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Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology - Vol 21, Iss 1

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Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology seeks to publish theoretical, conceptual, research and case study articles that promote the development of knowledge and understanding, application of psychological principles, and scholarly analysis of social-political forces affecting racial/ethnic minorities.
Copyright 2015 American Psychological Association
  • Daily racial microaggressions and ethnic identification among Native American young adults.
    The current study investigated 114 Native American young adults’ experiences of racial microaggressions, and links between microaggression experiences and self-reported ethnic and cultural identification. Microaggressions were assessed using the Daily Racial Microaggressions Scale, Short Form (DRM). Ethnic identity and cultural participation were assessed using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) and the Orthogonal Cultural Identification Scale (OCIS). Participants reported strong identification with their Native/indigenous ethnicity, along with stronger commitment than exploration on the 2 MEIM subscales. On the OCIS, participants reported moderately strong identification with Native culture and practices, with strong identification with White American culture. Females reported higher White identification than males, and females also reported significantly stronger identification with White culture than Native. On the DRM, 98% of participants reported experiencing at least 1 type of racial microaggression. Generally, the extent to which participants were upset by the microaggressions was mild, but all types of microaggressions received ratings from not upsetting at all to extremely upsetting. Microinvalidations were significantly more upsetting than microinsults for females, but there was no difference among the forms of microaggression for males. Correlational findings demonstrated that greater Native identification was strongly associated with more microaggression experiences, especially among males. Regression analyses found several identity correlates of microaggression experiences. “Assumption of criminality” and “assumed superiority of White values” were most frequently associated with identity scales. Results are discussed within the context of identity development theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The impact of self-relevant representations on school belonging for Native American students.
    Native American students encounter limited exposure to positive representations (i.e., role models) in the academic domain. This underrepresentation threatens students’ identities in the classroom, subsequently decreasing feelings of school belonging and negatively impacting academic performance (Walton & Cohen, 2007). Two studies examined how different methods for providing self-relevant representations affect belonging for underrepresented Native American middle school students. Study 1 (N = 90) revealed that exposure to self-relevant role models increased belonging compared to self-irrelevant, ethnically ambiguous, or no role models for Native American students. Study 2 (N = 117) revealed that Native American students who listed many (8) role models reported higher belonging than Native American students who listed a few (2) or no role models and reported similar belonging as European American students who listed a few or many role models. As predicted, European American students showed no differences in belonging across conditions (i.e., listing many, a few, or no role models). These findings suggest that positive, self-relevant representations can alleviate the effects of underrepresentation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The influence of ethnic group variation on victimization and help seeking among Latino women.
    Interpersonal violence research on Latinos has largely ignored the ethnic group variations that are included under the pan-ethnic term Latino. The current study adds to the literature by utilizing a national sample of Latino women to examine the interpersonal victimization experiences and help-seeking responses to victimization by ethnic group. The sample was drawn from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas Study (SALAS; Cuevas & Sabina, 2010) that surveyed 2,000 self-identified adult Latino women. For the purpose of this study, victimization in the United States was examined among Mexican ethnics (73.3% of sample), Cuban ethnics (14%), and other ethnics (12.8%). Mexican ethnicity was found to be significantly associated with increased odds of experiencing any, physical, sexual, threat, and stalking victimization. Findings also show that higher levels of Latino orientation and being an immigrant were associated with decreased odds of experiencing any victimization, whereas Anglo orientation, as measured by the Brief ARSMA-II (Cuéllar, Arnold, & Maldonado, 1995), was associated with greater odds of experiencing any victimization. Anglo orientation was significantly associated with formal help seeking. Taken as a whole, these findings emphasize the importance of bilingual and culturally competent services and also reveal that culturally competent services includes developing an understanding of the cultural differences between Latino ethnic groups. Specifically, service providers should be aware that Latinos of Mexican ethnicity may face unique risks for victimization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Correction to White-Johnson, Ford, and Sellers (2010).
