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Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology - Vol 22, Iss 2

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Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology seeks to publish theoretical, conceptual, research and case study articles that promote the development of knowledge and understanding, application of psychological principles, and scholarly analysis of social-political forces affecting racial/ethnic minorities.
Copyright 2016 American Psychological Association
  • Dual identity among immigrants: Comparing different conceptualizations, their measurements, and implications.
    Objectives: This article aims to make a contribution to the literature by comparing 3 existing and often used conceptualizations and measurements of immigrants’ dual identity: (a) high levels of identification with separate ethnic and national identities (Studies 1 and 2), (b) dual self-identification (Study 1), and (c) the strength of dual identification (Study 2). Method: Large-scale survey data are used in 2 studies, capturing 6 recent immigrant groups (Afghanis, Chinese, Iranians, Iraqis, Polish, and Somalis; Study 1, N = 5,877) and immigrants from Turkey (Study 2, N = 427) to The Netherlands. We investigate the associations between the different measures of dual identity as well as how each relates to indicators of intergroup relations (perceived subgroup respect and perceived discrimination) and immigrants’ psychological outcomes (feeling at home in The Netherlands, happiness, affect toward the Dutch). Results: The findings show that dual self-identification differs most markedly from high identification on separate ethnic and national identities. The latter conceptualization largely overlaps with the strength of dual identification, both in terms of the classification of who is a dual identifier, as well as the associations with intergroup relations and immigrants’ psychological outcomes. Conclusions: These findings help to clarify discrepant approaches to dual identity in the existing literature and provide guidelines for future research into dual identity among immigrants in Western societies. In particular, they suggest that a distinction between dual self-identification and measures of group identification is needed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The Multicultural Identity Integration Scale (MULTIIS): Developing a comprehensive measure for configuring one’s multiple cultural identities within the self.
    Objectives: The research investigating how one’s multiple cultural identities are configured within the self has yet to account for existing cultural identity configurations aside from integration, and for identifying with more than 2 cultural groups at once. The current research addresses these issues by constructing the Multicultural Identity Integration Scale (MULTIIS) to examine 3 different multicultural identity configurations, and their relationship to well-being based on Amiot and colleagues’ (2007) cognitive-developmental model of social identity integration (CDSMII). Method: Diverse samples of multicultural individuals completed the MULTIIS along with identity and well-being measures. (Study 1A: N = 407; 1B: N = 310; 2A = 338 and 2A = 254) Results: Reliability and confirmatory factorial analyses (Studies 1A and 2A) all supported the factorial structure of the MULTIIS. Regression analyses (Studies 1B and 2B) confirmed that the integration subscale of the MULTIIS positively predicted well-being, whereas compartmentalization negatively predicted well-being. Categorization was inconsistently related to well-being. Conclusions: These findings support the CDSMII and the usefulness of the MULTIIS measure, and suggest that each identity configuration is uniquely related to well-being outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Predictors of HIV-related stigmas among African American and Latino religious congregants.
    Objectives: To inform church-based stigma interventions by exploring dimensions of HIV stigma among African American and Latino religious congregants and determining how these are related to drug addiction and homosexuality stigmas and knowing someone HIV-positive. Method: In-person, self-administered surveys of congregants 18+ years old across 2 African American and 3 Latino churches (n = 1,235, response rate 73%) in a western U.S. city with high HIV prevalence. Measures included 12 items that captured dimensions of HIV stigma, a 5-item scale that assessed attitudes toward people who are addicted to drugs, a 7-item scale assessing attitudes toward homosexuality, and questions regarding sociodemographics and previous communication about HIV. Results: Of the survey participants, 63.8% were women, mean age was 40.2 years, and 34.4% were African American, 16.8% were U.S.-born Latinos, 16.0% were foreign-born, English-speaking Latinos, and 32.9% were foreign-born, Spanish-speaking Latinos. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses identified 4 dimensions of HIV stigma: discomfort interacting with people with HIV (4 items, α = .86), feelings of shame “if you had HIV” (3 items, α = .78), fears of rejection “if you had HIV” (3 items, α = .71), and feelings of blame toward people with HIV (2 items, α = .65). Across all dimensions, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and previous communication about HIV, knowing someone with HIV was associated with lower HIV stigma, and greater stigma concerning drug addiction and homosexuality were associated with higher HIV stigma. Conclusions: Congregation-based HIV stigma reduction interventions should consider incorporating contact with HIV-affected people. It may also be helpful to address attitudes toward drug addiction and sexual orientation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • An examination of actor-partner social support effects on HIV-related problems and interpersonal outcomes among a sample of HIV-positive African American dyads.
