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Journal of Occupational Health Psychology - Vol 19, Iss 2

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Journal of Occupational Health Psychology The Journal of Occupational Health Psychology publishes research, theory, and public policy articles in occupational health psychology, an interdisciplinary field representing a broad range of backgrounds, interests, and specializations. Occupational health psychology concerns the application of psychology to improving the quality of worklife and to protecting and promoting the safety, health, and well-being of workers. The Journal has a threefold focus on the work environment, the individual and the work family interface.
Copyright 2014 American Psychological Association
  • The distinct role of performing euthanasia on depression and suicide in veterinarians.
    Veterinarians are more likely to experience mood disorders and suicide than other occupational groups (Fritschi, Morrison, Shirangi & Day, 2009; Platt, Hawton, Simkin, & Mellanby, 2010). The performance of euthanasia has been implicated as contributing determinately to the prevalence of suicide risk and psychological distress in veterinarians (Bartram & Baldwin, 2008, 2010). In contrast, the application of psychological approaches would suggest a possible protective role for euthanasia administration. This paper is the first to investigate the association between euthanasia-administration frequency and depressed mood and suicide risk. A cross-sectional survey sampled 540 Australia-registered veterinarians (63.8% women), ranging in age from 23 to 74. Results revealed that the administration of objectionable euthanasia (i.e., euthanasia that the veterinarian disagreed with) was not related to our mental health variables. In contrast, overall euthanasia frequency had a weak positive linear relationship with depression. Moreover, overall euthanasia frequency moderated the impact of depression on suicide risk. The nature of this moderation suggested that average frequency per week of performing euthanasia attenuated the relationship between depressed mood and suicide risk. The implications of these findings and directions for further research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Sex differences in outcomes and harasser characteristics associated with frightening sexual harassment appraisals.
    This study examined data from U.S. military personnel (1,764 men; 4,540 women) to determine whether appraisals of sexual harassment as frightening mediate the relationship between perpetrator characteristics (perpetrator sex and rank) and three psychological/job outcomes (psychological distress, role limitations, and work satisfaction), and whether these relationships were stronger for women than men. Results indicated that frightening appraisals mediated the relationship between perpetrator rank and all outcomes for both sexes. However, frightening appraisals mediated the relationship between perpetrator sex and outcomes only for women. As predicted, having a male perpetrator or a higher status perpetrator was more strongly related to frightening appraisals for women than men. However, unexpectedly, the relationship between frightening appraisals and more psychological distress, more role limitations, and less work satisfaction was stronger for men than women. We discuss the results in terms of expectancy norm violations and sexual harassment as a form of dominance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • An eye for an eye? Exploring the relationship between workplace incivility experiences and perpetration.
    We examined the effects of gender and organizational climate for incivility on the relationship between individuals’ incivility experiences and perpetration. Based on Andersson and Pearson’s (1999) concept of the incivility spiral, Naylor, Pritchard, and Ilgen’s (1980) theory of behavior in organizations, and social interactionist theory (Felson & Tedeschi, 1993), we proposed an interaction between incivility experiences, organizational climate for incivility (organizational tolerance and policies), and gender in predicting incivility perpetration. Results indicate that incivility experiences predict incivility perpetration and that men are more likely to be uncivil to others when their organization tolerates rudeness. Women’s incivility experiences were associated with increased incivility perpetration, but were unaffected by incivility climate. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Work–family conflict, family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), and sleep outcomes.
    Although critical to health and well-being, relatively little research has been conducted in the organizational literature on linkages between the work–family interface and sleep. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, we use a sample of 623 information technology workers to examine the relationships between work–family conflict, family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), and sleep quality and quantity. Validated wrist actigraphy methods were used to collect objective sleep quality and quantity data over a 1 week period of time, and survey methods were used to collect information on self-reported work–family conflict, FSSB, and sleep quality and quantity. Results demonstrated that the combination of predictors (i.e., work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict, FSSB) was significantly related to both objective and self-report measures of sleep quantity and quality. Future research should further examine the work–family interface to sleep link and make use of interventions targeting the work–family interface as a means for improving sleep health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Family-supportive supervisor behaviors, work engagement, and subjective well-being: A contextually dependent mediated process.
