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Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology - Vol 21, Iss 3

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Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology seeks to publish theoretical, conceptual, research and case study articles that promote the development of knowledge and understanding, application of psychological principles, and scholarly analysis of social-political forces affecting racial/ethnic minorities.
Copyright 2015 American Psychological Association
  • Communicating more than diversity: The effect of institutional diversity statements on expectations and performance as a function of race and gender.
    The present studies examined whether colorblind diversity messages, relative to multicultural diversity messages, serve as an identity threat that undermines performance-related outcomes for individuals at the intersections of race and gender. We exposed racial/ethnic majority and minority women and men to either a colorblind or multicultural diversity statement and then measured their expectations about overall diversity, anticipated bias, and group task performance (Study 1, N = 211), as well as their expectations about distinct race and gender diversity and their actual performance on a math test (Study 2, N = 328). Participants expected more bias (Study 1) and less race and gender diversity (Study 2) after exposure to a colorblind versus a multicultural message. However, the colorblind message was particularly damaging for women of color, prompting them to expect the least diversity overall and to perform worse (Study 1), as well as to actually perform worse on a math test (Study 2) than the multicultural message. White women demonstrated the opposite pattern, performing better on the math test in the colorblind versus the multicultural condition, whereas racial minority and majority men’s performances were not affected by different messages about diversity. We discuss the importance of examining psychological processes that underscore performance-related outcomes at the junction of race and gender. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Childhood adversity, perceived discrimination, and coping strategies in relation to depressive symptoms among First Nations adults in Canada: The moderating role of unsupportive social interactions from ingroup and outgroup members.
    Aboriginal peoples are at greater risk of experiencing early life adversity relative to non-Aboriginal peoples in Canada, and as adults frequently experience high levels of discrimination that act as a further stressor. Although these factors appear to contribute to high rates of depressive disorders and suicidality in Aboriginal peoples, the psychosocial factors that contribute to the relationship between childhood adversity and the development of depressive symptoms have hardly been assessed in this group. The present investigation explored potential mediators to help explain the relation between childhood trauma and depressive symptoms among a sample of First Nations adults from across Canada. These mediated relationships were further examined in the context of unsupportive social interactions from ingroup and outgroup members. In Study 1, (N = 225), the relationship between childhood trauma and depression scores was mediated by perceived discrimination, and this was particularly notable in the presence of unsupportive relations with outgroup members. In Study 2, (N = 134) the relationship between childhood trauma and depressive symptoms was mediated by emotion-focused coping that was specific to coping with experiences of ethnic discrimination, and this mediated effect was moderated by both outgroup and ingroup unsupportive social interactions. Thus, it seems that experiences of discrimination and unsupport might contribute to depressive symptoms among First Nations adults who had experienced early life adverse events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Correction to Brittian et al. (2015).
    Reports an error in "Do dimensions of ethnic identity mediate the association between perceived ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms" by Aerika S. Brittian, Su Yeong Kim, Brian E. Armenta, Richard M. Lee, Adriana J. Umaña-Taylor, Seth J. Schwartz, Ian K. Villalta, Byron L. Zamboanga, Robert S. Weisskirch, Linda P. Juang, Linda G. Castillo and Monika L. Hudson (Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 2015[Jan], Vol 21[1], 41-53). The seventh column labeled “6” in Table 2 should have been omitted. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2014-31330-001.) Ethnic group discrimination represents a notable risk factor that may contribute to mental health problems among ethnic minority college students. However, cultural resources (e.g., ethnic identity) may promote psychological adjustment in the context of group-based discriminatory experiences. In the current study, we examined the associations between perceptions of ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms, and explored dimensions of ethnic identity (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) as mediators of this process among 2,315 ethnic minority college students (age 18 to 30 years; 37% Black, 63% Latino). Results indicated that perceived ethnic group discrimination was associated positively with depressive symptoms among students from both ethnic groups. The relationship between perceived ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms was mediated by ethnic identity affirmation for Latino students, but not for Black students. Ethnic identity resolution was negatively and indirectly associated with depressive symptoms through ethnic identity affirmation for both Black and Latino students. Implications for promoting ethnic minority college students’ mental health and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Perceived discrimination, coping, and quality of life for African-American and Caucasian persons with cancer.