    Objectives: Social support is an important resource that has been associated with better mental and physical health outcomes among HIV-positive people. However, researchers have not adequately explored how social support functions among HIV-positive African Americans. The purpose of the current study was to understand whether HIV-related support resources are associated with relational functioning and HIV-related problems among a sample of HIV-infected African American dyads. Method: Exactly 34 HIV-infected (i.e., seroconcordant) dyads compromised of HIV-positive African American adults and their HIV-positive adult “informal supporters” from 3 Midwestern urban cities completed psychosocial questionnaires and a communication task. Using the actor-partner interdependence model, we analyzed dyadic data to determine whether there were actor and/or partner effects within dyadic relationships on measures of conflict and HIV-related problems, communication about these problems, and health symptoms. Results: We found significant negative relationships between perceived support and HIV-related problems and perceptions of problem inequity within dyads and a positive relationship between perceived support and communication about these problems within dyads. Contrary to our expectations, we found no relationship between social support and HIV symptoms, relational conflict, or perceptions about dyadic partners’ HIV-related problems. Conclusions: Although our study precludes drawing causal conclusions, we found evidence of a relationship between the personal experience of HIV-related problems, communication about these problems, and perceptions of social support among a small sample of HIV-infected African American dyads. These findings suggest the need to consider how support-related communication within HIV-infected dyads might influence and be influenced by problem perceptions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Impact of lifetime evaluated need on mental health service use among African American emerging adults.
    Objective: This study investigated the association between evaluated need and mental health service use among African-American emerging adults, when controlling for other predictor variables. Method: Secondary analysis of data from the National Survey of American Life (2001–2003) was conducted. A nationally representative sample of African-American emerging adults, ages 18 to 29 years (N = 806), was assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The sample included females and males with a mean age of 23 years. Evaluated need was determined by endorsement of mood, anxiety, substance use, or impulse control diagnoses. Respondents who reported ever voluntarily using mental health or general medical services to address these problems were considered to have used services. Results: Forty-seven percent of the sample demonstrated an evaluated need for services, whereas a quarter of the sample used services in their lifetime. Respondents who were females, had received religious/spiritual support, and who had an evaluated need for services were significantly more likely to have used services in their lifetime compared with males, those who had not received religious/spiritual support, and those without a need for services. Conclusions: Literature indicates that evaluated need is a strong predictor of mental health service use, yet research examining its impact on service use among African American emerging adults is limited. This study found that along with having an evaluated need, this population was more likely to use services when supported by a religious/spiritual leader. Mental health outreach and education that incorporates the informal support systems identified by African American emerging adults, particularly males, is needed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • A latent class analysis of urban American Indian youth identities.
    Objective: This study examined sources of indigenous identity among urban American Indian youth that map the three theoretical dimensions of a model advanced by Markstrom: identification (tribal and ethnic heritage), connection (through family and reservation ties), and involvement in traditional culture and spirituality. Method: Data came from self-administered questionnaires completed by 208 urban American Indian students from five middle schools in a large metropolitan area in the Southwest. Results: Descriptive statistics showed most youth were connected to multiple indicators on all three dimensions of indigenous identity: native parental heritage, native best friends, past and current reservation connections, involvement with cultural practices, tribal language and spirituality, and alignment with native and mainstream cultural orientations. A latent class analysis identified five classes. There were two larger groups, one with strong native heritage and the highest levels of enculturation, and another that was more bicultural in orientation. The remaining three groups were smaller and about equal in size: a highly acculturated group with mixed parental ethnic heritage, those who had strong native heritage but were culturally disengaged, and a group with some mixed ethnic heritage that was low on indicators of enculturation. Evidence for the validity of the latent classes came from significant variations across the classes in scores on an American Indian ethnic identity (modified Phinney) scale, the students’ open-ended descriptions of the main sources of their indigenous identities, and the better academic grades of classes that were more culturally engaged. Conclusions: Despite the challenges of maintaining cultural identities in the urban environment, most youth in this sample expressed a strong sense of indigenous identity, claimed personal and parental tribal heritage, remained connected to reservation communities, and actively engaged in Native cultural and spiritual life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Ethnic identity salience improves recognition memory in Tibetan students via priming.
