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Journal of Occupational Health Psychology - Vol 22, Iss 3

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Journal of Occupational Health Psychology The Journal of Occupational Health Psychology publishes research, theory, and public policy articles in occupational health psychology, an interdisciplinary field representing a broad range of backgrounds, interests, and specializations. Occupational health psychology concerns the application of psychology to improving the quality of worklife and to protecting and promoting the safety, health, and well-being of workers. The Journal has a threefold focus on the work environment, the individual and the work family interface.
Copyright 2017 American Psychological Association
  • Occupational health contributions to the development and promise of occupational health psychology.
    Occupational health psychology (OHP), as it is known today, is preceded by over a century of inquiry in psychology, sociology, philosophy, and other disciplines regarding the conditions of work and the welfare of workers, organizations, and society. This diverse body of research is richly detailed in reports on the history of OHP. Less represented in these reports are the formative interests of the occupational health field in OHP. In the present discussion, we begin by giving greater visibility to these interests. As we show, the expressions occupational health psychology and occupational health psychologist and a vision for training and participation of psychologists in occupational health research and practice appear in the occupational health literature four decades ago. We describe how this interest inspired initiatives in OHP by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health which, in turn, influenced the formalization of OHP as a discipline in the United States. We then document sustained interests of occupational health in OHP today and illustrate the promise of this interest for psychologists, for the discipline of OHP itself, and for the health, safety, and well-being of working people. We conclude by arguing that, to realize this promise, there is value to closer and more formal engagement of psychologists and OHP institutions with the field of occupational health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The work-family interface: A retrospective look at 20 years of research in JOHP.
    As part of the 20th anniversary celebration for the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology (JOHP), this article reviews the literature on work-family with a special emphasis on research published in JOHP and that with health-related implications. We provide a retrospective overview of work-family research, tracing key papers and major theoretical constructs and themes. We examine the research needs identified by Westman and Piotrkowski (1999) and offer an assessment of the extent that work-family research has addressed those needs. Then we move on to discuss contemporary issues in the field today that constitute directions for future research. Specifically we discuss intervention studies, multilevel approaches, temporality and dynamic change, managerial perspectives, and diverse work settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Job demands–resources theory: Taking stock and looking forward.
    The job demands−resources (JD-R) model was introduced in the international literature 15 years ago (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001). The model has been applied in thousands of organizations and has inspired hundreds of empirical articles, including 1 of the most downloaded articles of the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology (Bakker, Demerouti, & Euwema, 2005). This article provides evidence for the buffering role of various job resources on the impact of various job demands on burnout. In the present article, we look back on the first 10 years of the JD-R model (2001–2010), and discuss how the model matured into JD-R theory (2011–2016). Moreover, we look at the future of the theory and outline which new issues in JD-R theory are worthwhile of investigation. We also discuss practical applications. It is our hope that JD-R theory will continue to inspire researchers and practitioners who want to promote employee well-being and effective organizational functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Sexual harassment: Have we made any progress?
    Sexual harassment (SH) is a continuing, chronic occupational health problem in organizations and work environments. First addressed in the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology through a 1998 Special Section on Sexual Harassment, we return to this consequential issue. If the goal is to reduce SH in organizations, and we believe that it should be, then a key question is whether we have made progress in 2 decades. The answer is mixed. Yes, there is a 28% decline in SH complaints. No, there is an increase in complaints by males. No, there has been an increase in the percentage of merit resolutions and monetary benefits. Maybe, because how do we explain the complexity of SH with emergent gay, lesbian, and transgender workforce members. One persistent problematic aspect of SH lack of agreement on definition. We address 2 of the 3 definitional approaches. We consider the broad, negative consequences for organizations and for individual victims. Harassers and aggressors destroy lives, leaving long legacies of suffering. In addition, we offer some suggestions for moving forward in science and practice, with emphasis on the role of the bystander. We conclude that SH is a preventable, if not always predictable, occupational health problem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Researching rudeness: The past, present, and future of the science of incivility.
