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Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology - Vol 23, Iss 2

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Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology seeks to publish theoretical, conceptual, research and case study articles that promote the development of knowledge and understanding, application of psychological principles, and scholarly analysis of social-political forces affecting racial/ethnic minorities.
Copyright 2017 American Psychological Association
  • Racial discrimination mediates race differences in sleep problems: A longitudinal analysis.
    Objectives: To examine changes in sleep problems over a 1.5-year period among Black or African American (AA) and White or European American (EA) college students and to consider the role of racial discrimination as a mediator of race differences in sleep problems over time. Method: Students attending a large, predominantly White university (N = 133, 41% AA, 57% female, mean age = 18.8, SD = .90) reported on habitual sleep characteristics and experiences of racial discrimination at baseline and follow-up assessments. A latent variable for sleep problems was assessed from reports of sleep latency, duration, efficiency, and quality. Longitudinal models were used to examine race differences in sleep problems over time and the mediating role of perceived discrimination. Covariates included age, gender, parent education, parent income, body mass index, self-rated physical health, and depressive symptoms. Each of the individual sleep measures was also examined separately, and sensitivity analyses were conducted using alternative formulations of the sleep problems measure. Results: AAs had greater increases in sleep problems than EAs. Perceived discrimination was also associated with increases in sleep problems over time and mediated racial disparities in sleep. This pattern of findings was similar when each of the sleep indicators was considered separately and held with alternative sleep problems measures. Conclusions: The findings highlight the importance of racial disparities in sleep across the college years and suggest that experiences of discrimination contribute to group disparities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Individual differences in the impact of vicarious racism: African American students react to the George Zimmerman trial.
    Objective: This research focused on how race-based rejection sensitivity (RS-Race) and components of racial identity intensify negative psychological reactions to an incident of vicarious racism. We examined how these individual difference variables directly and/or indirectly predicted African American students’ reactions to the trial of George Zimmerman in the killing of the African American teenager, Trayvon Martin. Method: In Study 1, 471 African American students completed measures of RS-Race, thought intrusions about the Zimmerman trial, and outcome variables (negative affect about the Zimmerman trial and forgiveness for Mr. Zimmerman). In Study 2, 304 African American students completed measures of racial identity (centrality, private regard, and public regard), thought intrusions about the Zimmerman trial, negative affect, and forgiveness. Results: In Study 1, higher RS-Race was either directly and/or indirectly (via thought intrusions) related to more negative affect and lower forgiveness. In Study 2, high racial centrality and low public regard either directly and/or indirectly (via thought intrusions) predicted more negative affect and lower forgiveness. Conclusions: RS-Race and specific components of racial identity are likely to sensitize African Americans to incidents of racism that happen to other African Americans, leading to negative psychological reactions when these events occur. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Measuring Black men’s police-based discrimination experiences: Development and validation of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) Scale.
    Objectives: Although social science research has examined police and law enforcement-perpetrated discrimination against Black men using policing statistics and implicit bias studies, there is little quantitative evidence detailing this phenomenon from the perspective of Black men. Consequently, there is a dearth of research detailing how Black men’s perspectives on police and law enforcement-related stress predict negative physiological and psychological health outcomes. This study addresses these gaps with the qualitative development and quantitative test of the Police and Law Enforcement (PLE) Scale. Method: In Study 1, we used thematic analysis on transcripts of individual qualitative interviews with 90 Black men to assess key themes and concepts and develop quantitative items. In Study 2, we used 2 focus groups comprised of 5 Black men each (n = 10), intensive cognitive interviewing with a separate sample of Black men (n = 15), and piloting with another sample of Black men (n = 13) to assess the ecological validity of the quantitative items. For Study 3, we analyzed data from a sample of 633 Black men between the ages of 18 and 65 to test the factor structure of the PLE, as we all as its concurrent validity and convergent/discriminant validity. Results: Qualitative analyses and confirmatory factor analyses suggested that a 5-item, 1-factor measure appropriately represented respondents’ experiences of police/law enforcement discrimination. As hypothesized, the PLE was positively associated with measures of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Preliminary evidence suggests that the PLE is a reliable and valid measure of Black men’s experiences of discrimination with police/law enforcement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The role of mastery in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and depression: The HELIUS study.
