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Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology - Vol 20, Iss 1

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Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology seeks to publish theoretical, conceptual, research and case study articles that promote the development of knowledge and understanding, application of psychological principles, and scholarly analysis of social-political forces affecting racial/ethnic minorities.
Copyright 2014 American Psychological Association
  • Perceived context of reception among recent Hispanic immigrants: Conceptualization, instrument development, and preliminary validation.
    Context of reception has been discussed widely in the sociological and anthropological literature, but no measures of this construct exist. We designed a measure of perceived context of reception and provide initial support for the factorial validity, internal consistency reliability, and incremental and discriminant validity of scores generated by this measure. A sample of 302 recent-immigrant Hispanic parent-adolescent dyads from Miami and Los Angeles completed the new perceived context of reception measure, as well as measures of perceived discrimination; Hispanic/American cultural practices, values, and identifications; and depressive symptoms. In Phase 1, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses extracted a factor for negative perceived context of reception. A subscale corresponding to this factor was used in Phase 2; for parents and adolescents, negative perceived context of reception and perceived discrimination were differentially associated with acculturation-related variables—suggesting discriminant validity between perceived discrimination and negative perceived context of reception. For adolescents at both sites and for parents in Los Angeles only, the negative perceived context of reception dimensions were significantly associated with depressive symptoms 6 months later, over and above the contribution made by perceived discrimination—suggesting incremental validity. Results are discussed in terms of perceived context of reception as a new and emerging construct. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Brave new world: Mental health experiences of Puerto Ricans, immigrant Latinos, and Brazilians in Massachusetts.
    Depression and anxiety are of the most commonly occurring mental health disorders in the United States. Despite a variety of efficacious interventions for depression and anxiety, it is clear that ethnic minorities experience mental health care disparities in their access to mental health services and the quality of treatment they receive. Research indicates that Latino heterogeneity impacts access to depression and anxiety treatment. In addition, Brazilians are becoming an increasingly visible minority within the United States and are often depicted as Latinos. The current study sought to understand the role of acculturation and stigma in mental health symptom endorsement and treatment seeking among Puerto Ricans, immigrant Latinos, and Brazilians. A total of 250 self-identified Latinos and Brazilians were interviewed about their mental health symptom and treatment experience, acculturation, and stigma toward mental illness. Results indicated considerable variability across the three groups, with Puerto Ricans endorsing higher rates of depression and anxiety, as well as higher rates of treatment seeking, than either the immigrant Latinos or the Brazilians. Acculturation played a differential role in the endorsement of anxiety treatment seeking for Brazilians. Finally, although the three groups differed in the extent to which they experienced stigma about mental health issues, stigma did not predict symptom endorsement or treatment-seeking behavior for any of the three groups. These findings underscore the importance of attending to both between-groups and within-group differences in the mental health and mental health treatment experiences of different ethnic groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Depression symptoms among Mexican American youth: Paternal parenting in the context of maternal parenting, economic stress, and youth gender.
    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 20(1) of Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology (see record 2014-02909-002). In this article there was an error in the legend for Figure 3. The solid line should have represented boys and the dotted line should have represented girls. All versions of the article have been corrected.] Mexican American youth (N = 146; age range: 14–19 years) living in an immigrant enclave who resided with both parents reported depression symptoms, paternal and maternal acceptance, paternal and maternal harsh parenting, and economic stress. Despite lower levels of youth-reported paternal parenting relative to maternal parenting, paternal acceptance was significantly related to youth depression symptoms in a path model that accounted for parenting intercorrelations as well as other significant correlates of youth depression symptoms. We found evidence suggesting that the relation between youth-reported paternal acceptance and depression might be stronger for girls than for boys. Using an ecological analytic framework, we found that: (a) the link between economic stress and youth depression was robust, and (b) only one parenting variable (paternal acceptance) may partially mediate the link between economic stress and depression symptoms. Our results suggest that paternal parenting and youth gender deserve further consideration in longitudinal research and intervention research addressing depression among Latino youth. Ecological models that highlight the influence of settings where Latino youth and families live should be considered in research on the family relationship context of youth depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Correction to Ramírez García, Manongdo, and Ozechowski (2013).
