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Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology - Vol 22, Iss 4

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Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology seeks to publish theoretical, conceptual, research and case study articles that promote the development of knowledge and understanding, application of psychological principles, and scholarly analysis of social-political forces affecting racial/ethnic minorities.
Copyright 2016 American Psychological Association
  • The dynamics of interminority extended contact: The role of affective and cognitive mediators.
    Objective: Research on intergroup contact and prejudice reduction has dedicated little attention to relations between minority groups. We examined whether interminority extended contact, that is, the knowledge that a member of the minority ingroup has a friend from the minority outgroup, is associated with positive outgroup attitudes. Affective (outgroup empathy and outgroup trust) and cognitive (ingroup norm) mediators were considered. Method: Two correlational studies were conducted. Study 1 (N = 640, 50% female, mean age = 44 years) was conducted in Bulgaria among the Bulgarian Turkish and Roma ethnic minorities, while Study 2 (N = 458, 67% female, mean age = 44 years) was conducted in Finland among Estonian and Russian immigrants. Results: Path analyses showed that, over and above the effects of direct contact between the minority groups, interminority extended contact was associated with positive outgroup attitudes in both intergroup settings. These effects occurred through empathy (Study 1), trust, and ingroup norms (Study 2). Conclusion: The 2 studies highlight interminority extended contact as a means to promote harmonious interminority relationships and suggest the implementation of interventions based on extended contact to reduce interminority prejudice and to foster solidarity among minorities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Patterns of adult cross-racial friendships: A context for understanding contemporary race relations.
    Objectives: This study examined patterns, characteristics, and predictors of cross-racial friendships as the context for understanding contemporary race relations. Method: A national survey included 1,055 respondents, of whom 55% were white, 32% were black, and 74% were female; ages ranged from 18 to ≥65 years. Focus groups were conducted to assess societal and personal benefits. Participants (n = 31) were racially diverse and aged 20 to 66 years. Results: After accounting for multiple covariates, regression analysis revealed that Asians, Hispanics, and multiracial individuals are more likely than their white and black counterparts to have cross-racial friends. Females were less likely than males to have 8 or more cross-racial friends. Regression analysis revealed that the depth of cross-racial friendships was greater for women than men and for those who shared more life experiences. Increasing age was associated with lower cross-racial friendship depth. Qualitative analysis of open-ended questions and focus group data established the social context as directly relevant to the number and depth of friendships. Despite the level of depth in cross-racial friendships, respondents described a general reluctance to discuss any racially charged societal events, such as police shootings of unarmed black men. Conclusion: This study identified salient characteristics of individuals associated with cross-racial friendships and highlighted the influence of the social, historical, and political context in shaping such friendships. Our findings suggest that contemporary race relations reflect progress as well as polarization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Low ethnic identity exploration undermines positive interethnic relations: A study among Turkish immigrant-origin youth.
    Objective: This longitudinal study investigates whether immigrant-origin youths’ ethnic identity exploration moderates the link between ethnic identity commitment and positive interethnic relations, operationalized as cross-ethnic friendships. Method: Turkish-German 4th graders (9–12 years old, n = 73) and 7th graders (13–15 years old, n = 67) reported on their cross-ethnic friendships at Time 1 and approximately 10 months later at Time 2. Commitment and exploration were measured at Time 1 with age appropriate versions of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure. Results: About 40% of the children’s friendships were cross-ethnic and the amount of cross-ethnic friendships did not change from Time 1 to Time 2. Ethnic identity commitment and exploration were unrelated to cross-ethnic friendships in both age groups. Yet, among the 7th graders, exploration moderated the link between commitment and cross-ethnic friendships: when exploration was low, a higher level of commitment was associated with fewer cross-ethnic friendships. These associations were not significant among 4th-grade children. Conclusion: We conclude that by the age of 13 years, ethnic identity exploration can improve interethnic relations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • "Distant but relative: Similarities and differences in gender role beliefs among African American and Vietnamese American women": Correction to Abrams et al. (2016).