    Objective: This study examined the mediating and moderating role of one’s sense of mastery in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and depression. Method: Questionnaire data from participants of the Healthy Life in an Urban Setting (HELIUS) study were used, containing responses from 9,141 Surinamese, Turkish, Moroccan, and Ghanaian immigrant adults, aged 18 to 70, living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Results: Results of path modeling indicated that perceptions of ethnic discrimination were positively related to depression symptomatology, and this relationship was moderated and partially mediated by mastery. Results remained fairly robust across sex, educational level, immigrant generation, and ethnicity. Conclusion: This study indicated that mastery may both serve a moderating and mediating role in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and depression, suggestive of a process in which the impact of perceiving discrimination becomes increasingly more deteriorating over time. Thus, interventions focused on mastery may potentially be beneficial to improve ethnic minority mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Structure and content of Native American stereotypic subgroups: Not just (ig)noble.
    Objectives: Prejudice against Native Americans as an overall group generally polarizes into positive and negative stereotypic extremes, but distinct subgroups may explain this variability. Method: Using college student samples (Study 1), a preliminary study identified common Native American subgroups and then a main study (N = 153, 74% women, 73% White, mean age = 19 years) had participants rate these subgroups on basic dimensions of stereotype content (i.e., warmth and competence), elicited emotions (e.g., admiration, contempt), and elicited behaviors (e.g., facilitation, harm). In Study 2, these preliminary study and main study procedures were replicated using nationwide samples (main study: N = 139, 51% women, 78% White, mean age = 35 years). Results: For the most part, similar Native American subgroups emerged in both samples. Using the stereotype content model (SCM; Fiske, Cuddy, Glick, & Xu, 2002), the subgroups were found to vary along a competence-by-warmth space. The majority of subgroups (e.g., alcoholics, lazy) were judged low in both competence and warmth. Additional subgroups (e.g., casino operators, warriors) were ambivalently judged as high on competence but low on warmth. Subgroups perceived as high in both competence and warmth elicited more admiration, those low in both competence and warmth elicited more contempt, those high in competence elicited more passive facilitation and less passive harm, and those high in warmth elicited more active facilitation and less active harm. Conclusions: Native American stereotypes are apparently characterized by both noble and ignoble subgroups, highlighting the importance of studying stereotypes at the subgroup level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Super heroes and lucky duckies: Racialized stressors among teachers.
    Objectives: This article explores the complex relationships between race and occupational stressors among an ethnically diverse sample of high school teachers and their implications for women’s mental health. Method: Interviews with Black, White, and Mexican American teachers suggest that workplaces are organized by subtle forms of gender and racial discrimination as well as White racial privilege; this context shapes women’s experiences of occupational stressors. Results: The data indicate that teachers experience racially specific stressors at work and make racially specific appraisals about common stressors among all teachers. Black and Mexican American women report chronic strains, such as differential workloads, perceptions of incompetence, and lack of support from administrators, whereas White teachers report, yet minimize, sexual harassment from male colleagues. Student misbehavior, a stressor shared by all teachers, is experienced and understood as a personal failing by White teachers and as a manifestation of systemic racism by teachers of color. Conclusions: The interviews offer important insights into the ways professional workplaces remain an arena marked by racial inequality and White privilege and that racialized stressors are differentially distributed among women. Findings support claims from intersectionality in that race, racism, and racial privilege operate in multiplicative ways that create different constellations of occupational stressors among women, which in turn have implications for wellbeing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Longitudinal measurement equivalence of subjective language brokering experiences scale in Mexican American adolescents.