    Reports an error in "Parental racial socialization profiles: Association with demographic factors, racial discrimination, childhood socialization, and racial identity" by Rhonda L. White-Johnson, Kahlil R. Ford and Robert M. Sellers (Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 2010[Apr], Vol 16[2], 237-247). In the article, there was an error in the Measures subsection. The following citation should have been included in the third paragraph “ Mothers’ childhood racial socialization experiences. Prior racial socialization messages were assessed using four items adapted from the Comprehensive Race Socialization Inventory (Lesane- Brown, Brown, Caldwell, & Sellers, 2005).” Additionally, the included reference should have been included in the Reference section. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2010-07475-016.) The authors examined patterns of racial socialization practices in a sample of 212 African American mothers. They investigated the relation between parent profiles of racial socialization messages with child and parent demographic factors and race-related experiences, as well as parent racial identity attitudes. Using latent class analyses, the authors identified 3 patterns of parent-reported racial socialization experiences: multifaceted, low race salience, and unengaged. In general, findings indicate that mothers in the multifaceted profile were more educated, experienced more racial discrimination, and talked about race during their childhood more than mothers in the unengaged profile. The multifaceted profile also differed from the low race salience and unengaged profiles on several racial identity dimensions. Although the patterned approach used in this study lends itself to a more complex study of racial socialization in future research, it also highlights the associations between parent's race-relevant experiences and the messages they communicate to their children about race. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Suicidal ideation among racial/ethnic minorities: Moderating effects of rumination and depressive symptoms.
    Among emerging adults and college students, racial and ethnic minorities experience greater risk for suicidal ideation and behavior than their White counterparts. Research has identified numerous cognitive risk factors for suicidal ideation. However, they have not been well studied among racial and ethnic minorities. The present study examined the association between these factors (brooding rumination, reflective rumination, hopelessness, and depressive symptoms) and suicidal ideation among 690 Black, Latino, and biracial college students. Among all groups, hopelessness was positively associated with suicidal ideation. Brooding was negatively associated with suicidal ideation, after adjusting for reflection and hopelessness, although only at low levels of depressive symptoms. Black race/ethnicity and Latino race/ethnicity, compared with biracial race/ethnicity, each separately interacted with reflection to predict lower levels of suicidal ideation at moderate to high levels of reflection. Furthermore, Latino race/ethnicity, compared with biracial race/ethnicity, interacted with both reflection and depressive symptoms, such that reflection was negatively associated with suicidal ideation among Latino individuals reporting depressive symptoms above the 39th percentile. Biracial race/ethnicity, compared with monoracial race/ethnicity, also interacted with reflection and depressive symptoms, with reflection associated with greater amounts of suicidal ideation at depressive symptom levels above the 39th percentile. Our findings suggest reflective rumination differentially affects racial and ethnic groups and should be considered in conjunction with depressive symptoms among Latino and biracial individuals in suicide risk assessment and treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Do dimensions of ethnic identity mediate the association between perceived ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms?
    Ethnic group discrimination represents a notable risk factor that may contribute to mental health problems among ethnic minority college students. However, cultural resources (e.g., ethnic identity) may promote psychological adjustment in the context of group-based discriminatory experiences. In the current study, we examined the associations between perceptions of ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms, and explored dimensions of ethnic identity (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) as mediators of this process among 2,315 ethnic minority college students (age 18 to 30 years; 37% Black, 63% Latino). Results indicated that perceived ethnic group discrimination was associated positively with depressive symptoms among students from both ethnic groups. The relationship between perceived ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms was mediated by ethnic identity affirmation for Latino students, but not for Black students. Ethnic identity resolution was negatively and indirectly associated with depressive symptoms through ethnic identity affirmation for both Black and Latino students. Implications for promoting ethnic minority college students’ mental health and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Correction to Shelton and Richeson (2006).
    Reports an error in "Ethnic minorities' racial attitudes and contact experiences with white people" by J. Nicole Shelton and Jennifer A. Richeson (Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 2006[Jan], Vol 12[1], 149-164). In this research report, there was an error in the Method section of Study 1. The third paragraph should have read, “FRIENDSHIP QUESTIONNAIRE. Participants answered several questions about the quality of their interactions with a White ( n = 49) or Black (n = 59), same-sex friend with whom they had spent the most time, and had the closest, most intimate friendship. Specifically, participants completed three questions regarding the amount of contact they have with this friend (e.g., How often do you spend leisure time with this friend?). Participants indicated their responses on scales that ranged from 1 (never) to 7 (often). Scores on the three items were combined to form one composite score ( α = .76). In addition, participants completed 8 questions regarding the quality of their relationship with their friend. These items tapped into how satisfied participants were with their friendship and how positively they perceived their interactions (i.e., Relative to all your other friendships, how close are you to this person? Relative to what you know about other people’s friendships, how close do you feel to this person? How much do you admire this friend? How much do you like this friend? How often does this friend help you with your problems? How often does this friend do favors for you? How often do you help this friend with his/her problems? How often do you do favors for this friend?). All questions were answered on 7-point scales and combined such that higher numbers reflect positive contact experiences ( α = .94).” (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2006-03818-011.) In this article, the authors examine the relationship between ethnic minorities' racial attitudes and their intergroup contact experiences with White people. In Studies 1 and 2, the authors demonstrate that the more negative the racial attitudes held by ethnic minorities, the less positive their interactions are with White friends and roommates. With a daily report methodology, Study 2 revealed that ethnic minorities' racial attitudes predicted the decline in the quality of their intergroup contact experiences over a 3-week period. In Study 3, the authors examined a possible mechanism underlying the relationship between racial attitudes and intergroup contact, as well as the influence of ethnic minorities' racial attitudes on White participants' experiences in intergroup contact settings. The authors discuss the findings in terms of the importance of examining ethnic minorities' attitudes in research on intergroup relations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Ethnic variations in parental ethnic socialization and adolescent ethnic identity: A longitudinal study.