    Reports an error in "Distant but relative: Similarities and differences in gender role beliefs among African American and Vietnamese American women" by Jasmine A. Abrams, Sarah J. Javier, Morgan L. Maxwell, Faye Z. Belgrave and Anh Bao Nguyen (Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 2016[Apr], Vol 22[2], 256-267). In the article, the name of author Anh Bao Nguyen was misspelled as Boa Anh Nguyen. The online version of this article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-18954-001.) Objectives: Research attempting to identify similarities or disentangle differences in ethnic minority gender role beliefs has been largely absent in the literature, and a gap remains for qualitative examinations of such phenomena. The purpose of this study is to fill this gap in the literature by providing a qualitative examination of the differences and similarities of gender role beliefs among African American and Vietnamese American women. Methods: Thematic analyses were conducted with data gathered from 8 focus groups with 44 African American women (mean age = 44 years) and 4 focus Groups 47 Vietnamese American women (mean age = 42 years). Women were diverse in generational, religious, and educational backgrounds. Results: Two similar primary themes emerged: (a) women’s roles as chief caretakers and (b) women’s responsibility to fulfill multiple roles. There were also similar experiences of a need to convey strength and be self-sacrificial. Two distinct differences that emerged from the focus groups were beliefs about interpersonal interactions and perceptions of societal expectations. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the conceptualization of gender role beliefs, although at times similar, diverges among culturally different groups. To account for these and other culturally nuanced differences, measures of gender role beliefs should be culturally tailored and culturally specific. However, researchers have largely excluded ethnic minority women in the development of the most widely used measures of gender role beliefs in the U.S. The inclusion of diverse women in research will help prevent pitfalls of conflating and ignoring intragroup differences among different groups of marginalized women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Acculturation, psychological adjustment, and parenting styles of Chinese immigrant mothers in the United States.
    Objectives: This study examined whether acculturation to American culture, maintenance of Chinese culture, and their interaction predicted Chinese immigrant parents’ psychological adjustment and parenting styles. We hypothesized that American orientation would be associated with more positive psychological well-being and fewer depressive symptoms in immigrant mothers, which in turn would be associated with more authoritative parenting and less authoritarian parenting. The examination of the roles of Chinese orientation and the interaction of the 2 cultural orientations in relation to psychological adjustment and parenting were exploratory. Method: Participants were 164 first-generation Chinese immigrant mothers in the United States (Mage = 37.80). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the direct and indirect effects of acculturation on psychological adjustment and parenting. Bootstrapping technique was used to explore the conditional indirect effects of acculturation on parenting as appropriate. Results: American orientation was strongly associated with positive psychological well-being, which was in turn related to more authoritative parenting and less authoritarian parenting. Moreover, American and Chinese orientations interacted to predict depressive symptoms, which were in turn associated with more authoritarian parenting. Specifically, American orientation was negatively associated with depressive symptoms only at mean or high levels of Chinese orientation. Conclusions: Results suggest acculturation as a distal contextual factor and psychological adjustment as 1 critical mechanism that transmits effects of acculturation to parenting. Promoting immigrant parents’ ability and comfort in the new culture independently or in conjunction with encouraging biculturalism through policy intervention efforts appear crucial for the positive adjustment of Chinese immigrant parents and children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Familism and Latino adolescent depressive symptoms: The role of maternal warmth and support and school support.
    Objectives: This study examined the relationship between familism and depressive symptoms across relational contexts in adolescence, and whether maternal warmth and support, and school support moderated the relationship between familism and depressive symptoms. Method: A total of 180 Latino adolescents (53% female) in 7th through 10th grades (average age = 14 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. The adolescents lived in an emerging Latino community in a rural area in the U.S. South. Most of the adolescents were Mexican-origin (78%) and born in the United States (60%), while the vast majority of their parents were foreign born (95%). Results: Overall, familism was associated with fewer adolescent depressive symptoms. School support moderated the relationship between familism and adolescent depressive symptoms such that familism’s protective effect was only evident when adolescents reported low levels of school support. In the context of average to high school support, adolescents reported low depressive symptoms regardless of familism. However, maternal warmth and support failed to moderate the relationship. Conclusions: Familism may be most protective for adolescents not feeling supported at school, suggesting that these values may offset the risk of a risky school environment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Perceived parental psychological control, familism values, and Mexican American college students’ adjustment.
    Objectives: Drawing from cultural ecological and risk and resilience perspectives, we investigated associations among Mexican American college students’ perceptions of mothers’ and fathers’ psychological control and familism values, and college students’ adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms and self-esteem). Additionally, we examined how familism values moderated the relations between perceived psychological control and college students’ adjustment. Methods: Participants were 186 Mexican American college students (78.5% women; Mage = 21.56 years), and data were collected using self-report online surveys. Results: Using path analyses, we found that perceived maternal psychological control was positively associated and familism values were negatively associated with college students’ depressive symptoms. Additionally, perceived paternal psychological control was negatively associated with college students’ self-esteem when college students reported low, but not high, familism values. Conclusion: Findings highlight the importance of family relationships for Mexican American college students and the significance of examining these relationships within this cultural context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Daily hassles, mother–child relationship, and behavior problems in Muslim Arab American adolescents in immigrant families.
