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Journal of Occupational Health Psychology - Vol 22, Iss 4

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Journal of Occupational Health Psychology The Journal of Occupational Health Psychology publishes research, theory, and public policy articles in occupational health psychology, an interdisciplinary field representing a broad range of backgrounds, interests, and specializations. Occupational health psychology concerns the application of psychology to improving the quality of worklife and to protecting and promoting the safety, health, and well-being of workers. The Journal has a threefold focus on the work environment, the individual and the work family interface.
Copyright 2017 American Psychological Association
  • Drawbacks of proactivity: Effects of daily proactivity on daily salivary cortisol and subjective well-being.
    The benefit of proactive work behaviors for performance-related outcomes has been well established. However, this approach to studying proactivity has not yet acknowledged its potential implications for the actor’s well-being. Drawing on the fact that resources at work are limited and that the workplace is a social system characterized by interdependencies, we proposed that daily proactivity could have a negative effect on daily well-being. We furthermore proposed that this effect should be mediated by work overload and negative affect. We conducted a daily diary study (N = 72) to test the potential negative effects of proactivity on daily well-being. Data was collected across 3 consecutive work days. During several daily measurement occasions, participants reported proactivity, work overload, negative affect, and fatigue. They also provided 4 saliva samples per day, from which cortisol was assayed. Based on the 4 samples, a measure of daily cortisol output was produced. Multilevel analyses showed that daily proactivity was positively associated with higher daily cortisol output. The positive association of daily proactivity with bedtime fatigue was marginally significant. There was no support for a mediating effect of work overload and negative affect. Implications for theory-building on the proactivity–well-being link are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Feeling vital after a good night’s sleep: The interplay of energetic resources and self-efficacy for daily proactivity.
    This study aims to investigate the role of daily vitality as an energy-based mechanism through which sleep quantity and quality relate to proactive behavior. In addition, we propose that daily self-efficacy forms a contingency condition in that self-efficacy facilitates the translation of vitality into proactive behavior. We conducted a 7-day diary study based on a sample of 66 employees who completed surveys 3 times daily. We used multilevel regression analyses to test the hypotheses while controlling for the 1-day lagged measures of vitality and proactivity. The results provide evidence for a model of moderated mediation. Sleep quality but not quantity predicted an increase in daily vitality. Self-efficacy moderated the relationship between vitality and daily proactivity such that this relationship was stronger when self-efficacy was reported to be high rather than low. The conditional effect mediated by vitality was significant for sleep quality but not for sleep quantity and occurred at the within-person level of analysis. These results suggest that organizations aiming to boost daily proactivity in employees can benefit from increasing employees’ self-efficacy and supporting them in developing strategies to ensure sufficient vitality. One such strategy is improving sleep quality. This study extends the literature on dynamics in proactive work behavior and its well-being-related antecedents by exploring both vitality as an underlying energetic mechanism and daily self-efficacy as a boundary condition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Dual-earner couples’ weekend recovery support, state of recovery, and work engagement: Work-linked relationship as a moderator.
    Despite growing recovery research, little is known about couple-dyadic processes of recovery from work. Given that dual-earner couples experience most of their recovery opportunities during nonwork times when they are together, partners in a couple relationship may substantially affect recovery and work engagement. In this study, we propose a couple-dyadic model in which weekend partner recovery support (reported by the recipient partner) is positively related to the recipient partner’s state of recovery after the weekend which, in turn, increases the recipient’s work engagement the following week (actor–actor mediation effect). We also test the effect of one’s state of recovery on the partner’s subsequent work engagement (partner effect). Additionally, work-linked relationship status is tested as a moderator of the partner effect. Actor–partner interdependence mediation modeling is used to analyze the data from 167 dual-earner couples who answered surveys on 4 measurement occasions. The results support the indirect effect of partner recovery support on work engagement through the postweekend state of recovery. Multigroup analysis results reveal that the partner effect of state of recovery on work engagement is significant for work-linked couples only and is absent for non-work-linked couples. Theoretical and practical implications, limitations, and future research directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Linking boundary crossing from work to nonwork to work-related rumination across time: A variable- and person-oriented approach.