    Incivility refers to rude, condescending, and ostracizing acts that violate workplace norms of respect, but otherwise appear mundane. Organizations sometimes dismiss these routine slights and indignities—which lack overt malice—as inconsequential. However, science has shown that incivility is a real stressor with real consequences: though the conduct is subtle, the consequences are not. We now know a great deal about how common incivility is, who gets targeted with it, under what conditions, and with what effects. The first half of this article reviews and synthesizes the last 15 years of workplace incivility research. In the second half, we look beyond that body of scholarship to pose novel questions and nudge the field in novel directions. We also point to thorny topics that call for caution, even course correction. Incivility in organizations is as important now as ever. Our goal is to motivate new science on incivility, new ways to think about it and, ultimately, new solutions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Cognitive functioning, aging, and work: A review and recommendations for research and practice.
    There is a larger proportion and number of older adults in the labor force than ever before. Furthermore, older adults in the workforce are working until later ages. Although a great deal of research has examined physical health and well-being of working older adults, less research has focused on cognitive functioning. The purpose of this article is to provide a broad contemporary and multidisciplinary review of the intersection between cognitive functioning, aging, and work as a follow-up to a paper previously written by Fisher et al. (2014). We begin by providing definitions and background about cognitive functioning and how it changes over the life span. Next we discuss theories relevant to the intersection of cognitive functioning and work, including the use-it-or-lose-it hypothesis, the cognitive reserve hypothesis, hypotheses regarding environmental influences on intellectual functioning, and the job-demands-resources model. Then we summarize recent research about the effects of work on cognitive functioning, as well as ways that cognitive functioning may influence work motivation, learning, development, training, and safety. We conclude by emphasizing the importance of person-environment fit, suggesting avenues for future research, and discussing practical implications for the field of occupational health psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Trends in measurement models and methods in understanding occupational health psychology.
    Measurement of occupational health psychology constructs is the cornerstone to developing our understanding of occupational health and safety. It also is critical in the design, evaluation, and implementation of interventions to improve employees and organizations well-being. The purpose of this article is a brief review of the current state of measurement theory and practice in occupational health psychology. Also included are a discussion of development of newer measurement models and methods, which are in use in other disciplines of psychology, but have not been incorporated into the occupational health psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Safety climate and culture: Integrating psychological and systems perspectives.
    Safety climate research has reached a mature stage of development, with a number of meta-analyses demonstrating the link between safety climate and safety outcomes. More recently, there has been interest from systems theorists in integrating the concept of safety culture and to a lesser extent, safety climate into systems-based models of organizational safety. Such models represent a theoretical and practical development of the safety climate concept by positioning climate as part of a dynamic work system in which perceptions of safety act to constrain and shape employee behavior. We propose safety climate and safety culture constitute part of the enabling capitals through which organizations build safety capability. We discuss how organizations can deploy different configurations of enabling capital to exert control over work systems and maintain safe and productive performance. We outline 4 key strategies through which organizations to reconcile the system control problems of promotion versus prevention, and stability versus flexibility. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Born and bred to burn out: A life-course view and reflections on job burnout.
    Burnout is a response to prolonged stressors at work, and is defined as a chronic syndrome including exhaustion, cynicism, and reduced professional efficacy. The 40 years of research on burnout have yielded thousands of studies on its measurement, antecedents, correlates, and consequences. However, most of these studies have used a cross-sectional design, and only very few have addressed burnout from a life-course perspective. In the first part of this article, we reflect on the ideas that inspired our multidisciplinary “A 35-Year Follow-Up Study on Burnout Among Finnish Employees,” and the challenges that we encountered when conducting and publishing the study. In the second part, we focus on another understudied topic in burnout research, namely negative life events and their role in burnout. In the third part of the article, we more broadly discuss 6 important developments in burnout research over the past decade, and propose 6 key topics for future studies on this topic. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Advances in recovery research: What have we learned? What should be done next?