    Achievement of a positive ethnic identity has been linked to positive outcomes for ethnic minority youth and is fostered by parental ethnic socialization practices. In light of findings of variability in developmental trajectories and outcomes, we examined ethnic group variations in parents’ ethnic socialization practices and adolescents’ ethnic identity. Within a sample of 370 adolescents who self-identified as White, African American, Latino/a, or Asian American, and their parents, parental ethnic socialization practices (including preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and cultural socialization) and adolescent ethnic identity development (including identity exploration and commitment) were assessed at 10th and 11th grades. Consistent with predictions, African American youth reported higher levels of ethnic identity exploration and commitment than youth from other ethnic groups, and parents of African American youth tended to report higher levels of ethnic socialization than other parents. Parental cultural socialization significantly predicted adolescent ethnic identity exploration and commitment 1 year later; ethnicity did not moderate this link. Findings are discussed in the context of the schools and urban community from which the sample was recruited, highlighting the importance of sociocultural context in development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Perceptions of parents’ ethnic identities and the personal ethnic-identity and racial attitudes of biracial adults.
    The present study examined the relationship of perceived parental closeness and parental ethnic identity on personal ethnic identity and colorblindness beliefs in 275 part-White biracial Americans (M age = 23.88). Respondents completed online measures of their personal ethnic identity (minority, White, and multiracial), perceived parental ethnic identity, parental closeness, and attitudes about the state of race relations and the need for social action in the United States. Using path modeling, results show that part-White biracial individuals perceive their ethnic identity to be strongly linked to their parental racial identities, especially when they had closer parental relationships. Moreover, stronger minority identity was linked to less colorblind attitudes, and greater White identity was linked to greater colorblind attitudes suggesting that patterns of identity may influence how biracial individuals view race-relations and the need for social action. Implications for biracial well-being and their understanding of prejudice and discrimination are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Negotiating multiple marginalizations: Experiences of South Asian LGBQ individuals.
    Drawing from minority stress (Meyer, 2003) and feminist multicultural (Brown, 1994) theories, the present study investigated the additive and interactive relations between 2 types of external minority stress (heterosexist discrimination and racist events) and 4 internal stress processes related to identifying as a South Asian American lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) person (internalized heterosexism, acculturation, enculturation, and outness as LGBQ) with psychological distress. With 142 participants, Pearson’s correlations, multiple regression, and simultaneous multiple moderation analyses were conducted. Experiences of heterosexist discrimination, racist events, and internalized heterosexism were correlated positively with psychological distress and enculturation was correlated negatively. In a test of the additive model, heterosexist discrimination, racist events, and internalized heterosexism accounted for significant and unique variance in psychological distress, but outness, acculturation, and enculturation did not. To test the interactive model, the simultaneous moderating roles of the internal stress processes were examined in the links between the external minority stressors to psychological distress. Only outness as LGBQ emerged as a moderator. The link between racist events and psychological distress was exacerbated in instances of higher outness, such that respondents with high racist events and high outness reported the highest levels of psychological distress. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed and future research directions focused on the needs of South Asian American LGBQ people are suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The joint effect of bias awareness and self-reported prejudice on intergroup anxiety and intentions for intergroup contact.
    Two correlational studies investigated the joint effect of bias awareness—a new individual difference measure that assesses Whites’ awareness and concern about their propensity to be biased—and prejudice on Whites’ intergroup anxiety and intended intergroup contact. Using a community sample (Study 1), we found the predicted Bias Awareness × Prejudice interaction. Prejudice was more strongly related to interracial anxiety among those high (vs. low) in bias awareness. Study 2 investigated potential behavioral consequences in an important real world context: medical students’ intentions for working primarily with minority patients. Study 2 replicated the Bias Awareness × Prejudice interaction and further demonstrated that interracial anxiety mediated medical students’ intentions to work with minority populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Perceptions and experiences in higher education: A national study of multiracial Asian American and Latino/a students in psychology.