    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 22(4) of Journal of Occupational Health Psychology (see record 2017-05746-001). There were errors in two separate sections of the article. The final sentence preceding Hypothesis 4 in “The Present Study” section should read, “We did not hypothesize that the specific forms of work-related thoughts (i.e., affective rumination, problem-solving pondering, or lack of psychological detachment) would be differently associated with stability or changes in boundary crossing behavior.” The fifth sentence in the second paragraph of the “Identifying Subgroups of Boundary Crossing Behavior Across Time” subsection of the “Results” section should read, “Group 5 (n = 162, 19%), characterized by stable low boundary crossing behavior across time (M = 1.37 for Time 1 and M = 1.34 for Time 2), and Group 6 (n = 154, 18%), characterized by stable high boundary crossing behavior (M = 4.54 for Time 1 and M = 4.60 for Time 2), were almost equally large in size.”] This 1-year follow-up study (N = 841) investigated the relationship between boundary crossing behavior from work to nonwork and work-related rumination (i.e., affective rumination, problem-solving pondering, and lack of psychological detachment from work during off-job time). This relationship is important to examine as work-related rumination is a risk factor for poor recovery and ill-health over time. The aims were twofold: first, to examine these relationships in terms of temporal ordering, and, second, to show how individual differences regarding stability and change of boundaries from work to nonwork are reflected in work-related rumination across time. The structural equation modeling analyses lent support to the hypothesized normal causation model compared with the reversed causation and reciprocal models. However, only the cross-lagged relationship between high boundary crossing behavior at T1 and lack of psychological detachment at T2 was significant. Through latent profile analysis, 6 subgroups of boundary crossing behavior across time were identified. Over 70% of the employees belonged to the stable (low, moderate, high) and about one-third to the changing (mostly increasing) boundary crossing subgroups. Employees in the 2 stable (high and moderate) boundary crossing subgroups reported less psychological detachment and more problem-solving pondering during off-job time than did those in the low boundary crossing subgroup. Employees in the change groups reported simultaneous expected changes, especially in their problem-solving pondering. No effects on affective rumination were found. Thus frequent boundary crossing behavior from work to nonwork plays a different role regarding the various forms of work-related rumination during nonwork. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Personally committed to emotional labor: Surface acting, emotional exhaustion and performance among service employees with a strong need to belong.
    Individual differences in emotional labor and subsequent vulnerability to burnout have been explored through the prism of Congruence Theory, which examines the congruence between personality traits and job requirements (Bono & Vey, 2007; Moskowitz & Coté, 1995). Drawing on theory and research dealing with the association between the need to belong and self-regulation (Baumeister, DeWall, Ciarocco & Twenge, 2005), this study examined the relationship between need to belong and service employees’ surface acting and associated outcomes. In Study 1, participants (N = 54) were asked to write a response to an aggressive email from a hypothetical customer. The need to belong was positively related to display of positive emotions and negatively to display of negative emotions in the responses, but not related to felt anger, suggesting that it is associated with the inclination to engage in surface acting. In Study 2, a field study conducted with 170 service employee–customer dyads, surface acting mediated the positive relationship between fear of isolation and emotional exhaustion, and emotional exhaustion mediated the relationship between surface acting and customer satisfaction. These results suggested that service employees with a strong need to belong might have a heightened risk of burnout because of their inclination to engage in emotional labor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Managers as role models for health: Moderators of the relationship of transformational leadership with employee exhaustion and cynicism.
    Drawing on social learning literature, this study examined managers’ health awareness and health behavior (health-related self-regulation) as a moderator of the relationships between transformational leadership and employee exhaustion and cynicism. In 2 organizations, employees (n = 247; n = 206) rated their own exhaustion and cynicism, and their managers’ transformational leadership. Managers (n = 57; n = 30) assessed their own health-related self-regulation. Multilevel modeling showed that, as expected, managers’ health awareness moderated the relationship between transformational leadership and employee exhaustion and cynicism. Employees experienced less exhaustion and cynicism when transformational leaders were aware of their own health. Managers’ health behavior moderated the relationship between transformational leadership and employee exhaustion in 1 organization, but not in the other. With respect to health behavior, we found no significant results for employee cynicism. In sum, the results indicate that when managers are role models for health, employees will benefit more from the transformational leadership style. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • “Linking boundary crossing from work to nonwork to work-related rumination across time: A variable- and person-oriented approach”: Correction to Kinnunen et al. (2016).
