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Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology - Vol 25, Iss 5

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Experimental & Clinical Psychopharmacology Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology seeks to promote the discipline of psychopharmacology in its fullest diversity. Psychopharmacology necessarily involves behavioral change, psychological processes, or their physiological substrates as one central variable and psychopharmacological agents as a second central variable. Such agents will include drugs, medications, and chemicals encountered in the workplace or environment.
Copyright 2017 American Psychological Association
  • An open-label pilot study of an intervention using mobile phones to deliver contingency management of tobacco abstinence to high school students.
    This pilot study assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a smoking cessation intervention that used mobile phones to remotely deliver reinforcements contingent on tobacco abstinence (contingency management [CM]) and weekly in-person cognitive–behavioral therapy to adolescent smokers. Daily adolescent smokers (N = 15; 12 completed study procedures, 3 dropped out) were recruited to participate in a 4-week study. During the first 2 weeks, daily text messages sent at random times prompted participants to transmit a video of themselves providing a carbon monoxide (CO) sample. During the last 2 weeks, text messages sent on 3 randomly chosen days each week prompted participants to transmit a video of themselves providing a saliva sample. Negative samples (CO ≤8 ppm; cotinine ≤100 ng/ml) were reinforced with monetary incentives. Feasibility was assessed using the number of on-time, valid videos, and acceptability was determined using participant perceptions of the intervention. Seven-day point-prevalence (PP) abstinence (self-reported abstinence, cotinine
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  • Differences in mood and cortisol by menstrual phase during acute smoking abstinence: A within-subject comparison.
    There is evidence that smoking-cessation success differs by menstrual phase and sex hormone levels; however, the biological mechanisms underlying these differences are not clear. One possibility is that variation in cortisol throughout the menstrual cycle and early smoking abstinence may be partly responsible. The goal of this secondary-data analysis was to conduct a within-subject examination of the effects of menstrual phase and smoking abstinence on salivary cortisol and mood. Data are from a controlled crossover trial, in which participants completed 2 testing weeks during their follicular and luteal phases. During each testing week, they smoked ad libitum during the first 2 days and then abstained from smoking during the next 4 days. Salivary cortisol and self-reported mood were collected 5 times on the day before abstinence (D0) and the first (D1) and third (D3) days of abstinence. Participants (n = 125) were, on average (mean ± SE), 29.4 ± 0.6 years old and smoked 12.6 ± 0.5 cigarettes/day. Whereas salivary cortisol varied significantly by time of day (p <.0001) and smoking abstinence (D0 to D1: β = −0.06 ± 0.02 log[ng/ml], p = .0074 and D3: β = −0.05 ± 0.02 log[ng/ml], p = .0117). no significant differences by menstrual phase were observed. Craving increased from D0 to D1 during the follicular phase but decreased in the luteal phase (+0.31 vs. −0.15, β = 0.46 ± 0.19, p = .0162). This work builds on prior observations in demonstrating a decrease in cortisol in acute smoking abstinence and menstrual phase differences in craving. The results provide further evidence that cortisol levels do not vary by menstrual phase in the first few days of abstinence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • An initial study of behavioral addiction symptom severity and demand for indoor tanning.
    Indoor tanning remains a popular activity in Western cultures despite a growing body of literature suggesting its link to skin cancer and melanoma. Advances in indoor tanning research have illuminated problematic patterns of its use. With problems such as difficulty quitting, devoting resources toward its use at the expense of healthy activities, and excessive motivation and urges to tan, symptoms of excessive indoor tanning appear consistent with behavioral addiction. The present study bridges the gap between clinical approaches to understanding indoor tanning problems and behavioral economic considerations of unhealthy habits and addiction. Eighty undergraduate females completed both the Behavioral Addiction Indoor Tanning Screener and the Tanning Purchase Task. Results suggest that behavioral economic demand for tanning significantly differs between risk classification groups, providing divergent validity to the Behavioral Addiction Indoor Tanning Screener and offering additional evidence of the sensitivity of the Tanning Purchase Task to differentiating groups according to tanning profiles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Association of nicotine metabolism and sex with relapse following varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy.
