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Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology - Vol 23, Iss 4

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Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology seeks to publish theoretical, conceptual, research and case study articles that promote the development of knowledge and understanding, application of psychological principles, and scholarly analysis of social-political forces affecting racial/ethnic minorities.
Copyright 2017 American Psychological Association
  • Social challenges faced by queer Latino college men: Navigating negative responses to coming out in a double minority sample of emerging adults.
    Objectives: In this paper, we qualitatively examine the social challenges experienced by queer, Latino college men in the coming out process. Using an intersectional perspective informed by the double jeopardy hypothesis, intersectional invisibility, and Latino/a cultural norms, we asked 22 queer Latino college men to describe the major challenges they experienced with their sexual identities. Method: To examine the subjective experiences of participants’ multiple minority identities, we conducted semistructured interviews. Our sample consisted of 22 college student men who identified as Latino, queer, and cisgender. Participant ages ranged from 18 to 29 (M = 21.50, SD = 3.70). For race/ethnicity, all participants identified with the broad category Latino. For sexual orientation, 18 participants self-identified as gay or homosexual, 3 identified as “other,” and 1 identified as bisexual. Results: Sixty-eight percent of participants (15/22) described encountering negative social responses to their sexual identity disclosure, including Loss of Relationships, Aggression, Pathologizing, and Self-Serving Responses. Additionally, 55% spontaneously reinterpreted or Cognitively Reframed their negative experiences (12/22), including the subthemes of It’s never happened to me, Minimizing, and Victim Blame. Conclusions: We relate each subtheme to potentially influential social and cultural norms among queer, Latino college men, such as collectivistic values and familismo. Suggestions for research and practice with individuals at this identity intersection are described. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Race, ethnicity, religious affiliation, and education are associated with gay and bisexual men’s religious and spiritual participation and beliefs: Results from the One Thousand Strong cohort.
    Objectives: This study examined the rates of spirituality, religiosity, religious coping, and religious service attendance in addition to the sociodemographic correlates of those factors in a U.S. national cohort of 1,071 racially and ethnically diverse HIV-negative gay and bisexual men. Method: Descriptive statistics were used to assess levels of spirituality, religiosity, religious coping, and religious service attendance. Multivariable regressions were used to determine the associations between sociodemographic characteristics, religious affiliation, and race/ethnicity with four outcome variables: (1) spirituality, (2) religiosity, (3) religious coping, and (4) current religious service attendance. Results: Overall, participants endorsed low levels of spirituality, religiosity, and religious coping, as well as current religious service attendance. Education, religious affiliation, and race/ethnicity were associated with differences in endorsement of spirituality and religious beliefs and behaviors among gay and bisexual men. Men without a 4-year college education had significantly higher levels of religiosity and religious coping as well as higher odds of attending religious services than those with a 4-year college education. Gay and bisexual men who endorsed being religiously affiliated had higher levels of spirituality, religiosity, and religious coping as well as higher odds of religious service attendance than those who endorsed being atheist/agnostic. White men had significantly lower levels of spirituality, religiosity, and religious coping compared to Black men. Latino men also endorsed using religious coping significantly less than Black men. Conclusions: The implications of these findings for future research and psychological interventions with gay and bisexual men are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Intergroup contact and prejudice between Dutch majority and Muslim minority youth in the Netherlands.
    Objectives: This study deals with three relatively understudied issues in intergroup contact: negative contact, mediating mechanisms, and the minority perspective. Both direct and extended positive and negative contact experiences are included in the design. Intergroup anxiety is tested as a mediator between different forms of contact and prejudice, and status as Dutch majority or Muslim minority is used as a moderator. Method: A sample of 317 Dutch majority (47.6% female) and 369 Muslim minority (52.0% female) youth, ranging in age from 12 to 19 years completed self-reports about contact experiences, intergroup threat, and prejudice. Results: Results show that status as a Dutch majority or Muslim minority is a moderator in the relations between contact, intergroup anxiety, and prejudice. In the majority sample, all forms of direct and extended contact were related to prejudice and mediated by intergroup anxiety in the expected directions. In the Muslim minority sample, only positive contact was related to prejudice and mediated by intergroup anxiety in the expected direction. Conclusions: These findings underline that studies on intergroup relations should take both positive and negative contact experiences for intergroup attitudes into account as well as the majority or minority status of the groups involved. Moreover, the study suggests that partly different explanations may be needed for minority and majority groups for the role of intergroup contact in intergroup attitudes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • A longitudinal study of immigrants’ peer acceptance and rejection: Immigrant status, immigrant composition of the classroom, and acculturation.