    In racial disparities research, perceived discrimination is a proposed risk factor for unfavorable health outcomes. In a proposed “threshold-constraint” theory, discrimination intensity may exceed a threshold and require coping strategies, but social constraint limits coping options for African Americans, who may react to perceived racial discrimination with disengagement, because active strategies are not viable under this social constraint. Caucasian Americans may experience less discrimination and lower social constraint, and may use more active coping strategies. There were 213 African Americans and 121 Caucasian Americans with cancer who participated by completing measures of mistreatment, coping, and quality of life. African Americans reported more mistreatment than Caucasian Americans (p <001) and attributed mistreatment more to race or ethnicity (p <.001). In the mistreatment-quality of life relationship, disengagement was a significant mediator for Caucasians (B = −.39; CI .13–.83) and African Americans (B = −.20; CI .07–.43). Agentic coping was a significant mediator only for Caucasians (B = −.48; CI .18–.81). Discrimination may exceed threshold more often for African Americans than for Caucasians and social constraint may exert greater limits for African Americans. Results suggest that perceived discrimination affects quality of life for African Americans with cancer because their coping options to counter mistreatment, which is racially based, are limited. This process may also affect treatment, recovery, and survivorship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Japanese American reactions to World War II incarceration redress: Just world belief, locus of control, and coping.
    This study examines second generation (Nisei) Japanese Americans’ reactions to government redress for their unjust incarceration during World War II. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore the roles of individual difference factors—Belief in a Just World (BJW), Locus of Control (LOC)—and Incarceration-Related Coping in predicting (a) reported redress-related Suffering Relief and (b) Positive Redress Impacts. Findings show that BJW was a stronger predictor of redress reactions than LOC, with higher BJW associated with more affirmative views of redress. In addition, Incarceration-Related Coping mediated a majority of the relationships between the individual difference factors and redress reactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Ingroup friendship and political mobilization among the disadvantaged.
    This study investigated the effects of ingroup contact in a large, national sample of Māori (a disadvantaged ethnic group; N = 940) on political attitudes relevant to decreasing ethnic inequality in New Zealand. We tested the role of 2 mediating mechanisms—ethnic identification and system justification—to explain the effects of ingroup contact on the dependent variables. Time spent with ingroup friends predicted increased support for the Māori Party and support for symbolic and resource-specific reparative policies benefiting Māori. These effects were partially mediated by increased ethnic identification. Although ingroup contact also reduced levels of system justification among Māori, its effects on policy attitudes and party preference were not mediated by system justification. This suggests that a key antecedent to system challenging political attitudes is an increased sense of identification with a disadvantaged group resulting, in part, from interactions with ingroup friends. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Chill, be cool man: African American men, identity, coping, and aggressive ideation.
    Aggression is an important correlate of violence, depression, coping, and suicide among emerging young African American males. Yet most researchers treat aggression deterministically, fail to address cultural factors, or consider the potential for individual characteristics to exert an intersectional influence on this psychosocial outcome. Addressing this gap, we consider the moderating effect of coping on the relationship between masculine and racial identity and aggressive ideation among African American males (N = 128) drawn from 2 large Midwestern universities. Using the phenomenological variant of ecological systems theory and person-centered methodology as a guide, hierarchical cluster analysis grouped participants into profile groups based on their responses to both a measure of racial identity and a measure of masculine identity. Results from the cluster analysis revealed 3 distinct identity clusters: Identity Ambivalent, Identity Appraising, and Identity Consolidated. Although these cluster groups did not differ with regard to coping, significant differences were observed between cluster groups in relation to aggressive ideation. Further, a full model with identity profile clusters, coping, and aggressive ideation indicates that cluster membership significantly moderates the relationship between coping and aggressive ideation. The implications of these data for intersecting identities of African American men, and the association of identity and outcomes related to risk for mental health and violence, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Racial/ethnic differences in identity and mental health outcomes among young sexual minority women.