    Objective: This longitudinal study examines reciprocal and dynamic relations among daily hassles, the mother–child relationship, and adolescent behavior problems and whether the relations differed by sociodemographic variables. Method: Three waves of data about adolescent daily hassles, quality of the mother–child relationship, and adolescent behavior problems were collected from 454 Arab Muslim adolescents and their immigrant mothers over a 3-year period. Cross-lagged structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine reciprocal relations among the study variables. Results: Relations between the mother–child relationship and adolescent behavior problems were reciprocal, with a poor mother–child relationship contributing to greater behavior problems and behavior problems contributing to a decline in the quality of the mother–child relationship. Relations involving daily hassles were unidirectional: A better mother–child relationship contributed to fewer daily hassles and behavior problems contributed to more daily hassles but daily hassles did not contribute to more behavior problems. Father’s education was the only sociodemographic variable that was significant: Adolescents with more highly educated fathers had a better mother–child relationship and fewer behavioral problems. Conclusions: Findings suggest that Arab American Muslim adolescents with behavior problems are differentially exposed to daily hassles but daily hassles are not the best point of intervention. Bidirectional relations between the mother–child relationship and adolescent behavior problems suggest intervening to improve the mother–child relationship and manage symptoms of adolescent behavior problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Social dominance orientation, nonnative accents, and hiring recommendations.
    Objective: Discrimination against nonnative speakers is widespread and largely socially acceptable. Nonnative speakers are evaluated negatively because accent is a sign that they belong to an outgroup and because understanding their speech requires unusual effort from listeners. The present research investigated intergroup bias, based on stronger support for hierarchical relations between groups (social dominance orientation [SDO]), as a predictor of hiring recommendations of nonnative speakers. Method: In an online experiment using an adaptation of the thin-slices methodology, 65 U.S. adults (54% women; 80% White; Mage = 35.91, range = 18–67) heard a recording of a job applicant speaking with an Asian (Mandarin Chinese) or a Latino (Spanish) accent. Participants indicated how likely they would be to recommend hiring the speaker, answered questions about the text, and indicated how difficult it was to understand the applicant. Results: Independent of objective comprehension, participants high in SDO reported that it was more difficult to understand a Latino speaker than an Asian speaker. SDO predicted hiring recommendations of the speakers, but this relationship was mediated by the perception that nonnative speakers were difficult to understand. This effect was stronger for speakers from lower status groups (Latinos relative to Asians) and was not related to objective comprehension. Conclusions: These findings suggest a cycle of prejudice toward nonnative speakers: Not only do perceptions of difficulty in understanding cause prejudice toward them, but also prejudice toward low-status groups can lead to perceived difficulty in understanding members of these groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The ethnic prejudice of Flemish teachers: The role of ethnic school composition and of teachability.
    Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between ethnic composition in school and the ethnic prejudice of teachers, controlling for the individual characteristics of teachers and their perceptions of pupils’ teachability. Method: Multilevel analyses were carried out on data for 499 Flemish teachers in 44 Flemish (Belgian) secondary schools, collected through an online questionnaire. In this study, ethnic prejudice means a negative attitude to Moroccans, Turks, and Eastern Europeans. A scale was created by taking the mean scores for 18 items, with higher scores indicating greater ethnic prejudice (Quillian, 1995; Witte, 1999). Results: Teachers with long-term higher education or a university diploma are shown to be less ethnically prejudiced than teachers with a lower level of education. Moreover, teachers who work at a school with a greater number of ethnic minority pupils, and at the same time evaluate their pupils as more teachable, are less ethnically prejudiced. Conclusions: These findings highlight the need for more research into the underlying processes, such as pupils’ teachability, that influence the relationship between school characteristics and the ethnic prejudice of teachers. More knowledge about the context-specific factors and processes that mediate and/or moderate this relationship can increase the theoretical understanding of the development of ethnic prejudice. It can also highlight particular social characteristics, which can be the focus of social and organizational policy aimed at reducing ethnic prejudices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The contribution of stress, cultural factors, and sexual identity on the substance abuse, violence, HIV, and depression syndemic among Hispanic men.
    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to confirm the substance abuse, violence, HIV, and depression syndemic among Hispanic men, and to test whether stress and sociocultural factors, including acculturation, family support, and sexual orientation, predict this syndemic. Method: A cross-sectional survey was administered to 164 Hispanic men using standardized measures for Hispanic Stress (Cervantes, Padilla, & Salgado de Snyder, 1991), substance abuse (Kelly et al., 1994), violence (Peragallo et al., 2005), risk for HIV (González-Guarda, Peragallo, Urrutia, Vasquez, & Mitrani, 2008), and depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Scale, CES-D; Radloff, 1977). Results: Results from Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) supported the syndemic factor among Hispanic men. While family/cultural stress and homosexual identity were risk factors for the syndemic factor, family support was protective. Conclusions: More longitudinal research is needed to identify influences on the syndemic factor among diverse Hispanic communities. Interventions that address stress and enhance family supports may show promise in addressing and preventing syndemics among Hispanic men. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Optimism/pessimism and future orientation as predictors of suicidal ideation: Are there ethnic differences?