    Objective: In multiethnic classrooms, acceptance and rejection by classmates of one’s own versus other ethnicity is influenced by in-group preference, the societal status of the ethnicities, and composition of classrooms. We aimed at (a) confirming these effects for immigrant versus nonimmigrant adolescents in newly formed classrooms, (b) longitudinally studying the change of these effects over the next 2 years, and (c) studying the longitudinal links between immigrants’ acculturation and acceptance/rejection by (non)immigrants. Method: This was a multilevel, longitudinal study of 1,057 13-year-old students nested in 49 classrooms over the first 3 years of middle school in Greece. Immigrant composition of classrooms varied strongly (average 44%), and immigrants in a classroom were ethnically homogeneous (78% same-ethnic). Students’ acceptance and rejection by Greek and immigrant students were sociometrically assessed every year. Multilevel analyses were conducted for questions a and b and cross-lagged analyses for question c. Results: Initially, immigrants were less accepted and more rejected by their classmates than Greeks. However, in classrooms with more than 66% immigrants, they were more accepted and less rejected. Over time, (a) immigrants and Greeks did not differ in being rejected and (b) immigrants in classrooms with few immigrants became increasingly more accepted. Finally, immigrants with higher involvement with the Greek culture were more accepted by their Greek classmates. Conclusion: Immigrants’ peer relations with Greeks were positively affected by increasing opportunity for intergroup contact and involvement with the Greek culture. Interventions supporting acculturation and intergroup contact may prove beneficial for immigrant students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Not your model minority: Own-group activism among Asian Americans.
    Objectives: Research on Asian American activism is neglected in the collective action literature. This study examined a model of Asian American activism that included a context-specific variable, model minority beliefs, and 3 traditional predictors of collective engagement: experiences of discrimination, collective racial identity, and structural awareness. Method: Participants completed a survey on their sociopolitical attitudes and behaviors. All participants identified as Asian American (N = 187; Mage = 32.99) and were generally well-educated (76.8% had a college degree or higher), politically liberal (68.5%), and female (74.2%). Results: Controlling for gender, age, political orientation, and immigrant generation, the results of the serial mediation model revealed that structural awareness, collective racial identity, and model minority beliefs significantly mediated the relationship between discrimination and own-group activism. Results also showed that model minority beliefs negatively predicted own-group activism. Conclusions: In addition to replicating broad findings from the collective action literature among Asian Americans, this research highlights the importance of contextualized group-based beliefs about inequality (model minority beliefs) for understanding engagement among racial minority groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Exposure to White religious iconography influences Black individuals’ intragroup and intergroup attitudes.
    Objective: Recent studies have found that exposure to White religious iconography via priming techniques can increase White individuals’ anti-Black attitudes. To date, however, no research has examined the influence of exposure to White religious iconography on Black individuals’ intragroup and intergroup attitudes. We hypothesized that exposure to White religious iconography would influence Black individuals’ intragroup attitudes negatively. Method: Black participants (N = 120) were either subliminally exposed to religious images (i.e., supernatural agents or concrete religious objects) or nonreligious images (i.e., nonsupernatural agents or nonreligious objects) before their intragroup/intergroup attitudes were assessed. Results: Exposure to images of White Jesus, but not exposure to images of generic White men, churches, or nonreligious objects increased Black individuals’ explicit pro-White attitudes. In addition, exposure to White Jesus also led to increased devaluation of the ingroup; data on implicit attitudes were more mixed. Conclusion: Although there are many contributing factors to explain why Black adults and children may internalize anti-Black attitudes, the potential role religion may play in such processes—specifically the exposure to White religious iconography—cannot be ignored. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The Beliefs About Race Scale (BARS): Dimensions of racial essentialism and their psychometric properties.