    Previous research suggests that sexual minorities are at greater risk for trauma exposure, mental health problems, and substance use. To date, few studies have examined racial/ethnic differences among sexual minorities in relation to health-related behaviors and outcomes. Furthermore, studies of racial/ethnic differences among young adult sexual minority women (SMW) are virtually nonexistent. The current study adds to the previous literature by exploring differences in trauma exposure, sexual identity, mental health, and substance use in a nonprobability national sample of young adult SMW. A total of 967 self- identified lesbian and bisexual women were recruited via the Internet using social networking sites to participate in a larger longitudinal study on young women’s health behaviors. The present study included 730 (76%) White, 108 (10%) African American, 91 (9%) Latina, and 38 (4%) Asian women ages 18 to 25 years. Results revealed differences in socioeconomic variables, degree of outness to family, childhood sexual assault, and forcible rape, but not overall lifetime trauma exposure. Among mental health and health-related behavior variables, few differences between groups emerged. Our findings indicate that both researchers and clinicians should turn their attention to processes of resilience among young SMW, particularly young SMW of color. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Cultural socialization and school readiness of African American and Latino preschoolers.
    Cultural socialization practices are common among ethnic minority parents and important for ethnic minority child development. However, little research has examined these practices among parents of very young children. In this study, we report on cultural socialization practices among a sample of parents of low income, African American (n = 179) and Latino (n = 220) preschool-age children in relation to children’s school readiness. Cultural socialization was assessed when children were 2.5 years old, and child outcomes assessed 1 year later included pre-academic skills, receptive language, and child behavior. Children who experienced more frequent cultural socialization displayed greater pre-academic skills, better receptive language, and fewer behavior problems. This association did not differ by child gender or ethnicity. The implications of these findings for the development of parent interventions to support school readiness are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Social values and preschool behavioral adjustment: A comparative investigation of Latino and European American preschool children.
    The present article explored relationships between social values (cooperative, individualistic, and competitive) and the behavioral adjustment of Latino and European American preschoolers within the preschool setting. Of interest was whether relationships between social values and behavioral adjustment differed as a function of cultural background. Assessments of social values and teacher reports of child behavioral adjustment were obtained for 254 preschoolers from collectivist (Spanish-speaking Latino Americans), individualist (English-speaking European Americans), and mixed cultural backgrounds (English-Speaking Latino Americans). Cooperative values were more prevalent among collectivist background children, but did not predict behavioral adjustment. Individualistic values did not differ across groups, but predicted better behavioral adjustment for individualist children. Competitive values did not differ across groups, but predicted positive behavioral adjustment for collectivist children and negative behavioral adjustment for individualist children. These findings suggest that a competitive social orientation constitutes a resilience factor for children from collectivist cultural backgrounds and a risk factor for children from individualist cultural backgrounds, and that a cooperative social orientation is undervalued within school settings. Discussion focuses on facilitating the behavioral adjustment of children by raising teacher awareness of collectivist social values and, selectively, fostering or encouraging competitive social values. In sum, the results support the notion that the functionality and meaning of social values differ across social and cultural contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • African American parents’ racial and emotion socialization profiles and young adults’ emotional adaptation.
    The current study aimed to identify parents’ profiles of racial and emotion socialization practices, to determine if these profiles vary as a function of family income and young adult child gender, and to examine their links with young adults’ emotional adaptation. Participants included 192 African American young adults (70% women) who ranged in age from 18 to 24 years (M = 19.44 years). Four maternal profiles emerged: cultural-supportive (high cultural socialization and supportive responses to children’s negative emotions), moderate bias preparation (moderate preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses to negative emotions), high bias preparation (high preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses), and low engaged (low across racial and socialization constructs). Three paternal profiles emerged: multifaceted (moderate across racial and emotion socialization constructs), high bias preparation, and low engaged. Men were more likely to have mothers in the high bias preparation and to have fathers in the multifaceted or high bias preparation profiles. Individuals with higher income were more likely to have mothers in the cultural-supportive profile and to have fathers in the multifaceted profile. Young adults whose mothers fit the cultural-supportive profile or the moderate bias preparation profile had lower levels of depressive symptoms than young adults whose mothers fit the high bias preparation profile. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Movin’ on up (to college): First-generation college students’ experiences with family achievement guilt.