    Reports an error in "Depression Symptoms Among Mexican American Youth: Paternal Parenting in the Context of Maternal Parenting, Economic Stress, and Youth Gender" by Jorge I. Ramírez García, Jennifer A. Manongdo and Timothy J. Ozechowski (Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Jul 8, 2013, np). In this article there was an error in the legend for Figure 3. The solid line should have represented boys and the dotted line should have represented girls. All versions of the article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2013-24379-001.) Mexican American youth (N = 146; age range: 14–19 years) living in an immigrant enclave who resided with both parents reported depression symptoms, paternal and maternal acceptance, paternal and maternal harsh parenting, and economic stress. Despite lower levels of youth-reported paternal parenting relative to maternal parenting, paternal acceptance was significantly related to youth depression symptoms in a path model that accounted for parenting intercorrelations as well as other significant correlates of youth depression symptoms. We found evidence suggesting that the relation between youth-reported paternal acceptance and depression might be stronger for girls than for boys. Using an ecological analytic framework, we found that: (a) the link between economic stress and youth depression was robust, and (b) only one parenting variable (paternal acceptance) may partially mediate the link between economic stress and depression symptoms. Our results suggest that paternal parenting and youth gender deserve further consideration in longitudinal research and intervention research addressing depression among Latino youth. Ecological models that highlight the influence of settings where Latino youth and families live should be considered in research on the family relationship context of youth depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Preliminary examination of ethnic group differences in adolescent girls’ attitudes toward depression treatments.
    Efficacious treatments are only valuable to the extent that they are used. Given ethnic disparities in mental health service utilization, this preliminary study examined differences between Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (NHW) adolescents’ ratings of the acceptability of depression treatments and related constructs. Female high school students (N = 67; 54% Hispanic) read a vignette describing a depressed adolescent and rated the acceptability of four single treatments for depression (i.e., cognitive–behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy, family therapy, and pharmacotherapy) and three treatment combinations. Hispanic adolescents completed a self-report measure of acculturation and all adolescents were interviewed about their beliefs of the causes of depression. Results showed more similarities than differences between ethnic groups, with Hispanic and NHW adolescents favoring psychological treatments over pharmacotherapy. Among Hispanic participants, overall ratings of treatment acceptability were significantly higher for bicultural adolescents than Hispanic adolescents immersed predominantly in non-Hispanic culture. Hispanic and NHW adolescents generally showed similar beliefs about the causes of depression, with both groups endorsing personality and cognitions at high rates, but Hispanics were significantly less likely than NHWs to endorse trauma as a cause of depression. Implications for decreasing ethnic disparities in unmet need for treatment are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Racial discrimination, gender discrimination, and substance abuse among Latina/os nationwide.
    This study investigates the relationship between discrimination and substance abuse among Latina/os, and further examines whether this relationship differs by gender and type of discrimination. Analyses focus on the Latina/o respondents (n = 1,039 men; n = 1,273 women) from the National Latino and Asian American Study carried out from 2002–2003. Outcomes were alcohol abuse and drug abuse measured using DSM–IV definitions and criteria. Additional covariates included immigrant characteristics and demographics. Analyses were completed using gender-stratified multinomial logistic regression. Men reported more discrimination (39.6% vs. 30.3%) and had higher prevalence of alcohol abuse (16.5% vs. 4.5%) and drug abuse (9.5% vs. 2.3%) than women. Discrimination was significantly associated with increased risk of alcohol abuse for women and increased risk of drug abuse for men. Men and women also varied in the types of discrimination (e.g., racial vs. gender) reported, and in the associations between these types of discrimination and substance abuse. These data indicate that discrimination is associated with different substance abuse outcomes between genders. Future research should consider the mechanisms that explain these differences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The role of critical ethnic awareness and social support in the discrimination–depression relationship among Asian Americans: Path analysis.
    This study used a path analytic technique to examine associations among critical ethnic awareness, racial discrimination, social support, and depressive symptoms. Using a convenience sample from online survey of Asian American adults (N = 405), the study tested 2 main hypotheses: First, based on the empowerment theory, critical ethnic awareness would be positively associated with racial discrimination experience; and second, based on the social support deterioration model, social support would partially mediate the relationship between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. The result of the path analysis model showed that the proposed path model was a good fit based on global fit indices, χ²(2) = 4.70, p = .10; root mean square error of approximation = 0.06; comparative fit index = 0.97; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.92; and standardized root mean square residual = 0.03. The examinations of study hypotheses demonstrated that critical ethnic awareness was directly associated (b = .11, p b = .48; bias-corrected 95% confidence interval [0.02, 1.26]) between the racial discrimination experience and depressive symptoms. The proposed path model illustrated that both critical ethnic awareness and social support are important mechanisms for explaining the relationship between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms among this sample of Asian Americans. This study highlights the usefulness of the critical ethnic awareness concept as a way to better understand how Asian Americans might perceive and recognize racial discrimination experiences in relation to its mental health consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Interpersonal suicide risk for American Indians: Investigating thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness.
