it might have utility in the treatment of cocaine-use disorders. This study determined whether buspirone mitigates impulsive risky sexual decision-making in cocaine users on a sexual delay-discounting procedure. The effects of buspirone maintenance on the abuse-related and physiological effects of cocaine were also tested. Nine (N = 9) current cocaine users completed a repeated-measures, inpatient protocol in which sexual delay discounting was assessed after 3 days of maintenance on placebo and buspirone (30 mg/day) in counterbalanced order. The reinforcing, subject-rated, and physiological effects of placebo and intranasal cocaine (15 and 45 mg) were also assessed during buspirone and placebo maintenance. Buspirone increased the likelihood of condom use for hypothetical sexual partners that were categorized as most likely to have a sexually transmitted infection and least sexually desirable. Cocaine functioned as a reinforcer and increased positive subjective effects ratings, but buspirone maintenance did not impact these effects of cocaine. Buspirone was also safe and tolerable when combined with cocaine and may have blunted some its cardiovascular effects. The results from the sexual delay-discounting procedure indicate that buspirone may reduce preference for riskier sex in cocaine users. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Initiation and retention in couples outpatient treatment for parents with drug and alcohol use disorders.
    The focus of the current study was to identity mental health, relationship factors, substance use related problems, and individual factors as predictors of couples-based substance abuse treatment initiation and attendance. Heterosexual couples with children that met study criteria were invited to attend 12 sessions of outpatient behavioral couples therapy. Men were more likely to initiate treatment if they had a higher income, had greater relationship satisfaction, were initiating treatment for alcohol use disorder only, were younger when they first suspected a problem, and had higher depression but lower hostility or phobic anxiety. Men attended more treatment sessions if they reported less intimate partner victimization, if they sought treatment for both alcohol and drug use disorder, if they were older when they first suspected a substance use problem, and if they were more obsessive–compulsive, more phobic anxious, less hostile, and experienced less somatization and less paranoid ideation. For women, treatment initiation was associated with less cohesion in their relationships, more somatization, and being older when they first suspected an alcohol or drug use problem. Trends were observed between women’s treatment retention and being older, experiencing more somatization, and suspecting drug-related problems when they were younger; however, no predictors reached statistical significance for women. Results suggest that different factors may be associated with men and women’s willingness to initiate and attend conjoint treatment for substance abuse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Female Japanese quail with high levels of estradiol demonstrate cocaine-induced conditioned place preference.
    Preclinical research has indicated that females may be more sensitive to the rewarding properties of cocaine. However, the majority of this research has been done in rodent species. Environmental cues associated with human drug-taking behavior tend to be visual. Because rodents do not rely on the visual system as their primary sense modality, the use of a visually oriented species may add to our understanding of cue-elicited drug cravings and relapse. The present study examined the potential role of the steroid hormone, estradiol, in the rewarding properties of cocaine in female Japanese quail using a conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. In the current experiment, female quail were housed on either an 8L:16D (light:dark) or 16L:8D (light:dark) cycle for 21 days to induce photoregression or photostimulation, respectively. They then received 10, 20, or 30 mg/kg cocaine, or saline during conditioning. Conditioning trials were carried out for 8 days, once per day for 30 min, for a total of 4 cocaine and 4 saline alternating conditioning trials. Results indicated that female quail housed in long-light conditions (16L:8D) had significantly higher levels of estradiol than short-cycle females. Additionally, photostimulated female quail developed a CPP to 10 and 20 mg/kg cocaine. Short-cycle females did not show cocaine-induced CPP to any dose tested. Results indicate that cocaine is dose-dependently rewarding to photostimulated female Japanese quail. Furthermore, the current findings suggest that estradiol may enhance the rewarding properties of cocaine in female quail. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Opposing effects of dopamine D1- and D2-like agonists on intracranial self-stimulation in male rats.
    Dopamine acts through dopamine Type I receptors (comprising D1 and D5 subtypes) and dopamine Type II receptors (comprising D2, D3, and D4 subtypes). Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) is 1 experimental procedure that can be used to evaluate abuse-related effects of drugs targeting dopamine receptors. This study evaluated effects of dopamine receptor ligands on ICSS in rats using experimental procedures that have been used previously to examine abused indirect dopamine agonists such as cocaine and amphetamine. Male Sprague–Dawley rats responded under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule for electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle, and frequency of stimulation varied from 56–158 Hz in 0.05 log increments during each experimental session. Drug potency and time course were determined for the D1 ligands A77636, SKF82958, SKF38393, fenoldopam, and SCH39166 and the D2/3 ligands sumanirole, apomorphine, quinpirole, PD128907, pramipexole, aripiprazole, eticlopride, and PG01037. The high-efficacy D1 agonists A77636 and SKF82958 produced dose-dependent, time-dependent, and abuse-related facilitation of ICSS. Lower efficacy D1 ligands and all D2/3 ligands failed to facilitate ICSS at any dose or pretreatment time. A mixture of SKF82958 and quinpirole produced a mixture of effects produced by each drug alone. Quinpirole also failed to facilitate ICSS after regimens of repeated treatment with either quinpirole or cocaine. These studies provide more evidence for divergent effects of dopamine D1- and D2-family agonists on ICSS procedure in rats and suggest that ICSS may be a useful complement to other approaches for preclinical abuse potential assessment, in part because of the reproducibility of results. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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