    Objective: Language brokering occurs frequently in immigrant families and can have significant implications for the well-being of family members involved. The present study aimed to develop and validate a measure that can be used to assess multiple dimensions of subjective language brokering experiences among Mexican American adolescents. Method: Participants were 557 adolescent language brokers (54.2% female, Mage.wave1 = 12.96, SD = .94) in Mexican American families. Results: Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, we were able to identify 7 reliable subscales of language brokering: linguistic benefits, socioemotional benefits, efficacy, positive parent–child relationships, parental dependence, negative feelings, and centrality. Tests of factorial invariance show that these subscales demonstrate, at minimum, partial strict invariance across time and across experiences of translating for mothers and fathers, and in most cases, also across adolescent gender, nativity, and translation frequency. Thus, in general, the means of the subscales and the relations among the subscales with other variables can be compared across these different occasions and groups. Tests of criterion-related validity demonstrated that these subscales correlated, concurrently and longitudinally, with parental warmth and hostility, parent–child alienation, adolescent family obligation, depressive symptoms, resilience, and life meaning. Conclusion: This reliable and valid subjective language brokering experiences scale will be helpful for gaining a better understanding of adolescents’ language brokering experiences with their mothers and fathers, and how such experiences may influence their development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Impact of youth cultural orientation on perception of family process and development among Korean Americans.
    Objectives: This study examined how cultural orientations influence youth perception of family processes in Korean American families and how these family processes, in turn, predict depressive symptoms and antisocial behaviors among youth. Family processes were examined separately for maternal and paternal variables. Method: This study used survey data from Korean American families living in the Midwest (256 youth and their parents) across 2 time periods, spanned over a year. At the time of the first interview, the average age of youth was 13 (SD = 1.00). Using structural equation modeling, this study tested the hypothesized associations concurrently, longitudinally, and accounting for earlier outcomes. Results and Conclusion: Results show that identity and behavioral enculturation in one’s heritage culture are predictors of bonding with parents, which is notably protective for youth. The results highlight the critical effect of enculturation in enhancing youth perception of the parent–child relationship. Behavioral acculturation to mainstream culture, in contrast, predicts youth problems, although the effect may not necessarily always be via family processes. Similarly, Korean and English language proficiencies predict fewer youth problems, but not always by way of family processes. A few differences emerged across maternal and paternal variables, although there was much commonality in the hypothesized relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Acculturation, discrimination, and depression among unauthorized Latinos/as in the United States.
    Objectives: In the present study we sought to examine psychosocial factors among undocumented Latinos/as acculturating to and residing in the United States. Method: A community sample of 122 self-reported undocumented Latino/a immigrants was asked to complete questionnaires measuring components of acculturation (i.e., national and ethnic identity, U.S. heritage-cultural knowledge, English and Spanish competency), everyday discrimination (ED), and depressive symptoms. Results: Results indicated that, among acculturation dimensions, only ethnic identity was significantly related to increased ED whereas ED was associated with increased depression. Moreover, experiences of ED mediated the relationship between ethnic identity and depression. Conclusions: Results may indicate ethnic identity as a risk factor for this group through experiences of discrimination. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed in terms of advancing theory and from a multicultural counseling perspective, respectively. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Lay beliefs about emotional problems and attitudes toward mental health care among parents and adolescents: Exploring the impact of immigration.
    Objective: Individuals’ lay beliefs about mental health problems and attitudes toward mental health care are thought to be influenced by the cultural background of these individuals. In the current study, we investigated differences between immigrant Dutch and native Dutch parents and adolescents in lay beliefs about emotional problems and attitudes toward mental health care. Additionally, among immigrant Dutch parents, we examined the associations between acculturation orientations and lay beliefs about emotional problems as well as attitudes toward mental health care. Method: In total, 349 pairs of parents and their adolescent children participated in our study (95 native Dutch, 85 Surinamese-Dutch, 87 Turkish-Dutch, 82 Moroccan-Dutch). A vignette was used to examine participants’ lay beliefs. Results: Immigrant Dutch and native Dutch parents differed in their lay beliefs and attitudes toward mental health care, whereas hardly any differences were revealed among their children. Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch parents showed more passive and fewer active solutions to emotional problems compared to native Dutch parents. Additionally, Moroccan-Dutch and Surinamese-Dutch parents reported greater fear of mental health care compared to native Dutch parents. Furthermore, the results showed that immigrant Dutch parents who were more strongly oriented toward the Dutch culture reported less fear of mental health care. Conclusion: Our results showed clear differences in lay beliefs and attitudes toward mental health care between immigrant Dutch and native Dutch parents but not between their children. Substantial differences were also found between parents from different immigrant Dutch populations as well as within the population of immigrant Dutch parents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Racial/ethnic differences in mothers’ socialization goals for their adolescents.