    American Indians (AIs) experience increased suicide rates compared with other groups in the United States. However, no past studies have examined AI suicide by way of a recent empirically supported theoretical model of suicide. The current study investigated whether AI suicidal ideation can be predicted by two components: thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, from the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (T. E. Joiner, 2005, Why people die by suicide. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press). One hundred seventy-one AIs representing 27 different tribes participated in an online survey. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that perceived burdensomeness significantly predicted suicidal ideation above and beyond demographic variables and depressive symptoms; however, thwarted belongingness did not. Additionally, the two-way interaction between thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness significantly predicted suicidal ideation. These results provide initial support for continued research on the components of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide, an empirically supported theoretical model of suicide, to predict suicidal ideation among AI populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • American Indian identity in mental health services utilization data from a rural Midwestern sample.
    The governing bodies for psychiatry, psychology, and social work all publicly support culturally competent mental health care and have called for increased awareness of the importance of racial, ethnic, and cultural identity in mental health treatment and outcomes. However, since 1960 the population of people identifying as American Indian in the United States has grown faster than can be explained by birth rates, raising questions about the personal meaning of identity for newly self-designated American Indians. For this research, interviews were conducted with 14 self-identified American Indian clients receiving rural mental health care services in the Midwest. The goal was to assess clients’ cultural connection to their racial identity and to understand what impact their American Indian identity had on their mental health care experiences. A modified Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) method was used to develop the interview protocol and code responses. Interview data revealed that clients primarily based their racial identity on family stories of an American Indian ancestor and the majority did not feel their identification as American Indian was relevant to their mental health care. Regardless of lack of cultural connection, participants often reported feeling personal pride associated with identifying as American Indian. Implications for both researchers collecting self-reported race data and for mental health practitioners who might serve self-identified American Indian clients are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Appraisals of discriminatory events among adult offspring of Indian residential school survivors: The influences of identity centrality and past perceptions of discrimination.
    As part of a government policy of assimilation beginning in the mid-1800s, a large proportion of Aboriginal children in Canada were forcibly removed from their homes to attend Indian Residential Schools (IRSs), a practice which continued into the 1990s. This traumatic experience had lasting negative effects not only on those who attended but also on their offspring, who were previously found to report higher levels of perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms compared with Aboriginal adults whose families were not directly affected by IRSs. In attempt to elucidate the processes involved in these previous findings, the current study (N = 399) revealed that greater levels of past perceptions of discrimination among IRS offspring, together with their greater likelihood of considering their Aboriginal heritage to be a central component of their self-concept (i.e., high identity centrality), were associated with an increased likelihood of appraising subsequent negative intergroup scenarios to be a result of discrimination and as threatening to their well-being. In turn, these altered appraisals of threat in response to the scenarios were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms relative to non-IRS adults. The apparent reinforcing relationships between past discrimination, identity centrality, and appraisals of discrimination and threat in intergroup interactions highlight the need for interventions targeting this cycle that appears to contribute to heightened psychological distress among offspring of those who were directly victimized by collective race-based traumas. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Gender roles and acculturation: Relationships with cancer screening among Vietnamese American women.
    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of demographic variables and the interplay between gender roles and acculturation on breast and cervical cancer screening outcomes among Vietnamese American women. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 100 Vietnamese women from the Richmond, VA, metropolitan area. Women were recruited to participate in a larger cancer screening intervention. All participants completed measures on demographic variables, gender roles, acculturation, and cancer screening variables. Findings indicated that traditional masculine gender roles were associated with increased self-efficacy for breast and cervical cancer screening. Higher levels of acculturation were associated with higher probability of having had a Papanicolaou test. In addition, acculturation moderated the relationship between traditional female gender roles and cancer screening variables. For highly acculturated women, higher levels of feminine gender roles predicted higher probability of having had a previous clinical breast exam and higher levels of self-efficacy for cervical cancer screening, while the opposite was true for lower acculturated women. The findings of this study indicate the important roles that sociodemographic variables, gender roles, and acculturation play in affecting health attitudes and behaviors among Vietnamese women. These findings also help to identify a potentially high-risk subgroup and existing gaps that need to be targeted by preventive interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Internalized model minority myth, Asian values, and help-seeking attitudes among Asian American students.
    The present study examined cultural factors underlying help-seeking attitudes of Asian American college students (N = 106). Specifically, we explored internalized model minority myth as a predictor of help-seeking attitudes and tested an intrapersonal–interpersonal framework of Asian values as a mechanism by which the two are related. Results indicated that internalized model minority myth significantly predicted unfavorable help-seeking attitudes, and emotional self-control mediated this relationship. Interpersonal values and humility were nonsignificant mediators, contrary to our hypotheses. The findings suggest that the investigation of internalized model minority myth in help-seeking research is a worthwhile endeavor, and they also highlight emotional self-control as an important explanatory variable in help-seeking attitudes of Asian American college students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Academic stress and positive affect: Asian value and self-worth contingency as moderators among Chinese international students.