    Demographic trends suggest increasing numbers of multiple racial heritage students attending U.S. campuses and universities, a change reflected within psychology. However, there is little empirical investigation into the educational experiences and needs of multiracials. The current study (the second in a series of studies to use data from a national survey of psychology graduate and undergraduate students) compared 2 multiracial groups, Asian American/European American and Latino/a/European Americans, with their single-heritage counterparts on several variables of interest—academic supports and barriers, linkage between barriers faced and ethnicity, and perceived cultural diversity. Results indicated that multiracial groups reported more of a link between academic barriers experienced and their ethnicity than European American students, but less of a link than their monoracial minority peers. No differences between groups were found related to academic supports, academic barriers, and perceived cultural diversity. Study limitations, future research, and implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Mild test anxiety influences neurocognitive performance among African Americans and European Americans: Identifying interfering and facilitating sources.
    The current study examined ethnic/racial differences in test-related anxiety and its relationship to neurocognitive performance in a community sample of African American (n = 40) and European American (n = 36) adults. The authors hypothesized the following: (a) Test-anxiety related to negative performance evaluation would be associated with lower neurocognitive performance, whereas anxiety unrelated to negative evaluation would be associated with higher neurocognitive performance. (b) African American participants would report higher levels of anxiety about negative performance evaluation than European Americans. (c) European Americans would report higher levels of anxiety unrelated to negative performance evaluation. The first two hypotheses were supported: Ethnic/racial differences in test-taking anxiety emerged such that African Americans reported significantly higher levels of negative performance evaluation, which was associated with lower cognitive performance. The third hypothesis was not supported: African Americans and European Americans reported similar levels of test-anxiety unrelated to negative evaluation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • We left one war and came to another: Resource loss, acculturative stress, and caregiver–child relationships in Somali refugee families.
    Refugee families often encounter a number of acculturative and resettlement stressors as they make lives for themselves in host countries. These difficulties may be compounded by past trauma and violence exposure, posing increased risk for mental health problems. Greater knowledge is needed about protective processes contributing to positive development and adjustment in refugee families despite risk (e.g., resilience). The aims of this research were to identify and examine strengths and resources utilized by Somali refugee children and families in the Boston area to overcome resettlement and acculturative stressors. We used maximum variation sampling to conduct a total of 9 focus groups: 5 focus groups (total participants N = 30) among Somali refugee adolescents and youth, capturing gender and a range of ages (15 to 25 years), as well as 4 focus groups of Somali refugee mothers and fathers in groups (total participants N = 32) stratified by gender. Drawing from conservation of resources theory (COR), we identified 5 forms of resources comprising individual, family, and collective/community strengths: religious faith, healthy family communication, support networks, and peer support. “Community talk” was identified as a community dynamic having both negative and positive implications for family functioning. Protective resources among Somali refugee children and families can help to offset acculturative and resettlement stressors. Many of these locally occurring protective resources have the potential to be leveraged by family and community-based interventions. These findings are being used to design preventative interventions that build on local strengths among Somali refugees in the Boston area. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Therapist effects, working alliance, and African American women substance users.
    African American (AfA) women with substance use disorders experience low rates of treatment retention compared to other groups of substance abusers. This is problematic since substance abuse treatment is effective only to the extent clients are retained. A weak working alliance is a significant barrier to treatment retention for AfA women. Thus, identifying therapist characteristics that facilitate a strong working alliance among this population stands as a promising step toward reducing disparities in treatment retention for this group. Therapist characteristics were explored as predictors of working alliance with AfA women substance users (N = 102). Two hypotheses were tested: (1) Population Sensitive Therapist Characteristics (PSTCs: multicultural competence, egalitarianism, and empowerment) will explain a significant amount of variance in working alliance beyond that explained by general therapist characteristics (GTCs: empathy, regard, and genuineness) and (2) GTCs will partially mediate the effect of each individual PSTC on working alliance. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that PSTCs explained 12% of the variance in working alliance after controlling for GTCs. Bootstrapping analyses demonstrated that GTCs mediated the effect of each PSTC on working alliance. Findings suggest that therapists can facilitate a stronger working alliance with AfA women substance users through demonstration of PSTCs in addition to GTCs, and that PSTCs are facilitative because they increase the likelihood the therapist is perceived as empathic, having unconditional positive regard, and genuine. Clinical and therapist training implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Person–environment fit: Everyday conflict and coparenting conflict in Mexican-origin teen mother families.