    Grounded in a multistudy framework, we examined the relationship between family-supportive supervisor behaviors, work engagement, and subjective well-being as a contextually dependent mediated process. In Study 1 (N = 310), based on broaden-and-build and conservation of resources theories, we tested the proposed mediated process while controlling for perceived organizational support and perceived managerial effectiveness. We also demonstrated that family-supportive supervisor behaviors are distinguishable from general supervisor behaviors. In Study 2 (N = 1,640), using multigroup structural equation modeling, we validated and extended Study 1 results by examining how the mediated model varied based on 2 contextualizing constructs: (a) dependent care responsibilities and (b) availability of family-friendly benefits. Although the mediational results were contextually dependent, they were not necessarily consistent with hypothesizing based on conservation of resources theory. Practical implications are emphasized in addition to future research directions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Work–family enrichment, work–family conflict, and marital satisfaction: A dyadic analysis.
    This study was designed to examine whether spouses’ work-to-family (WF) enrichment experiences account for their own and their partner’s marital satisfaction, beyond the effects of WF conflict. Data were collected from both partners of 215 dual-earner couples with children. As hypothesized, structural equation modeling revealed that WF enrichment experiences accounted for variance in individuals’ marital satisfaction, over and above WF conflict. In line with our predictions, this positive link between individuals’ WF enrichment and their marital satisfaction was mediated by more positive marital behavior, and more positive perceptions of the partner’s behavior. Furthermore, evidence for crossover was found. Husbands who experienced more WF enrichment were found to show more marital positivity (according to their wives), which related to increased marital satisfaction in their wives. No evidence of such a crossover effect from wives to husbands was found. The current findings not only highlight the added value of studying positive spillover and crossover effects of work into the marriage, but also suggest that positive spillover and crossover effects on marital satisfaction might be stronger than negative spillover and crossover are. These results imply that organizational initiatives of increasing job enrichment may make employees’ marital life happier and can contribute to a happy, healthy, and high-performing workforce. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Shrugging it off: Does psychological detachment from work mediate the relationship between workplace aggression and work-family conflict?
    The current study investigates workplace aggression and psychological detachment from work as possible antecedents of work-family conflict. We draw upon Conservation of Resources theory and the Effort-Recovery Model to argue that employees who fail to psychologically detach from stressful events in the workplace experience a relative lack of resources that is negatively associated with functioning in the nonwork domain. Further, we extend prior research on antecedents of work-family conflict by examining workplace aggression, a prevalent workplace stressor. Utilizing multisource data (i.e., employee, significant other, and coworker reports), our findings indicate that self-reported psychological detachment mediates the relationship between coworker-reported workplace aggression and both self- and significant other-reported work-family conflict. Findings from the current study speak to the value of combining perspectives from research on recovery from work stress and the work-family interface, and point toward implications for research and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Exhaustion and lack of psychological detachment from work during off-job time: Moderator effects of time pressure and leisure experiences.
    Lack of psychological detachment from work during off-job time contributes to the increase in employee exhaustion over time. This study examines the reverse causal path from exhaustion to lack of psychological detachment, suggesting that this reverse process may operate within a relatively short time frame. Specifically, we examine if exhaustion predicts a decrease in psychological detachment from work during off-job time within several weeks. We propose that time pressure at work intensifies and that pleasurable leisure experiences reduce this association between exhaustion and the decrease in psychological detachment. We tested our hypotheses in a short-term prospective study (time lag: 4 weeks) with a sample of 109 employees. Ordinary least square regression analysis indicates that exhaustion predicted a decrease in psychological detachment from work over the course of 4 weeks. This decrease was particularly strong for employees working under time pressure and for employees who did not engage in pleasurable leisure experiences. Our findings suggest that exhausted employees find detachment from work increasingly difficult and therefore might suffer from insufficient recovery—although they need it most. The situation is particularly severe when exhausted employees face high time pressure and a lack of pleasurable leisure experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Effects of work stress on work-related rumination, restful sleep, and nocturnal heart rate variability experienced on workdays and weekends.