    As the first in their families to attend college, first-generation college students (FGCs) experience a discrepancy between the opportunities available to them and those available to their non-college-educated family members that elicits family achievement guilt. The present studies examined family achievement guilt among an ethnically diverse sample of FGCs and continuing-generation college students (CGCs), those whose parents attended college (Studies 1 and 2), and tested a strategy to alleviate such guilt (Study 2). In Study 1, on open-ended and closed-ended measures, FGCs (N = 53) reported more guilt than CGCs (N = 68), and Latinos (N = 60) reported more guilt than Whites (N = 61). Latino FGCs reported more family achievement guilt than the other 3 groups. In Study 2, we examined whether reflecting on a time when one helped family would alleviate family achievement guilt for FGCs. Specifically, FGCs (N = 58) and CGCs (N = 125) described a time they helped their family with a problem (help condition) or did not describe an example (control), then completed the guilt measure. Analyses revealed that (a) consistent with Study 1, FGCs reported higher guilt than CGCs and minorities reported more guilt than Whites, and (b) FGCs in the help condition reported significantly less guilt than FGCs in the control condition and reported no differences in guilt from CGCs across conditions. Finally, perceptions of family struggle mediated this relationship such that reflecting on helping one’s family led to perceiving less family struggle, which led to less family achievement guilt for FGCs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The mediating role of maternal warmth in the associations between harsh parental practices and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in Hispanic American, African American, and European American families.
    Using data from the add-on 5-year cohort of In-Home Longitudinal Study of preschool aged Children of the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (FFCWS), we examined the mediating role of maternal warmth in the associations between positive and harsh maternal practices and children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors. The sample consisted of 1,922 low-income Hispanic American, African American, and European American families. For European Americans, the links between maternal psychological aggression and hostility and children’s externalizing behaviors were direct. Similarly, for Hispanic Americans, the links between maternal psychological aggression, physical assault, and hostility and externalizing behaviors were direct, as was the link between maternal physical assault and internalizing behaviors. For African Americans, maternal warmth partially mediated the links between maternal hostility and physical assault and externalizing behaviors. However, the associations between psychological aggression and externalizing and internalizing behaviors were direct. The data are discussed with respect to similarities in cultural pathways of influence between harsh maternal treatment and children’s behavioral difficulties across ethnic groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • White racial identity, color-blind racial attitudes, and multicultural counseling competence.
    Multicultural counseling competence (awareness, knowledge, and skills) is necessary to provide effective psychotherapy to an increasingly diverse client population (Sue, 2001). Previous research on predictors of competency among White clinicians finds that above having multicultural training, exposure to racially diverse clients, and social desirability, that White racial identity stages predict multicultural counseling competence (Ottavi et al., 1994). Research also suggests that higher color-blind racial attitudes (denying or minimizing racism in society) correlates with less advanced White racial identity stages (Gushue & Constantine, 2007). However, no studies have examined these variables together as they relate to and possibly predict multicultural counseling competence. The current study aims to add to this literature by investigating the effects of these variables together as potential predictors of multicultural counseling competence among (N = 487) White doctoral students studying clinical, counseling, and school psychology. Results of 3 hierarchical multiple regressions found above the effects of social desirability, demographic variables, and multicultural training, that colorblind racial attitudes and White racial identity stages added significant incremental variance in predicting multicultural counseling knowledge, awareness, and skills. These results add to the literature by finding different predictors for each domain of multicultural competence. Implications of the findings for future research and the clinical training of White doctoral trainees are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The intersections of culture and power in clinician and interpreter relationships: A qualitative study.
    Ongoing racial/ethnic health disparities place increasing emphasis on the importance of interpreters in mental health treatment. Yet there is a limited body of research examining how interpreters and clinicians work together in delivering care. This article used an ethno-culturally informed qualitative procedure to ask interpreters and clinicians about their experiences in cross-language mental health treatment. Seventeen semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 interpreters and 7 clinicians. The interplay of power was experienced differently by interpreters and clinicians as exemplified by 3 categories of meaning: Interpreters speaking out, The relationship matters, and Who has the power? The authors recommend future research focus on the clinician-interpreter relationship as an essential piece of cross-cultural mental health delivery. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Examining differences in culturally based stress among clinical and nonclinical Hispanic adolescents.