    Objective: The present study sought to test the generalizability of Chang et al.’s (2013) model, which suggests that optimism/pessimism and future orientation function as additive and interactive predictors of suicidal risk, to specific ethnic minority college student groups (i.e., Asian Americans, African Americans, and Latino Americans). Method: The present study used Chang et al.’s (2013) model to predict suicidal ideation among 81 (34 male and 47 female) Asian-American, 71 (22 male and 49 female) African-American adults, and 83 (34 male and 49 female) Latino-American college students. Results: Our results indicated that this model did not predict suicidal ideation well for Asian-American college students; however, it did work well to predict suicidal ideation for African-American and Latino-American college students. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that optimism/pessimism and future orientation are important positive cognitions involved with suicidal ideation for African-American and Latino-American college students. Further research is needed to better understand the cultural underpinnings of how these positive cognitions work to predict suicide-related outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Patient activation and visit preparation in African American veterans receiving mental health care.
    Objective: Patient activation refers to one’s ability and willingness to manage their health and health care. Visit preparation, question formulation, and other elements of patient activation are core components of patient-centered care. However, they are inconsistently translated into clinical practice. Multiple factors have been shown to influence patient activation and associated activities, such as patients’ race and ethnicity, illness, and clinical settings. Because race and ethnicity are important factors in patient activation, and we know little about ethnic minority patients with respect to patient activation, the goal of this study was to examine the contexts, barriers, and facilitators influencing African American veterans’ involvement in visit preparation in mental health outpatient settings. Method: We conducted qualitative interviews with 49 African American veterans with mental illness receiving outpatient psychiatric care at a large, urban U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center, and used a grounded theory approach to analyze the data. Results: Findings from this study identify patients’ beliefs about preparing for the clinical encounter, the patient–provider relationship, and lack of information about patient activation as barriers to engaging in visit preparation activities. Conclusions and Implications for Practice: Findings indicate the need for greater awareness of the challenges of visit preparation as well as the potential consequences of lack of preparation. Results suggest the incorporation of visit preparation as part of routine mental health visits, and as a tool to increase patient activation, especially among minorities. Findings also inform intervention studies by emphasizing the need to explore sociocultural factors that may impact patient activation programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Ethnic differences in social support after initial receipt of an abnormal mammogram.
    Objectives: We examine access to and type of social support after initial receipt of an abnormal mammogram across non-Latina White (NLW), African American, and Latina women. Method: This cross-sectional study used a mixed method design, with quantitative and qualitative measures. Women were recruited through 2 community advocates and 3 breast-health-related care organizations. Results: With regard to access, African American women were less likely to access social support relative to NLW counterparts. Similar nonsignificant differences were found for Latinas. Women did not discuss results with family and friends to avoid burdening social networks and negative reactions. Networks’ geographic constraints and medical mistrust influenced Latina and African American women’s decisions to discuss results. With regard to type of social support, women reported emotional support across ethnicity. Latina and African American women reported more instrumental support, whereas NLW women reported more informational support in the context of their well-being. Conclusions: There are shared and culturally unique aspects of women’s experiences with social support after initially receiving an abnormal mammogram. Latina and African American women may particularly benefit from informational support from health care professionals. Communitywide efforts to mitigate mistrust and encourage active communication about cancer may improve ethnic disparities in emotional well-being and diagnostic resolution during initial receipt of an abnormal mammogram. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Functional limitations, body perceptions, and health outcomes among older African American women.
    Objectives: African American women experience greater difficulties in physical function and disproportionately higher rates of obesity compared to other racial–ethnic gender groups; however, positive body perceptions may buffer against negative psychological and health-related outcomes associated with functional decline. Method: Associations among satisfaction with and importance placed on body shape and function, body mass index (BMI), physical function, general health, pain, and emotional well-being were assessed among an urban-dwelling, community-based sample of African American women ages 65 and older (n = 111). Results: Higher BMI was associated with worse health and physical function and lower satisfaction with body shape and function. Body perceptions moderated the association between physical function and 2 health-relevant outcomes: pain and emotional well-being. Women who were functioning well and reported high importance of body shape and function demonstrated the lowest levels of pain and highest levels of emotional well-being, and women low in physical functioning who were low in satisfaction with body shape and function had the highest levels of pain. Conclusions: These findings provide evidence that there is significant variation among African American women and risk for negative health outcomes, particularly for women with varying perceptions of body functionality and body satisfaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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