    Reports an error in "Linking Boundary Crossing from Work to Nonwork to Work-Related Rumination across Time: A Variable- and Person-Oriented Approach" by Ulla Kinnunen, Taru Feldt, Jessica de Bloom, Marjaana Sianoja, Kalevi Korpela and Sabine Geurts (Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Apr 28, 2016, np). There were errors in two separate sections of the article. The final sentence preceding Hypothesis 4 in “The Present Study” section should read, “We did not hypothesize that the specific forms of work-related thoughts (i.e., affective rumination, problem-solving pondering, or lack of psychological detachment) would be differently associated with stability or changes in boundary crossing behavior.” The fifth sentence in the second paragraph of the “Identifying Subgroups of Boundary Crossing Behavior Across Time” subsection of the “Results” section should read, “Group 5 (n = 162, 19%), characterized by stable low boundary crossing behavior across time (M = 1.37 for Time 1 and M = 1.34 for Time 2), and Group 6 (n = 154, 18%), characterized by stable high boundary crossing behavior (M = 4.54 for Time 1 and M = 4.60 for Time 2), were almost equally large in size.” (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-20812-001.) This 1-year follow-up study (N = 841) investigated the relationship between boundary crossing behavior from work to nonwork and work-related rumination (i.e., affective rumination, problem-solving pondering, and lack of psychological detachment from work during off-job time). This relationship is important to examine as work-related rumination is a risk factor for poor recovery and ill-health over time. The aims were twofold: first, to examine these relationships in terms of temporal ordering, and, second, to show how individual differences regarding stability and change of boundaries from work to nonwork are reflected in work-related rumination across time. The structural equation modeling analyses lent support to the hypothesized normal causation model compared with the reversed causation and reciprocal models. However, only the cross-lagged relationship between high boundary crossing behavior at T1 and lack of psychological detachment at T2 was significant. Through latent profile analysis, 6 subgroups of boundary crossing behavior across time were identified. Over 70% of the employees belonged to the stable (low, moderate, high) and about one-third to the changing (mostly increasing) boundary crossing subgroups. Employees in the 2 stable (high and moderate) boundary crossing subgroups reported less psychological detachment and more problem-solving pondering during off-job time than did those in the low boundary crossing subgroup. Employees in the change groups reported simultaneous expected changes, especially in their problem-solving pondering. No effects on affective rumination were found. Thus frequent boundary crossing behavior from work to nonwork plays a different role regarding the various forms of work-related rumination during nonwork. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Testing job typologies and identifying at-risk subpopulations using factor mixture models.
    Research in occupational health psychology has tended to focus on the effects of single job characteristics or various job characteristics combined into 1 factor. However, such a variable-centered approach does not account for the clustering of job attributes among groups of employees. We addressed this issue by using a person-centered approach to (a) investigate the occurrence of different empirical constellations of perceived job stressors and resources and (b) validate the meaningfulness of profiles by analyzing their association with employee well-being and performance. We applied factor mixture modeling to identify profiles in 4 large samples consisting of employees in Switzerland (Studies 1 and 2) and the United States (Studies 3 and 4). We identified 2 profiles that spanned the 4 samples, with 1 reflecting a combination of relatively low stressors and high resources (P1) and the other relatively high stressors and low resources (P3). The profiles differed mainly in terms of their organizational and social aspects. Employees in P1 reported significantly higher mean levels of job satisfaction, performance, and general health, and lower means in exhaustion compared with P3. Additional analyses showed differential relationships between job attributes and outcomes depending on profile membership. These findings may benefit organizational interventions as they show that perceived work stressors and resources more strongly influence satisfaction and well-being in particular profiles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Bus operators’ responses to job strain: An experimental test of the job demand–control model.
    The research aim was to test the Job Demand–Control (JDC) Model demands × Control interaction (or buffering) hypothesis in a simulated bus driving experiment. The buffering hypothesis was tested using a 2 (low and high demands) × 2 (low and high decision latitude) design with repeated measures on the second factor. A sample of 80 bus operators were randomly assigned to the low (n = 40) and high demands (n = 40) conditions. Demands were manipulated by increasing or reducing the number of stops to pick up passengers, and decision latitude by imposing or removing restrictions on the Rapid Transit Bus (BRT) operators’ pace of work. Outcome variables include physiological markers (heart rate [HR], heart rate variability [HRV], breathing rate [BR], electromyography [EMG], and skin conductance [SC]), objective driving performance and self-report measurements of psychological wellbeing (psychological distress, interest/enjoyment [I/E], perceived competence, effort/importance [E/I], and pressure/tension [P/T]). It was found that job decision latitude moderates the effect of job demands on both physiological arousal (BR: F(1, 74) = 4.680, p = .034, SC: F(1, 75) = 6.769, p = .011, and EMG: F(1, 75) = 6.550, p = .013) and psychological well-being (P/T: F(1, 75) = 4.289, p = .042 and I/E: F(1, 74) = 4.548, p = .036). Consistently with the JDC model buffering hypothesis, the experimental findings suggest that increasing job decision latitude can moderate the negative effect of job demands on different psychophysiological outcomes. This finding is useful for designing organizational and clinical interventions in an occupational group at high risk of work stress-related disease. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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