    Objectives: Recent studies have found that racial essentialism negatively affects intergroup behavior (e.g., willingness to relate across outgroups), however this line of inquiry has been limited by 1-dimensional measures of racial essentialism. This paper provides psychometric support for the Beliefs About Race Scale (BARS), a multidimensional measure of racial essentialism. Method: Participants included 492 adults recruited on a college campus and in the community. BARS items were developed by the researcher and were subjected to exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and reliability and validity analyses. Hierarchical regressions examined the relation of BARS subscales to outgroup discomfort. Results: Analyses supported a 4-factor model of racial essentialism, with good internal and test–retest reliability and construct validity. Two BARS subscales predicted outgroup discomfort above and beyond the effects of previous measures of racial and psychological essentialism. Conclusion: Greater specification of racial essentialism offered by the BARS subscales should aid researchers in furthering our understanding of how racial essentialism affects intergroup behavior and the role of education in challenging people’s essentialist beliefs about race. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Ethnic/racial discrimination moderates the effect of sleep quality on school engagement across high school.
    Objective: Previous research has indicated that school engagement tends to decline across high school. At the same time, sleep problems and exposure to social stressors such as ethnic/racial discrimination increase. The current study uses a biopsychosocial perspective to examine the interactive and prospective effects of sleep and discrimination on trajectories of academic performance. Method: Growth curve models were used to explore changes in 6 waves of academic outcomes in a sample of 310 ethnically and racially diverse adolescents (mean age = 14.47 years, SD = .78, and 64.1% female). Ethnic/racial discrimination was assessed at Time 1 in a single survey. Sleep quality and duration were also assessed at Time 1 with daily diary surveys. School engagement and grades were reported every 6 months for 3 years. Results: Higher self-reported sleep quality in the ninth grade was associated with higher levels of academic engagement at the start of high school. Ethnic/racial discrimination moderated the relationship between sleep quality and engagement such that adolescents reporting low levels of discrimination reported a steeper increase in engagement over time, whereas their peers reporting poor sleep quality and high levels of discrimination reported the worse engagement in the ninth grade and throughout high school. Conclusion: The combination of poor sleep quality and high levels of discrimination in ninth grade has downstream consequences for adolescent academic outcomes. This study applies the biopsychosocial model to understand the development and daily experiences of diverse adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • A prospective examination of anxiety as a predictor of depressive symptoms among Asian American early adolescent youth: The role of parent, peer, and teacher support and school engagement.
    Objective: The current study sought to examine the prospective relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms among Asian American (AA) early adolescents, a crucial period for the development of depression among youth. Further, as guided by cultural-ecological frameworks, a second aim of this study was to identify protective factors (i.e., parent support, peer support, teacher support, and school engagement) that might buffer the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms among this understudied population. Method: Participants included AA youth (N = 186; Mage = 12.50, SD = 1.16; 51.1% male) who completed questionnaires on 2 occasions with a 1-year interval. Results: Results from path analysis indicated that high anxiety symptoms were related to increased depressive symptoms over time. Further, teacher support was related to decreased depressive symptoms over time. Additionally, teacher and parent support moderated the association between adolescents’ anxiety and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Findings contribute to our understanding of the development of depression among early adolescent youth and have implications for the development of programming for Asian American youth with anxiety and depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • It is not Black and White: Discrimination and distress in Hawai‘i.