    The present study reports the lagged effects of work stress on work-related rumination, restful sleep, and nocturnal heart rate variability experienced during both workdays and weekends. Fifty employees participated in a diary study. Multilevel and regression analyses revealed a significant relationship between work stress measured at the end of a workday, work-related rumination measured during the evening, and restful sleep measured the following morning. Work stress, measured as the mean of 2 consecutive workdays, was substantially but not significantly related to restful sleep on weekends. Work stress was unrelated to nocturnal heart rate variability. Work-related rumination was related to restful sleep on weekends but not on workdays. Additionally, work-related rumination on weekends was positively related to nocturnal heart rate variability during the night between Saturday and Sunday. No mediation effects of work stress on restful sleep or nocturnal heart rate variability via work-related rumination were confirmed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Mental work demands, retirement, and longitudinal trajectories of cognitive functioning.
    Age-related changes in cognitive abilities are well-documented, and a very important indicator of health, functioning, and decline in later life. However, less is known about the course of cognitive functioning before and after retirement and specifically whether job characteristics during one’s time of employment (i.e., higher vs. lower levels of mental work demands) moderate how cognition changes both before and after the transition to retirement. We used data from n = 4,182 (50% women) individuals in the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative panel study in the United States, across an 18 year time span (1992–2010). Data were linked to the O*NET occupation codes to gather information about mental job demands to examine whether job characteristics during one’s time of employment moderates level and rate of change in cognitive functioning (episodic memory and mental status) both before and after retirement. Results indicated that working in an occupation characterized by higher levels of mental demands was associated with higher levels of cognitive functioning before retirement, and a slower rate of cognitive decline after retirement. We controlled for a number of important covariates, including socioeconomic (education and income), demographic, and health variables. Our discussion focuses on pathways through which job characteristics may be associated with the course of cognitive functioning in relation to the important transition of retirement. Implications for job design as well as retirement are offered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Development of perceived job insecurity across two years: Associations with antecedents and employee outcomes.
    This 2-year longitudinal study among 848 university employees investigated the individual development of perceived job insecurity (JI) in the context of changes occurring in the Finnish universities during the follow-up time. Adopting a person-oriented approach through latent profile analysis, 8 classes of employees with similar mean levels and mean-level changes in JI were identified. Two of these classes (75% of the participants) indicated stable (low, moderately high) JI, and the remaining 6 classes (25% of the participants) showed change (decreasing, increasing, curvilinear) in the level of JI across time. We then examined possible differences between these classes with respect to individual antecedents and outcomes of JI. Of the antecedents, the type of employment contract distinguished best between the JI classes. Of the outcomes, moderately high stable JI was associated with low stable vigor and high stable levels of exhaustion and turnover intentions across time. In addition, it seemed that a decrease in JI was associated with a decrease in exhaustion and turnover intentions and vice versa. Altogether the findings suggest that developmental JI classes exhibit a substantial amount of heterogeneity, which is simultaneously reflected in occupational well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Healthy eating at different risk levels for job stress: Testing a moderated mediation.
    Health behavior, like fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC), is affected by unfavorable job conditions. However, there is little research to date that combines job stress models and health-behavior change models. This longitudinal study examined the contribution of risk factors associated with job stress to the intention–planning–FVC relationship. In the context of the Health Action Process Approach, action planning (when-where-how plans) and coping planning (plans to overcome anticipated barriers) have been shown to be successful mediators in the translation of health-related intentions into action. Risk factors for job stress are operationalized as the interaction of job demands and job resources in line with the Job Demands–Resources (JD-R) model. Two hundred seventy-two employees (mean age 41.2 years, 73.9% female) from different jobs completed measures of intention at baseline (t1), action planning and coping planning 2 weeks later (t2), and FVC another 2 weeks later (t3). Job demands and job resources were assessed at t1 and t2. A moderated mediation analysis indicated that risk factors for job stress moderate the translation of intention into action planning (B = −0.23, p <.05) and coping planning (B = −0.14, p <.05). No moderation effect of the planning-FVC relationship by risk factors for job stress was found. However, coping planning directly predicted FVC (B = 0.36, p <.001). Findings suggest that employees intending to eat healthily use action planning and coping planning when job demands exceed job resources. For increasing FVC, coping planning appears most beneficial. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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