    Objectives: Social identity salience affects group-reference effect in memory. However, limited studies have examined the influence of ethnic identity salience on group-reference effect among minority group people in conditions where the minority group dominates. In the present research, we aim to investigate, in a Tibetan-dominant context, whether the salience of ethnic identity among Tibetan students could display an influence on their group-reference effect via priming method. Method: We recruited 50 Tibetan and 62 Han Chinese students from Tibetan University in Lhasa, the capital of Tibet Autonomous Region, where Tibetans were the majority. A month before the experiment, we tested the baseline of ethnic identity salience of both Tibetan and Han Chinese students using the Twenty Statements Test. In the formal experiment, we assessed the effectiveness of priming method first and then conducted a recognition memory test 2 week later via priming approach. Results: The results showed that the ethnic identity both of Tibetan and Han Chinese participants was not salient in the baseline assessment. However, it was successfully induced via priming among Tibetan students. Tibetan students showed a significant group-reference effect in recognition memory task when their ethnic identity was induced via priming. On the contrary, Han Chinese students did not show increased ethnic awareness and superiority of ethnic in-group reference memory after being primed. Conclusions: Current research provides new evidence for the influence of salience of ethnic identity on group-reference effect, contributing to the application and extension of social identity theory among minority group people. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Affect and understanding during everyday cross-race experiences.
    The present research uses an event sampling method to test whether, compared to same-race interactions, everyday cross-race contact is better characterized by the presence of negative affect or the absence of positive affect. Everyday intergroup interactions have some positive and negative aspects, so the present research independently assesses positive affect and negative affect along with felt understanding and misunderstanding. Across 3 studies (Study 1, n = 107; Study 2, n = 112; Study 3, n = 146), we find that European, Asian, and African Americans report that everyday cross-race interactions generate less positive affect and felt understanding than same-race interactions. Yet cross-race interactions entail no more negative affect than same-race interactions. This supports the idea that positive emotions are mostly reserved for and experienced with the ingroup, rather than the idea that people feel animosity toward the outgroup. Given that nearly half of racial-minority group member’s everyday interactions are cross-race, their daily encounters are typically less positive than those of racial-majority group members. Feeling less well understood as a result of cross-race contact may increase the likelihood that racial-minority group members question whether they belong on a college campus. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Ramifications of positive and negative contact experiences among remigrants from Russia to Finland.
    Objectives: This article focuses on the effects of positive and negative contact with majority Finns on the outgroup attitudes of remigrants from Russia to Finland. We tested (a) whether negative contact leads to negative outgroup attitudes via perceived threats, and (b) whether positive contact leads to positive outgroup attitudes via perceived gains seen to result from contact with majority Finns. We also tested whether the effects of contact with majority members generalized to attitudes toward other immigrant groups living in Finland. Method: The study used 2-wave longitudinal panel data on Ingrian-Finnish remigrants (NT1 = 133, mean age 46.4 years, 73% females; NT2 = 85, mean age 49.3 years, 73% females). Results: The results attested the effects of positive contact experiences on attitudes toward both majority and other minority group members, via perceived gains. As regards negative contact, it was associated with more negative attitudes toward the majority via perceived threats, but no evidence of secondary transfer effect on attitudes toward other immigrants was found. Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of simultaneous examination of positive and negative contact. Especially positive contact and gains perceived to result from it can be powerful tools in promoting positive outgroup attitudes also among minority group members. The results also show the role of majority group members in defining interminority attitudes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Distant but relative: Similarities and differences in gender role beliefs among African American and Vietnamese American women.
