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Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology - Vol 24, Iss 1

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Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology seeks to publish theoretical, conceptual, research and case study articles that promote the development of knowledge and understanding, application of psychological principles, and scholarly analysis of social-political forces affecting racial/ethnic minorities.
Copyright 2018 American Psychological Association
  • Asian Americans respond less favorably to excitement (vs. calm)-focused physicians compared to European Americans.
    Objectives: Despite being considered a “model minority,” Asian Americans report worse health care encounters than do European Americans. This may be due to affective mismatches between Asian American patients and their European American physicians. We predicted that because Asian Americans value excitement (vs. calm) less than European Americans, they will respond less favorably to excitement-focused (vs. calm) physicians. Method: In Study 1, 198 European American, Chinese American, and Hong Kong Chinese community adults read a medical scenario and indicated their preference for an excitement-focused versus calm-focused physician. In Study 2, 81 European American and Asian American community college students listened to recommendations made by an excitement-focused or calm-focused physician in a video, and later attempted to recall the recommendations. In Study 3, 101 European American and Asian American middle-aged and older adults had multiple online encounters with an excitement-focused or calm-focused physician and then evaluated their physicians’ trustworthiness, competence, and knowledge. Results: As predicted, Hong Kong Chinese preferred excitement-focused physicians less than European Americans, with Chinese Americans falling in the middle (Study 1). Similarly, Asian Americans remembered health information delivered by an excitement-focused physician less well than did European Americans (Study 2). Finally, Asian Americans evaluated an excitement-focused physician less positively than did European Americans (Study 3). Conclusions: These findings suggest that while physicians who promote and emphasize excitement states may be effective with European Americans, they may be less so with Asian Americans and other ethnic minorities who value different affective states. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Still I rise: The need for self-validation and self-care in the midst of adversities faced by Black women with HIV.
    Objectives: Psychosocial factors of trauma and abuse, racial discrimination, HIV stigma, and gender-related stressors (e.g., prioritizing others’ needs) have been associated with antiretroviral treatment (ART) nonadherence and poor viral suppression among Black women living with HIV (BWLWH). To inform the development of an intervention addressing these psychosocial factors to improve ART adherence, the authors sought the insight of BWLWH. Method: Qualitative semistructured interviews were conducted with 30 BWLWH to gather information on their experiences with trauma, racism, HIV stigma, gender-related stressors, ART adherence, and coping strategies, and their insights on the proposed intervention. Participants’ interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded using thematic content analysis and grounded theory. Results: Participants shared (a) their experiences with trauma/abuse, racism, HIV-stigma, gender-related stress, and medication adherence; (b) coping strategies they use (e.g., social support, awareness [acknowledging systemic racism], assertiveness, selective disclosure of HIV status, and prioritizing the self); (c) how each of these adversities relate to their medication adherence and how they found ways to self-validate and practice self-primacy and self-care, including medication adherence in spite of adversities; and (d) enthusiasm for the proposed intervention. Conclusions: Culturally adapted interventions are needed to improve the health of BWLWH by enhancing coping strategies for the multiple adversities they face and promoting self-validation, self-primacy, and self-care in spite of adversities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Political activism and mental health among Black and Latinx college students.
    Objectives: The current study investigates the utility of political activism as a protective factor against experiences of racial/ethnic (R/E) discrimination that negatively affect stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms among Black and Latinx college freshmen at predominately White institutions. Method: Data come from the Minority College Cohort Study, a longitudinal investigation of Black and Latinx college students (N = 504; 44% Black). We conducted multiple regression analyses for each mental health indicator and tested for interaction effects. Results: For Black and Latinx students, the relationship between R/E microaggressions and end of freshman year stress varied by political activism. For Black students, the relationship between R/E microaggressions and end of the year anxiety varied by political activism. There was a significant interaction effect for depressive symptoms among Latinx students. Conclusions: Political activism serves as a protective factor to mitigate the negative effect of R/E discrimination on stress and depressive symptoms for Latinx students. For Black students, higher levels of political activism may exacerbate experiences of R/E microaggressions and relate to more stress and anxiety compared with Black students who are less politically involved. Findings point to the need for a deeper understanding of phenomenological variation in experiences of microaggressions among R/E minorities and how students leverage political activism as an adaptive coping strategy to mitigate race-related stress during college. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Pubertal timing, racial identity, neighborhood, and school context among Black adolescent females.