    Objective: This study investigates whether the strength of the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological distress varies by race/ethnicity, gender, and the number of years of residence in Hawai‘i. Method: Our sample consisted of 1,036 undergraduate students at a university in Hawai‘i and the survey was conducted in 2012–2013. The sample was composed of 55% women and the average age was 21. The students reported their racial/ethnic backgrounds as White (19%), Japanese (21%), Filipino (16%), Chinese (10%), Native Hawaiian (14%), Pacific Islander (4%), other Asian (6%), and other race/ethnicity (10%). Results: Interaction effect results revealed that Whites who had experienced everyday discrimination had higher levels of psychological distress than racial ethnic minorities. Women who had experienced everyday discrimination were more distressed than men and more distressed by a lower threshold level of discrimination. Furthermore, those who had lived in Hawai‘i for a longer duration and experienced everyday discrimination were more distressed. Conclusions: Our findings draw attention to how the psychological effects of discrimination vary by racial/ethnic group, gender, and location in the United States. The relationship between everyday discrimination and higher levels of psychological distress especially among those who have lived in Hawai‘i longer, women, and Whites indicates that targeted medical and social interventions are needed to protect the mental health of college students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Race-related stress and hopelessness in community-based African American adults: Moderating role of social support.
    Objectives: The mental health outcomes associated with racial discrimination are well documented in scientific literature. Despite strong links to mental illness, hopelessness is largely overlooked as a consequence of discrimination in empirical research. The current study examined the association of race-related stress and hopelessness in a community sample of African American adults. Utilizing a risk-resilience framework, we examined multiple dimensions of social support as plausible protective factors against the negative effects of race-related stress. Method: Self-report measures of race-related stress (Index of Race Related Stress—Brief; Utsey & Ponterotto, 1996), hopelessness (Beck Hopelessness Scale; Beck, Weissman, Lester, & Trexler, 1974), and social support (Interpersonal Support Evaluation List; Cohen & Hoberman, 1983) were completed by a sample of African American adults (N = 243; mean age = 35.89 years). Results: Multiple regression analyses were conducted to assess the main and interactive effects of race-related stress and three dimensions of social support (appraisal, belonging, and self-esteem) in relation to hopelessness ratings. All dimensions of social support were associated with self-reported hopelessness, with the self-esteem dimension emerging as the strongest predictor. Though self-esteem social support buffered the role of race-related stress on self-reported hopelessness, appraisal and belonging support did not. Conclusions: Individual and collective morale for one’s racial group (via self-esteem social support) may be especially valuable for African Americans who face racial discrimination. Findings highlight the importance of culturally relevant factors that may ameliorate the effects of race-related stress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Discrimination, daily stress, sleep, and Mexican-origin adolescents’ internalizing symptoms.
    Objective: Using diary and longitudinal data, the current study examined the relations between Mexican-origin youths’ ethnic discrimination, daily sleep and stress processes, and internalizing symptoms. Method: Adolescents (N = 113; 49.6% female, Mage = 15.73 years) participated in an initial in-home interview and reported on ethnic discrimination and internalizing symptoms. They then completed a 3-day diary study and reported on their daily stress and sleep behaviors (i.e., sleep quality, sleep duration). Adolescents’ internalizing symptoms were reassessed 2 years after the initial assessment. Results: Discrimination related to greater daily stress and lower sleep quality. Daily stress was, in turn, marginally related to concurrent internalizing symptoms, but not longitudinal changes in symptoms. Sleep duration was unrelated to discrimination experiences and concurrent and long-term internalizing symptoms. Conclusion: Discrimination disrupts daily processes that include overall stress levels and sleep quality. Daily stress processes may help explain the link between discrimination and Mexican-origin adolescents’ concurrent internalizing symptoms. Research examining daily processes provides insight into psychological and behavioral implications of discrimination experiences of adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Perceived discrimination, cultural identity development, and intimate partner violence among a sample of Hispanic young adults.