    Objectives: Research attempting to identify similarities or disentangle differences in ethnic minority gender role beliefs has been largely absent in the literature, and a gap remains for qualitative examinations of such phenomena. The purpose of this study is to fill this gap in the literature by providing a qualitative examination of the differences and similarities of gender role beliefs among African American and Vietnamese American women. Methods: Thematic analyses were conducted with data gathered from 8 focus groups with 44 African American women (mean age = 44 years) and 4 focus Groups 47 Vietnamese American women (mean age = 42 years). Women were diverse in generational, religious, and educational backgrounds. Results: Two similar primary themes emerged: (a) women’s roles as chief caretakers and (b) women’s responsibility to fulfill multiple roles. There were also similar experiences of a need to convey strength and be self-sacrificial. Two distinct differences that emerged from the focus groups were beliefs about interpersonal interactions and perceptions of societal expectations. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the conceptualization of gender role beliefs, although at times similar, diverges among culturally different groups. To account for these and other culturally nuanced differences, measures of gender role beliefs should be culturally tailored and culturally specific. However, researchers have largely excluded ethnic minority women in the development of the most widely used measures of gender role beliefs in the U.S. The inclusion of diverse women in research will help prevent pitfalls of conflating and ignoring intragroup differences among different groups of marginalized women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Parental experiences of racial discrimination and youth racial socialization in two-parent African American families.
    Objectives: Parents experiencing racial discrimination are likely to transmit racial socialization messages to their children to protect them from future injustices. This study was conducted to better understand the role of parents’ racial discrimination in their racial socialization practices for 2-parent African American families. Method: Using a sample from the Promoting Strong African American Families (N = 322 couples) program, we examined the effects of experienced discrimination on one’s own and one’s partner’s racial socialization practices with male (n = 154) and female (n = 168) offspring. Results: Multiple-group actor–partner interdependence models showed that racial discrimination was associated with racial socialization practices. In addition, maternal experiences of discrimination had stronger relations to socialization messages relayed to daughters and greater paternal experiences of discrimination had stronger relations to socialization messages given to sons. Conclusions: This study demonstrates variability in how male and female children in African American families are socialized as a result of their parents’ experiences with racial discrimination. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Father involvement in Mexican-origin families: Preliminary development of a culturally informed measure.
    Objectives: An increasing body of research has documented the significant influence of father involvement on children’s development and overall well-being. However, extant research has predominately focused on middle-class Caucasian samples with little examination of fathering in ethnic minority and low-income families, particularly during the infancy period. The present study evaluated measures of early father involvement (paternal engagement, accessibility, and responsibility) that were adapted to capture important cultural values relevant to the paternal role in Mexican-origin families. Methods: A sample of 180 Mexican-origin mothers (M age = 28.3) and 83 Mexican-origin fathers (M age = 31.5) were interviewed during the perinatal period. Results: Descriptive analyses indicated that Mexican-origin fathers are involved in meaningful levels of direct interaction with their infant. A 2-factor model of paternal responsibility was supported by factor analyses, consisting of a behavioral responsibility factor aligned with previous literature and culturally derived positive machismo factor. Qualities of the romantic relationship, cultural orientation, and maternal employment status were related to indices of father involvement. Conclusions: These preliminary results contribute to understanding of the transition to fatherhood among low-income Mexican-origin men and bring attention to the demographic, social, and cultural contexts in which varying levels of father involvement may emerge. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Understanding parental locus of control in Latino parents: Examination of cultural influences and help-seeking intentions for childhood ADHD.
    Objective: To address the disparities that exist in utilization of mental health services for ADHD among Latino families and to further our understanding of factors that influence parents’ decisions to seek treatment for ADHD, the goal of the current study was to examine parental locus of control (PLOC) in a community sample of Latino parents. Specifically, the current study investigated cultural influences on PLOC, as well as the influence of PLOC on help-seeking. Method: Seventy-four primarily Spanish-speaking, Latino parents of school-age children completed measures to assess their help-seeking intentions, PLOC, and cultural orientation. Results: Results indicated that U.S. mainstream orientation was associated with increased feelings of parental control and decreased beliefs in fate/chance and several Latino cultural values were associated with increased beliefs in fate/chance, and decreased feelings of parental efficacy and parental control. In addition, 2 PLOC domains (e.g., parental efficacy and fate/chance) were associated with beliefs that the behaviors of a child with ADHD would go away on their own. Conclusions: Results highlight the need for interventions aimed at modifying parenting behavior to take parents’ cultural beliefs and values into account in order to accommodate and engage Latino families more effectively. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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