    Objectives: This study bridges the empirical research on pubertal timing effects, racial identity, and school and neighborhood context to understand the pubertal development and depression link among Black adolescent females. We examined whether racial identity content dimensions moderated the relation between pubertal timing and depressive symptoms among Black adolescent females and the moderating capacity of school and neighborhood racial composition. Method: We administered measures of pubertal development, racial identity, and depressive symptoms to a sample of 217 Black adolescent females, aged 14 to 18. We assessed racial centrality, private regard, and public regard and used archival data to obtain the racial composition of participants’ neighborhoods and schools. Results: The results indicated that high racial centrality levels were linked to depressive symptoms for adolescent girls with late pubertal timing relative to their early counterparts, which was stronger for girls attending not majority Black schools. The results also indicated that low public regard levels were linked to depressive symptoms among adolescent girls with early pubertal timing relative to their late counterparts, which was stronger for girls attending not majority Black schools. Conclusions: The current study provides evidence that racial identity and school racial context moderate the effects of pubertal timing differentially for early and late maturing Black girls. The results support the notion that the psychological effects of pubertal timing on internalizing symptoms are context dependent. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Racial discrimination, racial identity, and impostor phenomenon: A profile approach.
    Objectives: This study examined the association between racial discrimination and the impostor phenomenon (IP) and the moderating influence of racial identity on this relationship. Method: One hundred fifty-seven African American college students (68% female; mean age = 18.63) completed measures of racial discrimination, racial identity, and IP during 2 waves of data collection. Results: Utilizing latent profile analyses, 4 patterns of racial identity were identified: Undifferentiated, Multiculturalist, Race-Focused, and Humanist. Racial discrimination predicted higher subsequent levels of IP. Racial identity did not moderate the impact of racial discrimination; however, students in the Multiculturalist and Humanist groups reported the lowest and highest levels of IP at Wave 2, respectively. Conclusion: IP is influenced by racial discrimination experiences as well as by the significance and meaning that individuals ascribe to being African American. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Longitudinal profiles of eudaimonic well-being in Asian American adolescents.
    Objective: The current study explores whether a well-known model (i.e., Ryff’s, 1989, conceptualization of psychological functioning) can be used to examine patterns of eudaimonic well-being among Asian Americans, who are rarely the focus of systematic investigations in positive psychology. Method: Hidden Markov modeling, a form of latent transition analysis, was used to analyze longitudinal data from adolescents (N = 180; 49% female; 75% U.S.-born). Results: After establishing measurement validity, analyses revealed 4 profiles of well-being: Flourishing (consistently high on all well-being dimensions), Functioning (consistently moderate), Hindered (consistently low), and Self-Driven Success (high on most dimensions, but moderate levels of positive relationships). The Functioning profile was the most prevalent, followed by relatively even distributions of the remaining profiles. Profiles substantially shifted from year to year, with the Functioning and Hindered groups exhibiting the most stability. Profiles reflecting more positive well-being (i.e., Flourishing, Self-Driven) were associated with ethnic and American centrality and regard, and interactive effects suggest compounding benefits of these identities. Conclusions: Psychological models of well-being appear malleable, and cultural identity can contribute to such fluctuations. Results also support the utility of a profile approach to continue examining qualities of positive well-being among Asian American youth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Do the associations of parenting styles with behavior problems and academic achievement vary by culture? Results from a meta-analysis.
    Objective: The study tested whether associations of parenting styles with internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and academic achievement vary between ethnic groups in western countries, between different regions of the globe, and by level of collectivism/individualism of individual countries. Method: A systematic search in electronic databases and cross referencing identified 428 studies that were included in the random-effects meta-analysis. Results: More ethnic and regional similarities than differences were identified. In western countries, associations of authoritative parenting with academic achievement were stronger in non-Hispanic, White families than in Asian minorities. In these countries, associations of authoritarian parenting with academic achievement were less negative in Hispanic families than in non-Hispanic, White families. Authoritative parenting was associated with at least 1 positive child outcome and authoritarian parenting was associated with at least 1 negative outcome in all regions of the globe, with some regional variation. Finally, associations of authoritarian parenting with child outcomes were weaker in countries with a higher individualism score, as were associations of authoritative parenting with academic performance. Conclusions: Parents across the globe could be recommended to behave authoritatively, although authoritarian and permissive parenting is, to some extent, tolerable in a few cultural contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The role of ethnic identity, self-concept, and aberrant salience in psychotic-like experiences.
