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Psychological Bulletin - Vol 143, Iss 10

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Psychological Bulletin Psychological Bulletin publishes evaluative and integrative research reviews and interpretations of issues in scientific psychology. Primary research is reported only for illustrative purposes. Integrative reviews or research syntheses focus on empirical studies and seek to summarize past research by drawing overall conclusions from many separate investigations that address related or identical hypotheses.
Copyright 2017 American Psychological Association
  • The hippocampus and the regulation of human food intake.
    Human and animal data suggest that the hippocampus plays certain roles in regulating food intake. However, its actual role may be far broader than currently envisaged, a claim suggested by the centrality of the hippocampus to so many aspects of human/animal cognition. Understanding these ingestion-related functions is especially significant. This is because some degree of hippocampal impairment may be quite common, resulting for example from a Western-style diet, insomnia, diabetes, and depression—among many other causes. One potential consequence of hippocampal impairment could be a loosening of food intake regulation, leading in the longer-term to weight gain and its health-related impacts. Here we review known, suspected and newly hypothesized hippocampal-dependent functions involved in regulating human food intake: (a) declarative memory processes, and their use in explicitly evaluating when, what and how much to eat; (b) interoception, as it relates to hunger, fullness and thirst; (c) inhibitory processes, especially as applied to physiological state, place, and time, and their role in modulating memory retrieval; (d) craving and imagery for food; (e) perception of time and its role in preparing the body for food intake and estimating meal length; (f) trace conditioning and nutrient-related learning; and (g) inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress response and stress-related eating. For each we present evidence for hippocampal involvement, describe the putative regulatory role, and the hypothesized effects of hippocampal impairment. We conclude that the hippocampus is intimately involved in regulating human food intake via multiple interconnected pathways, many of which are unstudied and understudied. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Emotion and the prefrontal cortex: An integrative review.
    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a critical role in the generation and regulation of emotion. However, we lack an integrative framework for understanding how different emotion-related functions are organized across the entire expanse of the PFC, as prior reviews have generally focused on specific emotional processes (e.g., decision making) or specific anatomical regions (e.g., orbitofrontal cortex). Additionally, psychological theories and neuroscientific investigations have proceeded largely independently because of the lack of a common framework. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of functional neuroimaging, electrophysiological, lesion, and structural connectivity studies on the emotion-related functions of 8 subregions spanning the entire PFC. We introduce the appraisal-by-content model, which provides a new framework for integrating the diverse range of empirical findings. Within this framework, appraisal serves as a unifying principle for understanding the PFC’s role in emotion, while relative content-specialization serves as a differentiating principle for understanding the role of each subregion. A synthesis of data from affective, social, and cognitive neuroscience studies suggests that different PFC subregions are preferentially involved in assigning value to specific types of inputs: exteroceptive sensations, episodic memories and imagined future events, viscero-sensory signals, viscero-motor signals, actions, others’ mental states (e.g., intentions), self-related information, and ongoing emotions. We discuss the implications of this integrative framework for understanding emotion regulation, value-based decision making, emotional salience, and refining theoretical models of emotion. This framework provides a unified understanding of how emotional processes are organized across PFC subregions and generates new hypotheses about the mechanisms underlying adaptive and maladaptive emotional functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The influence of peer behavior as a function of social and cultural closeness: A meta-analysis of normative influence on adolescent smoking initiation and continuation.
    Although the influence of peers on adolescent smoking should vary depending on social dynamics, there is a lack of understanding of which elements are most crucial and how this dynamic unfolds for smoking initiation and continuation across areas of the world. The present meta-analysis included 75 studies yielding 237 effect sizes that examined associations between peers’ smoking and adolescents’ smoking initiation and continuation with longitudinal designs across 16 countries. Mixed-effects models with robust variance estimates were used to calculate weighted-mean Odds ratios. This work showed that having peers who smoke is associated with about twice the odds of adolescents beginning (OR ¯ = 1.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.76, 2.19]) and continuing to smoke (OR ¯ = 1.78, 95% CI [1.55, 2.05]). Moderator analyses revealed that (a) smoking initiation was more positively correlated with peers’ smoking when the interpersonal closeness between adolescents and their peers was higher (vs. lower); and (b) both smoking initiation and continuation were more positively correlated with peers’ smoking when samples were from collectivistic (vs. individualistic) cultures. Thus, both individual as well as population level dynamics play a critical role in the strength of peer influence. Accounting for cultural variables may be especially important given effects on both initiation and continuation. Implications for theory, research, and antismoking intervention strategies are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • “Sex differences in left-handedness: A meta-analysis of 144 studies”: Correction to Papadatou-Pastou et al. (2008).
    Reports an error in "Sex differences in left-handedness: A meta-analysis of 144 studies" by Marietta Papadatou-Pastou, Maryanne Martin, Marcus R. Munafò and Gregory V. Jones (Psychological Bulletin, 2008[Sep], Vol 134[5], 677-699). In the article the statistical evidence is weaker than reported for the moderating effect of writing hand compared to all the other instruments (reported finding: Q(1) = 8.36, p = .02; corrected finding: Q(1) = 3.17, p = .075). While the statistical evidence is thus somewhat weaker on this particular point, the broad conclusions of the article remain unchanged. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2008-11487-004.) Human handedness, a marker for language lateralization in the brain, continues to attract great research interest. A widely reported but not universal finding is a greater male tendency toward left-handedness. Here the authors present a meta-analysis of k = 144 studies, totaling N = 1,787,629 participants, the results of which demonstrate that the sex difference is both significant and robust. The overall best estimate for the male to female odds ratio was 1.23 (95% confidence interval = 1.19, 1.27). The widespread observation of this sex difference is consistent with it being related to innate characteristics of sexual differentiation, and its observed magnitude places an important constraint on current theories of handedness. In addition, the size of the sex difference was significantly moderated by the way in which handedness was assessed (by writing hand or by other means), the location of testing, and the year of publication of the study, implicating additional influences on its development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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