    The theoretical model proposed by Berry and colleagues (Berry, 1997; Berry, Kim, Minde, & Mok, 1987) highlights the importance of identifying moderators in the acculturation process. Accordingly, the current study examined the Asian cultural value of family recognition through achievement (FRTA) and contingency of self-worth on academic competence (CSW-AC) as moderators in the association between academic stress and positive affect among Chinese international students. A total of 370 Chinese international students completed online surveys. Results from a hierarchical regression indicated that while academic stress was negatively associated with positive affect, FRTA was positively associated with positive affect. In other words, those with high academic stress reported a lower level of positive affect. However, individuals who endorsed high levels of FRTA reported a higher level of positive affect. In addition, results also revealed a significant interaction between academic stress and CSW-AC on positive affect. Thus, the study’s finding supported the moderator role of CSW-AC. Simple effect analyses were conducted to examine the significant interaction. The results showed that higher levels of CSW-AC strengthened the negative association between academic stress and positive affect but lower levels of CSW-AC did not. Future research directions and implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Gift and sacrifice: Parental involvement in Latino adolescents’ education.
    Although myriad studies document the benefits of parental involvement in education on various indicators of children’s academic performance, less research examines parental involvement among adolescents in low-income Latino families. Incorporating a multidimensional conceptualization of parental involvement, this study examined the relation between parental involvement and academic outcomes in a sample of 223 low-income, Latino adolescents. Results indicated that three types of parental involvement (gift/sacrifice, future discussions/academic socialization, and school involvement) had significant, positive associations with academic outcomes. Moreover, our results suggest that parents’ stories about struggles with poverty and immigration are an important component of parental involvement, contributing to adolescents’ desire to succeed academically and “give back” to parents. Additionally, our findings indicated that the positive relations between parental involvement and academic outcomes were stronger for immigrant youth and for those with higher endorsements of the Latino cultural value of respeto (respect). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Depression among Black bisexual men with early and later life adversities.
    This study examined the role of adulthood adversities in the relationship between childhood adversities and depression in 117 HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) and who have histories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Men were participants in the Enhanced Sexual Health Intervention for Men, a 6-session health intervention, and, at baseline, reported their experiences of CSA, childhood adversities, perceived discrimination, chronic stress, social support, and depressive symptoms. The relationship between childhood adversities, including CSA, and depression was mediated by experiences with racial and HIV discrimination, R² = .25, F(3, 112) = 12.67, p <.001, and chronic stress, R² = .17, F(3, 112) = 7.41, p <.001. Social support moderated the mediated effects of both racial and HIV discrimination, b = −.154, t(111) = −2.82, p <.01, and chronic stress, b = −.019, t(111) = −3.759, p <.01. Men’s early adverse experiences were predictive of depression in adulthood; however, this relationship was largely affected by adulthood experiences, specifically discrimination, high chronic stress, and low social support. These findings illustrate pathways by which Black MSMW’s early vulnerability for depression is either exacerbated or attenuated by their experiences as adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Review of Aspiring to home: South Asians in America.
    Reviews the book, Aspiring to Home: South Asians in America by Bakirathi Mani (2012). In this book the author, an associate professor of English literature at Swarthmore College, takes on an important subject that is close to her own quest of “becoming” South Asian: the diasporic experience of Indian, Bangladeshi, Sri Lankan, and Pakistani communities that have become an important part of the American landscape. She incisively explores how South Asian immigrants develop a sense of identity and community while maintaining their distinct attachments to their homeland. It provides an excellent critique on the representational politics in contemporary Asian American studies and elicits an appreciation for the importance of locality when studying the journey of becoming a South Asian American. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Review of Handbook of adult psychopathology in Asians.
    Reviews the book, Handbook of Adult Psychopathology in Asians edited by Edward C. Chang (see record 2012-11533-000). This book delivers a much-needed survey of current research on mental illness in Asian adult populations. Drawing from an array of researchers in medicine and psychology from around the globe, the collection transcends academic disciplines and boundaries to provide a well-informed and well-rounded resource for clinicians. Thorough in its review, each chapter provides background on symptomology, etiology, biological, and cultural factors (ethnic identity) for each disorder. Chang states his intent simply: “to represent a central resource for all current and future professionals who are involved or interested in the study and treatment of mental illness among Asian adults." By the reviewers' account, he effectively accomplished his goal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Review of Qualitative strategies for ethnocultural research.
    Reviews the book, Qualitative Strategies for Ethnocultural Research by D. K. Nagata, L. Kohn-Wood, and L. Suzuki (see record 2011-26948-000). This book is an informative and instructive resource for conducting research among diverse ethnic groups. It offers strategies in conducting research when issues or considerations arise that often cannot be addressed using conventional quantitative methods. It provides a variety of models for developing and describing qualitative research and includes descriptions and examples of a variety of qualitative research methods. It also provides guidelines and recommendations for other professionals about how to develop and write about qualitative research and findings effectively. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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