    The current study examined whether a match or mismatch between teen mothers’ cultural orientation and the cultural context of the family (i.e., familial ethnic socialization) predicted mother–daughter everyday and coparenting conflict, and in turn, teen mothers’ adjustment. Participants were 204 Mexican-origin teen mothers (M age = 16.81 years; SD = 1.00). Consistent with a person–environment fit perspective, findings indicated that a mismatch between teen mothers’ cultural orientation (i.e., high mainstream cultural involvement) and the cultural context of the family (i.e., higher levels of familial ethnic socialization) predicted greater mother–daughter everyday conflict and coparenting conflict 1 year later. However, when there was a match (i.e., high levels of familial ethnic socialization for teen mothers with high Mexican orientation), familial ethnic socialization was not associated with mother–daughter conflict. In addition, mother–daughter conflict was positively associated with depressive symptoms and engagement in risky behaviors 1 year later among all teen mothers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The Pacific Identity and Wellbeing Scale-Revised (PIWBS-R).
    We develop and validate a revised version of the Pacific Identity and Wellbeing Scale (the PIWBS-R). This revision extends the original 5-factor PIWBS model to include a sixth subscale assessing Cultural Efficacy (CE). The definition and item content for CE was based on a synthesis of research on self-efficacy and Pacific cultural capital. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (N = 919) supported the revised 6-factor PIWBS-R model. Validation analyses using a sample subset indicated that the PIWBS-R subscales predicted distinct criterion outcomes (Ns = 452–522). CE uniquely predicted self-reported Church Attendance, travel to the Pacific Islands, confidence in speaking Pacific heritage language, and satisfaction with health. Critically, Pacific Connectedness and Belonging and Perceived Societal Wellbeing predicted a lower likelihood of having been diagnosed with diabetes. These findings highlight the potential of the PIWBS-R model for research assessing the protective function of certain aspects of Pacific identity on health-related outcomes. A copy of the PIWBS-R, scale psychometrics, and construct definitions are provided. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • How racial/ethnic bullying affects rejection sensitivity: The role of social dominance orientation.
    The authors built upon models of workplace bullying to examine how racial/ethnic bullying can lead to racial/ethnic minorities’ sensitivity to future discrimination via its effects on race/ethnic-related stress. With a sample of racial/ethnic minorities, they found support for this process. Individual differences in social dominance orientation (SDO) also attenuated the mediation: The indirect effect of race/ethnic-related stress was weaker for minorities who endorse hierarchy legitimizing ideologies (high in SDO) compared to minorities low in SDO. Practical implications for the management of minority employees’ experiences of discrimination are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Correction to Toporek (2014).
    Reports an error in "Pedagogy of the privileged: Review of Deconstructing Privilege: Teaching and Learning as Allies in the Classroom" by Rebecca L. Toporek (Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 2014[Oct], Vol 20[4], 621-622). This article was originally published online incorrectly as a Brief Report. The article authored by Rebecca L. Toporek has been published correctly as a Book Review in the October 2014 print publication (Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 621–622. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0036529). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2014-42484-006.) Reviews the book, Deconstructing Privilege: Teaching and Learning as Allies in the Classroom edited by Kim A. Case (2013). The purpose of this book is to provide a collection of resources for those teaching about privilege directly, much of this volume may be useful for expanding the context within which educators teach all aspects of psychology. Understanding the history and systems of psychology, clinical practice, research methods, assessment, and all the core areas of psychology could be enhanced by consideration of the structural framework through which psychology has developed and is maintained. The book presents a useful guide for educators, and in particular, those who teach about systems of oppression and privilege directly. For psychologists, this guide provides scholarship and concrete strategies for facilitating students’ awareness of multiple dimensions of privilege across content areas. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Domain identification moderates the effect of positive stereotypes on Chinese American women’s math performance.
    We examined whether an individual difference factor, math domain identification, moderated performance following positive stereotype activation. We hypothesized that positive stereotype activation would improve performance for those more math identified (compared to a control condition), but would hinder performance for those less math identified. We examined 116 Chinese American women (mean age = 19 years). Participants were assigned to the positive stereotype activation condition or to the control condition before completing a math test. Positive stereotype activation led more math identified participants to perform significantly better than the control condition, whereas it led less math identified participants to perform significantly worse than the control condition. Domain identification moderates the effect of positive stereotype activation. Educators should consider how testing situations are constructed, especially when test takers do not identify highly with the domain. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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