    Nicotine is metabolized into cotinine and then into trans-3′-hydroxycotinine, mainly by cytochrome P450 2A6. Recent studies reported better effectiveness of varenicline in women and in nicotine normal metabolizers phenotypically determined by nicotine-metabolite ratio. Our objective was to study the influence of nicotine-metabolite ratio, CYP2A6 genotype and sex on the response to nicotine replacement therapy and varenicline. Data were extracted from a longitudinal study which included smokers participating in a smoking cessation program. Response to treatment was defined by the absence of relapse when a set threshold of reduction in cigarettes per day relative to the week before the study was no more reached. The analysis considered total and partial reduction defined by a diminution of 100% and of 90% in cigarettes per day, respectively. The hazard ratio of relapsing was estimated in multivariate Cox regression models including the sex and the nicotine metabolism determined by the phenotype or by CYP2A6 genotyping (rs1801272 and rs28399433). In the normal metabolizers determined by phenotyping and in women, the hazard ratio for relapsing was significantly lower with varenicline for a partial decrease (HR = 0.33, 95% CI [0.12, 0.89] and HR = 0.20, 95% CI [0.04, 0.91], respectively) and nonsignificantly lower for a total cessation (HR = 0.45, 95% CI [0.20, 1.0] and HR = 0.38, 95% CI [0.14, 1.0]). When compared with the normal metabolizers determined by phenotyping, the hazard ratio for a partial decrease was similar in the normal metabolizers determined by genotyping (HR = 0.42, 95% CI [0.18, 0.94]) while it was significantly lower with varenicline for a total cessation (HR = 0.50, 95% CI [0.26, 0.98]). Women and normal nicotine metabolizers may benefit more from varenicline over nicotine replacement therapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Impulsivity and approach tendencies towards cigarette stimuli: Implications for cigarette smoking and cessation behaviors among youth.
    Impulsivity is associated with smoking, difficulties quitting smoking, and approach tendencies toward cigarette stimuli among adolescents. We examined the effects of impulsivity on (a) the association between approach tendencies and adolescents’ smoking status and (b) the effectiveness of Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM), a smoking cessation intervention focused on changing approach tendencies, among adolescent smokers. We conducted a secondary analysis of evidence from 2 previous published studies: Study 1: a cross-sectional study comparing impulsivity and approach tendencies between adolescent smokers (n = 67) and nonsmokers (n = 58); Study 2: a treatment study that randomized 60 adolescent smokers to receive either CBM or sham training. Impulsivity was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and the Experiential Discounting Task (EDT). We found higher impulsivity, as determined by the BIS but not the EDT, increased adolescents’ odds of being smokers. We observed that the interaction between EDT and approach tendencies also significantly predicted smoking status, however post hoc comparisons were not significant. Adolescents with higher BIS scores receiving CBM had increased odds of being abstinent at the end of treatment, but we found no association between EDT and treatment outcome. Our findings suggest that approach-bias modification (a form of CBM) may be more effective in impulsive adolescent smokers. Differences in findings for BIS and EDT highlight the complexity of the construct of impulsivity. Future studies with larger samples are needed to further disentangle the effects of different aspects of impulsivity on smoking behaviors and cessation outcomes among youth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Toward a laboratory model for psychotherapeutic treatment screening: Implementation intentions and incentives for abstinence in an analog of smoking relapse.
    Despite reductions in cigarette smoking in the United States, approximately 40 million Americans are smokers. Innovative interventions are needed to help remaining smokers quit. To develop innovative interventions, precise and effective tools are needed. Here, a laboratory model of smoking relapse is assessed for its ability to detect increased resistance to smoking across 2 interventions and for its sensitivity to differing degrees of effectiveness. Nicotine-deprived participants (N = 36) completed, in randomized order, 4 smoking resistance sessions with and without implementation intentions and monetary incentives. A Cox proportional hazard mixed-effects model indicated significant differences between condition, χ²(3) = 64.87, p <.001, and the Questionnaire on Smoking Urges, χ²(1) = 4.86, p = .03. Comparisons between conditions were used to estimate the effect size of each condition on delay to smoking reinitiation. The implementation intentions intervention had a small effect (d = 0.32), the monetary incentives had a large effect (d = 0.89) and the combination of both interventions had a large effect size (d = 1.20). This initial investigation of the smoking resistance paradigm showed sensitivity to smoking reinitiation across intervention conditions. Individuals resisted smoking significantly more in the presence of monetary incentives and implementation intentions than without these interventions. These results provide support for further examination of these interventions in more translational settings and the use of this laboratory analog to screen future interventions and treatment packages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Electronic cigarette user plasma nicotine concentration, puff topography, heart rate, and subjective effects: Influence of liquid nicotine concentration and user experience.