    Job-stress recovery during nonwork time is an important factor for employee well-being. This article reviews the recovery literature, starting with a brief historical overview. It provides a definition of recovery that differentiates between recovery as a process and recovery as an outcome. Empirical studies have shown that recovery activities (e.g., physical exercise) and recovery experiences (e.g., psychological detachment from work) are negatively associated with strain symptoms (e.g., exhaustion) and positively associated with positive well-being indicators (e.g., vigor). Recovery activities and recovery experiences suffer when employees face a high level of job stressors. Psychological mechanisms underlying recovery seem to be similar across different temporal recovery settings (e.g., work breaks, free evenings, vacations) and seem to be enhanced in natural environments. Intervention studies have pointed to a diverse set of strategies for how everyday job-stress recovery can be supported. This article discusses 5 avenues for future research, with a particular focus on individual and contextual factors that may influence recovery as well as highlighting more complex temporal patterns than those uncovered in previous research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Transformational leadership and employee psychological well-being: A review and directions for future research.
    This review paper focuses on answering 2 research questions: (a) Does transformational leadership predict employee well-being? (b) If so, how and when does this prediction occur? A systematic computerized search and review of empirical papers published between January 1980 and December 2015 was conducted. Forty papers were found that met the criteria of reporting empirical results, being published in English, and focused on answering the above research questions. Based on these papers it appears that, in general, transformational leadership positively predicts positive measures of well-being, and negatively predicts negative measures of well-being (i.e., ill-being). However, recent findings suggest that this is not always such a simple relationship. In addition, several mediating variables have been established, demonstrating that in many cases there is an indirect effect of transformational leadership on employee well-being. Although some boundary conditions have been examined, more research is needed on moderators. The review demonstrated the importance of moving forward in this area with stronger research designs to determine causality, specifying the outcome variable of interest, investigating the dimensions of transformational leadership separately, and testing more complicated relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Leaders’ mental health at work: Empirical, methodological, and policy directions.
    While employees’ mental health is the focus of considerable attention from researchers, the public, and policymakers, leaders’ mental health has almost escaped attention. We start by considering several reasons for this, followed by discussions of the effects of leaders’ mental health on their own leadership behaviors, the emotional toll of high-quality leadership, and interventions to enhance leaders’ mental health. We offer 8 possible directions for future research on leaders’ mental health. Finally, we discuss methodological obstacles encountered when investigating leaders’ mental health, and policy dilemmas raised by leaders’ mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The state of the heart: Emotional labor as emotion regulation reviewed and revised.
    Emotional labor has been an area of burgeoning research interest in occupational health psychology in recent years. Emotional labor was conceptualized in the early 1980s by sociologist Arlie Hochschild (1983) as occupational requirements that alienate workers from their emotions. Almost 2 decades later, a model was published in Journal of Occupational Health Psychology (JOHP) that viewed emotional labor through a psychological lens, as emotion regulation strategies that differentially relate to performance and wellbeing. For this anniversary issue of JOHP, we review the emotional labor as emotion regulation model, its contributions, limitations, and the state of the evidence for its propositions. At the heart of our article, we present a revised model of emotional labor as emotion regulation, that incorporates recent findings and represents a multilevel and dynamic nature of emotional labor as emotion regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Managing employee stress and wellness in the new millennium.
    It has been almost a decade since Journal of Occupational Health Psychology published back-to-back meta-analyses on occupational stress management interventions (Richardson & Rothstein, 2008) and organizational wellness programs (Parks & Steelman, 2008). These studies cited the need for systematic reviews given the growing body of literature in the field and the proliferation of stress management interventions and mental health wellness programs, which have traditionally been viewed as two distinct initiatives. More recent research has shown a trend toward incorporating stress management as a component of workplace wellness programs. As part of the special series Journal of Occupational Health Psychology at 20, the purpose of this paper is to reflect back on the findings of the 2008 meta-analyses to review what was learned, see what new studies have added to the literature, and assess recent social and political changes that present new challenges—and opportunities—for the field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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