    The purpose of the current study was to determine if, and how, Hispanic adolescents receiving clinical treatment differ from their peers who are not in treatment on the 8 domains (family economic stress, cultural or educational stress, acculturation-gap stress, immigration stress, discrimination stress, family immigration stress, community or gang-related stress) of cultural stress (HSI-A), and if the relation between cultural stress domains and depressive symptomology differed by group membership (clinical vs. nonclinical). The sample included 1,254 Hispanic adolescents. The clinical sample had significantly higher scores of cultural stress (p <.05) and mean depression scores (< .001). All 8 domains of HSI-A stress were correlated with depression (p <.05). In the general linear models (GLM), only family economic, acculturation gap, family immigration, discrimination, and family drug stress had a unique effect on depression and effect varied by group. Acculturation gap stress was associated with depression for the nonclinical group but not the clinical group (p <.001) and community gang stress was more strongly related to depression for the clinical group (p <.05). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The association between acculturation patterns and mental health symptoms among Eritrean and Sudanese asylum seekers in Israel.
    Past research has documented the role acculturation plays in the process of adjustment to new cultures among migrants. Yet little attention has been paid thus far to the role of acculturation in the context of forced migration. In this study we examined the association between acculturation patterns and mental health symptoms among a convenience sample of Eritrean and Sudanese asylum seekers (n = 118) who accessed health services at the Physicians for Human Rights Open-Clinic in Israel. Participants completed measures on sociodemographic information as well as detention history, mental health symptoms, exposure to traumatic events, and acculturation pattern, in their native language upon accessing services. Consistent with our predictions, findings showed that acculturation predicted depressive symptoms among asylum seekers beyond the effect of history of detention and reports of experiences of traumatic events. Assimilated compared with integrated asylum seekers reported higher depressive symptoms. Findings draw attention to the paradox of assimilation, and the mental health risks it poses among those wishing to integrate into the new culture at the expanse of their original culture. Asylum seekers may be particularly vulnerable to the risks of assimilation in the restrictive policies that characterize many industrial countries in recent years. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Cultural distance between parents’ and children’s creativity: A within-country approach in Taiwan.
    The present study adopted a within-country approach to investigate the relation of cultural distance to general creativity and math creativity in Taiwan. First, we conducted a pilot study of 201 young adolescents with parents from one of the 3 largest subethnic groups in Taiwan, namely Min-nan Taiwanese, Ha-kka Taiwanese, and Outside-Province Taiwanese. The results revealed that young Taiwanese adolescents perceived the cultural distance between Min-nan Taiwanese and Outside-Province Taiwanese as larger than the cultural distance between the other subethnic groups. The main study revealed that 610 young adolescents from large cultural distance families (i.e., those comprising 1 Min-nan Taiwanese parent and 1 Outside-Province Taiwanese parent) outperformed those from small cultural distance families (i.e., those comprising 2 Min-nan Taiwanese parents, and those comprising 1 Min-nan Taiwanese parent and 1 Ha-kka Taiwanese parent) on both general creativity and math creativity. This pattern remained even after controlling for family socioeconomic status, parents’ education level, and adolescents’ school mathematical performance. Implications and limitations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Transnational ties and past-year major depressive episodes among Latino immigrants.
    Latino immigrants live in an increasingly global world in which maintaining contact with kin in the home country is easier than ever. We examined (a) the annual distribution of remittances burden (percentage of remittances/household income) and visits to the home country, (b) the association of these transnational ties with a past-year major depressive episode (MDE), and (c) moderation by Latino subethnicity or gender. We conducted weighted logistic regression analyses with the Latino immigrant subsample (N = 1,614) of the National Latino and Asian American Study. Mexican and Other Latino immigrants had greater remittances burden than Puerto Rican migrants. Cuban immigrants made the fewest visits back home. After adjustment for sociodemographics and premigration psychiatric history, remittances burden decreased odds of MDE (odds ratio [OR] = 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.67, .0.98]), whereas visits back home increased odds of MDE (OR = 1.04, 95% CI [1.01, 1.06]). Latino subethnicity was not a significant moderator. Visits back home were more strongly linked to depression among women than men. The distribution of transnational ties differs by Latino subgroup, although its association with depression is similar across groups. Monetary giving through remittances might promote a greater sense of self-efficacy, and caregiving for relatives back home that positively affect mental health. Visits back home, especially for women, might signal social stress from strained relationships with kin, spouses, or children left behind, or increased caregiving demands that negatively affect mental health. Clinical practice with immigrants should routinely assess the social resources and strains that fall outside national borders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
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