    Electronic cigarette (ECIG) nicotine delivery and other effects may depend on liquid nicotine concentration and user experience. This study is the first to systematically examine the influence of ECIG liquid nicotine concentration and user experience on nicotine delivery, heart rate, puff topography, and subjective effects. Thirty-three ECIG-experienced individuals and 31 ECIG-naïve cigarette smokers completed 4 laboratory conditions consisting of 2, 10-puff bouts (30-sec interpuff interval) with a 3.3-V ECIG battery attached to a 1.5-Ω “cartomizer” (7.3 W) filled with 1 ml ECIG liquid. Conditions differed by liquid nicotine concentration: 0, 8, 18, or 36 mg/ml. Participants’ plasma nicotine concentration was directly related to liquid nicotine concentration and dependent on user experience, with significantly higher mean plasma nicotine increases observed in ECIG-experienced individuals relative to ECIG-naïve smokers in each active nicotine condition. When using 36 mg/ml, mean plasma nicotine increase for ECIG-experienced individuals was 17.9 ng/ml (SD = 17.2) and 6.9 (SD = 7.1; p <.05) for ECIG-naïve individuals. Between-group differences were likely due to longer puffs taken by experienced ECIG users: collapsed across condition, mean puff duration was 5.6 sec (SD = 3.0) for ECIG-experienced and 2.9 (SD = 1.5) for ECIG-naïve individuals. ECIG use also suppressed nicotine/tobacco abstinence symptoms in both groups; the magnitude of abstinence symptom suppression depended on liquid nicotine concentration and user experience. These and other recent results suggest that policies intended to limit ECIG nicotine delivery will need to account for factors in addition to liquid nicotine concentration (e.g., device power and user behavior). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Effects of environmental enrichment on d-amphetamine self-administration following nicotine exposure.
    Adolescent nicotine exposure has been shown to lead to further psychostimulant use in adulthood. Previous preclinical research in rats has shown that environmental enrichment may protect against drug abuse vulnerability. The current study was designed to examine whether environmental enrichment can block the ability of adolescent nicotine exposure to increase d-amphetamine self-administration in adulthood. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were raised in either enriched conditions (ECs) or isolated conditions (ICs) and then injected with saline or nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) for 7 days during adolescence. In adulthood rats were allowed to self-administer d-amphetamine under a fixed ratio (FR; 0, 0.006, 0.01, 0.02, 0.06, and 0.1 mg/kg/infusion) and progressive ratio (PR; 0, 0.006, 0.06, and 0.1 mg/kg/infusion) schedule of reinforcement. Nicotine-treated IC rats self-administered more d-amphetamine at 0.006, 0.01, and 0.02 mg/kg/infusion doses compared with their saline-treated IC counterparts regardless of the schedule maintaining behavior. This effect of nicotine was reversed in EC rats on a fixed ratio schedule. These findings indicate that environmental enrichment can limit the ability of adolescent nicotine exposure to increase vulnerability to other psychostimulant drugs, such as d-amphetamine. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Sex-related marijuana expectancies as predictors of sexual risk behavior following smoked marijuana challenge.