    Objectives: We explored the socialization goals that African American, Latino, Chinese and White mothers held for their adolescents within 4 domains that are centrally relevant during adolescence—proper demeanor, academics, race/ethnicity, and peers. Method: A card sort task and subsequent logistic regression analyses were used to explore mothers’ choice of the most important socialization goals for their ethnically/racially diverse 6th-grade adolescents (N = 185). Results: Compared to White mothers, African American, Latino, and Chinese mothers were significantly more likely to select proper demeanor goals that emphasize deference over benevolence, and peer goals that emphasize instrumental over relational friendships. African American and Latino mothers were more likely to select race/ethnicity goals that emphasize cultural over egalitarian goals compared to Chinese and White mothers. All mothers were more likely to select academic engagement as more important than performance. In contrast to mothers’ emphases within domains, mothers’ ranked the importance of these different domains remarkably similarly. Conclusions: Mothers’ socialization goals illustrate both similarities and differences across race/ethnicity. Findings are discussed with reference to how mothers’ goals reflect broad cultural orientations as well as the contextual demands of their adolescents’ experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Friends’ cultural orientation as a mediator between familial ethnic socialization and ethnic identity among Mexican-origin adolescent girls.
    Objectives: Research has indicated that ethnic identity protects ethnic minority youth on various indicators of adjustment, but there is a dearth of research pertaining to contextual influences on ethnic identity. Our study investigated how familial ethnic socialization and best friend’s orientation toward Mexican culture influenced ethnic identity among Mexican-origin girls. Method: Using a 3-wave longitudinal sample of 175 Mexican-origin adolescent girls (Mage = 13.75), the current study examined best friend’s Mexican cultural orientation as a mediator between familial ethnic socialization and ethnic identity with structural equation modeling. Multigroup analyses were conducted to examine potential age and generational status differences within the model. Results: Analyses revealed that familial ethnic socialization promoted ethnic identity exploration and resolution 3.5 years later and that this effect was mediated by best friend’s Mexican cultural orientation. No significant differences were found across age or generational status groups. Conclusions: Our study highlights the contribution of peer context to ethnic identity and its role in the process by which familial ethnic socialization influences ethnic identity during adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The influence of cultural orientation on associations between Puerto Rican adolescent mothers’ parenting and toddler compliance and defiance.
    Objectives: It is imperative that individual differences in the cultural contexts of adolescent mothers, whose parenting is often linked to poor child outcomes, be better understood, especially among Puerto Rican-origin mothers who experience high rates of poverty. Behaviors that mothers use to elicit compliance from their children are important to investigate, because children’s ability to engage in regulated, compliant behavior has long-term consequences for their adjustment. This study tested whether mothers’ orientation to both American and Latino cultures influenced the associations between such maternal behaviors and compliant and defiant child behaviors. Method: The sample included 123 young, Puerto Rican-origin mothers and their 24-month-old toddlers. Behaviors coded from a toy cleanup task measured maternal guidance and control and child compliance and defiance, and acculturation and enculturation were measured with a self-report questionnaire. Results: Maternal guidance predicted more child compliance, with no significant variations by cultural orientation; however, mothers who were more enculturated had children who were more compliant. As predicted, mothers’ more frequent use of control was related to more child defiance for mothers reporting high levels of acculturation, and not for less acculturated mothers. Conclusions: Findings support the hypothesis that individual differences in cultural orientation influence variations in associations between certain maternal and child behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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