    Objective: Despite the prevalence of interpersonal violence (IPV), scientific understanding of the risk and protective factors for unidirectional and bidirectional IPV, and especially the role of sociocultural variables in these behaviors, is limited. This study investigates the association between ethnic-identity search, ethnic-identity affirmation, perceived discrimination, and unidirectional (victimization only, perpetration only) and bidirectional (reciprocal violence) IPV behaviors among foreign-born and U.S.-born Hispanic young adults. Method: Data are from Project RED (Reteniendo y Entendiendo Diversidad para Salud), a study investigating the effect of psychosocial and sociocultural factors on health behavior among a community sample of Hispanic young adults in Southern California (n = 1,267). Results: Approximately 40% of the sample reported unidirectional or bidirectional IPV, with significant gender differences across the three categories. Compared with men, women had approximately 70% lower odds of victimization (OR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.15–0.71), over twice the odds of perpetration (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.98–3.62), and 35% higher odds (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.04–1.81) of bidirectional IPV. Higher ethnic-identity affirmation was protective for victimization (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.81–0.99) and bidirectional IPV (OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.62–0.89), whereas higher perceived discrimination scores increased the odds for bidirectional IPV (OR = 1.37 95% CI = 1.26–1.56) and was particularly detrimental for foreign-born participants. Conclusion: Intervention strategies should consider gender-specific risk profiles, cultural contexts, and the influence of sociocultural stressors. Addressing the harmful effects of perceived discrimination and leveraging the protective effects of ethnic-identity affirmation may be promising IPV-prevention strategies for Hispanic young adults. Future research directions and implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Empirical influence of the multicultural guidelines: A brief report.
    Objective: In 2002, the American Psychological Association (APA) Council of Representatives approved the “Guidelines for Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice and Organizational Change for Psychologists.” The Guidelines have been downloaded 64,153 times from the APA website from 2007 to 2013, and have been cited nearly 900 times. This suggests that the Guidelines have influenced education, training, research, and practice in psychology. However, it is unclear how the Guidelines have influenced these domains. We conducted a comprehensive literature review to examine how the Guidelines have influenced the field. Articles were coded for several criteria, including whether the Guidelines were cited, the type of research that was conducted, study findings, limitations, and future directions of research. Method: The data for this study consisted of 895 empirical articles published since the 2003 publication of the Guidelines. A literature review using the keywords APA and multicultural guidelines were searched in PsycINFO and ERIC databases. Articles were then coded by the research team. Results: Findings from the literature review suggested that although there were a total of 895 articles and books that cited the Guidelines, only 34 met our coding criteria. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that most of the articles that cited the Guidelines used the citation as a way to document that culture is important to consider. In some cases, other professions cited the Guidelines to argue that their discipline should also attend to culture. However, very few articles focused on framing an investigation around a specific guideline. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The role of age in understanding the psychological effects of racism for African Americans.
    Objectives: The purpose of the current study was to test age as a moderator of the effects of types of racism on psychological symptoms for a sample of 184 African American women. Method: We hypothesized that increased age would be associated with greater severity in psychological symptoms in relation to exposure to types of racism. Moderated hierarchical regression analyses were performed to test our hypothesis. Results: Findings revealed significant interactions between institutional racism and age in predicting anxiety. Younger women experienced more severe anxiety in relation to greater exposure to institutional racism compared to older African American women. Conclusions: Findings suggest that older age may function as a buffer to psychological outcomes related to racism exposure. Additional studies are needed to understand the ways in which older African American adults cope with racism-related experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Geographic distribution of California mental health professionals in relation to sociodemographic characteristics.
    Objective: To determine whether geographic access to licensed mental health providers in California is a barrier for underserved populations. Method: Data from the master file of the California Board of Psychology and Board of Behavioral Sciences were merged with U.S. Census data to determine the correlations between the concentration of providers and the corresponding sociodemographic characteristics of places in California. Results: This article shows that the concentration of licensed mental health providers in the communities of California varies systematically with the racial, ethnic, age, education, and economic characteristics of those places. Specifically, licensed mental health providers are more concentrated in places that are wealthier, Whiter, older, and more educated. Conclusions: Policy and advocacy efforts in health service psychology can help assure more equitable distribution of mental health services. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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