    Marijuana use has been associated with sexual risk behavior, but the mechanisms that underlie this relationship are not well understood. The present study examined whether marijuana acutely increased sexual risk on a behavioral decision-making task and whether sex-related marijuana outcome expectancies influenced sexual risk decisions after marijuana administration. Participants were heterosexual marijuana users (n = 126) who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 study conditions using a 2 × 2 factorial design crossing drug administration (received 2.8% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC] or 0% THC) with instructional set (told THC or told placebo). Participants completed a self-report measure of sex-related marijuana outcome expectancies at baseline and estimated likelihood of using condoms with a new and a steady partner in an interactive sexual role-play task (SRT) after smoking. In gender-specific analyses, there was a significant interaction of drug administration by sex-related outcome expectancies, such that for men in the received-placebo conditions, more salient sex-related marijuana outcome expectancies were associated with increased likelihood for sex without a condom with a new partner. Among women, there was no interaction or main effect of drug administration but more salient sex-related marijuana outcome expectancies were associated with increased likelihood of sex without a condom with a steady but not new partner. Findings suggest marijuana does not acutely increase risk for engaging in sexual risk behaviors. By contrast, sex-related marijuana outcome expectancies may play a more significant role in sexual decision-making process among marijuana users. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Future so bright? Delay discounting and consideration of future consequences predict academic performance among college drinkers.
    College student drinking is a major public health concern and can result in a range of negative consequences, from acute health risks to decreased academic performance and drop out. Harm reduction interventions have been developed to reduce problems associated with drinking but there is a need to identify specific risk/protective factors related to academic performance among college drinkers. Behavioral economics suggests that chronic alcohol misuse reflects a dysregulated behavioral process or reinforcer pathology—alcohol is overvalued and the value of prosocial rewards are sharply discounted due, in part, to their delay. This study examined delay discounting, consideration of future consequences (CFC) and protective behavioral strategies (PBS) as predictors of academic success (grade point average; GPA) and engagement (time devoted to academic activities) among 393 college drinkers (61% female). In multivariate models, PBS were associated with greater academic engagement, but were not with academic success. Lower discounting of delayed rewards and greater CFC were associated with both academic success and engagement among drinkers. Previous research suggests that future time orientation is malleable, and the current results provide support for efforts to enhance future time orientation as part of alcohol harm-reduction approaches. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The efficacy and tolerability of paliperidone in mania of bipolar disorder: A preliminary meta-analysis.
    Paliperidone may be effective for the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD); however, the evidence has been mixed. This is the first meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of paliperidone for the treatment of BD. We performed a systematic search of the literature using major electronic databases from inception to January 27, 2017. Randomized control trials (RCTs) investigating paliperidone treatment among patients with BD versus a placebo or other second-generation antipsychotics were included. We then performed exploratory random-effects meta-analysis. The 3 included RCTs compared paliperidone with placebo (667 patients received paliperidone and 369 received a placebo). The dose of paliperidone in the included studies ranged from 3 to 12 mg/day. Paliperidone did not significantly improve manic symptoms (Hedges’ g = −0.221, p = .067, k = 5) compared with a placebo; however, it was superior to a placebo in improving psychosocial function (Hedges’ g = −0.156, p = .042, k = 3) and general severity (Hedges’ g = −0.205, p = .001, k = 5). Paliperidone was associated with a greater use of anticholinergic medications (p = .002), increased body weight (p <.001), and higher serum prolactin level (p <.001) compared with a placebo. Our preliminary results suggest that paliperidone does not offer significant benefits for the treatment of mania symptoms in BD compared with a placebo. In addition, treatment with paliperidone was associated with a higher incidence of adverse effects. Because of the limited number of studies, further well-designed RCTs are warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Risperidone in combination with other drugs: Experimental research in individuals with autism spectrum disorder.
    Many individuals with autism spectrum disorder simultaneously receive 2 or more drugs intended to improve their behavior, but few studies have evaluated the effects of such polypharmacy. This article summarizes those studies that have systematically examined the effects of risperidone, an antipsychotic drug that is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat “irritability” in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, in combination with another drug with respect to experimental design, assessment techniques, drug co-administered, reported effects, and participant characteristics. The drug combinations that have been evaluated do not parallel those commonly co-administered to individuals with autism spectrum disorder in the United States, and there is no compelling empirical evidence to support the practice of prescribing risperidone in combination with another drug in an attempt to benefit individuals with autism spectrum disorder. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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