    Objectives: Social-cognitive models of psychosis suggest that aberrant salience and self-concept clarity are related to the development and maintenance of psychoticlike experiences (PLEs). People with high aberrant salience but low self-concept clarity tend to have the highest levels of PLEs. Ethnic identity may also be related to PLEs. The current research aimed to (a) replicate the interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity in their association with PLEs in an ethnically diverse sample, (b) examine whether ethnic identity and aberrant salience interact in their association with PLEs, and (c) determine if self-concept clarity and ethnic identity independently interact with aberrant salience in their association with PLEs. Method: An ethnically diverse group of undergraduates (n = 663) completed self-report measures of aberrant salience, self-concept clarity, ethnic identity, and PLEs. Results: There was an interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity such that people with high levels of aberrant salience and low levels of self-concept clarity had the highest levels of PLEs. Similarly, there was an interaction between aberrant salience and ethnic identity such that people with high aberrant salience but low ethnic identity had the highest PLEs. These interactions independently contributed to explaining variance in PLEs. This interaction was present for the Exploration but not Commitment subscales of ethnic identity. Conclusion: These results suggest that, in addition to low self-concept clarity, low ethnic identity may be a risk factor for the development of psychosis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Racial identity invalidation with multiracial individuals: An instrument development study.
    Objectives: Racial identity invalidation, others’ denial of an individual’s racial identity, is a salient racial stressor with harmful effects on the mental health and well-being of Multiracial individuals. The purpose of this study was to create a psychometrically sound measure to assess racial identity invalidation for use with Multiracial individuals (N = 497). Method: The present sample was mostly female (75%) with a mean age of 26.52 years (SD = 9.60). The most common racial backgrounds represented were Asian/White (33.4%) and Black/White (23.7%). Participants completed several online measures via Qualtrics. Results: Exploratory factor analyses revealed 3 racial identity invalidation factors: behavior invalidation, phenotype invalidation, and identity incongruent discrimination. A confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the initial factor structure. Alternative model testing indicated that the bifactor model was superior to the 3-factor model. Thus, a total score and/or 3 subscale scores can be used when administering this instrument. Support was found for the reliability and validity of the total scale and subscales. In line with the minority stress theory, challenges with racial identity mediated relationships between racial identity invalidation and mental health and well-being outcomes. Conclusions: The findings highlight the different dimensions of racial identity invalidation and indicate their negative associations with connectedness and psychological well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Acculturation, acculturative stressors, and family relationships among Latina/o immigrants.
    Objectives: Family relationships, widely recognized as core to Latino cultures, are known to vary for Latina/o immigrants based on time in the United States. Less is known about (a) how acculturation explains differences in family relationships by time in the US, and (b) whether acculturative stressors influence different aspects of immigrants’ family relationships. Drawing on an expanded acculturation framework, we explore whether and how attitudinal familism, family contact, and family conflict among immigrant Latina/os vary based on acculturation and acculturative stressors. Method: Using nationally representative data on foreign-born Latina/os (National Latino and Asian American Study; N = 1,618), ordered logistic and OLS regression analyses examined whether differences in family relationships by time in the US are explained by acculturation factors, and whether acculturative stressors are associated with family relationships when controlling for other important sociodemographic factors. Results: Accounting for acculturation reduces the effect of time in the US on attitudinal familism and family conflict to nonsignificance. Spanish language proficiency and ethnic identity are associated with higher attitudinal familism, while English proficiency is associated with increased family conflict. Additionally, acculturative stressors (involuntary context of exit, hostile context of reception, limited origin country ties) are associated with lower attitudinal familism and higher conflict. Conclusions: Results highlight the importance of (a) examining the ways that migration influences multiple aspects of family relationships, (b) adopting a more comprehensive acculturation framework. Particularly novel are our findings on how acculturative stressors are associated with different family outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The relationships between religiosity and youth internalizing symptoms in African American parent–adolescent dyads.
    Objectives: African American (AA) adolescents face a greater risk of internalizing symptoms, including symptoms of both depression and anxiety, compared with other racial groups; yet, relatively less is known about the variables that contribute to internalizing symptoms. With the aim of advancing this work, this study examined factors that may buffer against such symptoms (maternal warmth, religiosity), as well as those that may confer additional risk (maternal psychopathology). Method: One hundred ninety-three AA single mothers and their adolescent youth reported on religiosity, maternal warmth and depressive symptoms, and youth internalizing symptoms. Dyadic structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of mother and adolescent religiosity, maternal warmth, maternal depressive symptoms, and adolescent age on youth internalizing symptoms as reported by both the mother and the adolescent. Results: Consistent with hypotheses, maternal depressive symptoms were significantly associated with youth internalizing symptoms (as reported by the adolescent). Further, the impact of maternal religiosity on self-reported youth internalizing symptoms and its subscales was moderated by adolescent age. Specifically, maternal religiosity was associated with fewer self-reported internalizing symptoms in young adolescents, whereas the effect waned in older youth. Conclusions: Possible predictive coprocesses such as maternal influence on adolescent religious choices and identity formation are explored in the context of adolescent internalizing symptomatology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
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