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Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology - Vol 20, Iss 3

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Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology seeks to publish theoretical, conceptual, research and case study articles that promote the development of knowledge and understanding, application of psychological principles, and scholarly analysis of social-political forces affecting racial/ethnic minorities.
Copyright 2014 American Psychological Association
  • Anxiety symptomatology and perceived health in African American adults: Moderating role of emotion regulation.
    Although emotional health has been theoretically and empirically linked to physical health, the anxiety–physical health association in particular is not well understood for African American adults. This study examined anxiety as a specific correlate of perceived health in addition to testing the potential moderating role of emotion regulation, an index of how and when individuals modulate emotions, in the association for anxiety to perceived health. Study participants were 151 community-based African American adults who completed measures of anxiety symptomatology and emotion regulation in addition to responding to a self-report question of perceived health. Results showed that higher levels of anxiety symptomatology were associated with poorer health ratings for those who reported more limited access to emotion regulation strategies but not those who reported having more emotion regulation strategies. The findings suggest that anxiety-related distress and health problems may be interrelated when emotion regulation strategies are limited. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Stereotype threat among Black and White women in health care settings.
    The first of its kind, the present experiment applied stereotype threat—the threat of being judged by or confirming negative group-based stereotypes—to the health sciences. Black and White women (N = 162) engaged in a virtual health care situation. In the experimental condition, one’s ethnic identity and negative stereotypes of Black women specifically were made salient. As predicted, Black women in the stereotype threat condition who were strongly identified as Black (in terms of having explored what their ethnic identity means to them and the role it plays in their lives) reported significantly greater anxiety while waiting to see the doctor in the virtual health care setting than all other women. It is hypothesized that stereotype threat experienced in health care settings is one overlooked social barrier contributing to disparities in health care utilization and broader health disparities among Black women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Predictors of self-perceived cultural competence among children’s mental health providers.
    Based on empirical research and predictions from the Multicultural Assessment-Intervention Process model, the racial attitudes, ethnic identity, and acculturation of a national sample of 371 child mental health service providers were assessed as possible predictors of practitioner self-perceived cultural competence. It was hypothesized that ethnic identity and racial attitudes would each directly affect self-perceived cultural competence and that acculturation and racial attitudes would mediate the effect of ethnic identity. The results indicated that ethnic identity exerted a direct effect on self-perceived cultural competence and that this effect was partially mediated by respondents’ racial attitudes; however, acculturation had no significant role as a mediator. The results are discussed within the context of the Multicultural Assessment-Intervention Process model and implications for providing culturally competent services to children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • How have researchers studied multiracial populations? A content and methodological review of 20 years of research.
    The U.S. Census shows that the racial-ethnic makeup of over 9 million people (2.9% of the total population) who self-identified as multiracial is extremely diverse. Each multiracial subgroup has unique social and political histories that may lead to distinct societal perceptions, economic situations, and health outcomes. Despite the increasing academic and media interest in multiracial individuals, there are methodological and definitional challenges in studying the population, resulting in conflicting representations in the literature. This content and methods review of articles on multiracial populations provides a comprehensive understanding of which multiracial populations have been included in research and how they have been studied, both to recognize emerging research and to identify gaps for guiding future research on this complex but increasingly visible population. We examine 125 U.S.-based peer-reviewed journal articles published over the past 20 years (1990 to 2009) containing 133 separate studies focused on multiracial individuals, primarily from the fields of psychology, sociology, social work, education, and public health. Findings include (a) descriptive data regarding the sampling strategies, methodologies, and demographic characteristics of studies, including which multiracial subgroups are most studied, gender, age range, region of country, and socioeconomic status; (b) major thematic trends in research topics concerning multiracial populations; and (c) implications and recommendations for future studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Trends in the neuropsychological assessment of ethnic/racial minorities: A survey of clinical neuropsychologists in the United States and Canada.
    Despite the importance of diversity variables to the clinical practice of neuropsychology, little is known about neuropsychologists’ multicultural assessment practices and perspectives. The current study was the first to survey issues related to neuropsychologists’ assessment of minority populations, proficiency in languages other than English, approaches to interpreting the cognitive scores of minorities, and perceived challenges associated with assessing ethnic/racial minority patients. We also surveyed respondents with regard to their own demographic backgrounds, as neuropsychologists who identify as ethnic/racial minorities are reportedly underrepresented in the field. Respondents were 512 (26% usable response rate; 54% female) doctorate-level psychologists affiliated with the International Neuropsychology Society or the National Academy of Neuropsychology who resided in the United States or Canada. Overall, results suggest that lack of appropriate norms, tests, and referral sources are perceived as the greatest challenges associated with assessment of ethnic/racial minorities, that multicultural training is not occurring for some practitioners, and that some are conducting assessments in foreign languages despite limited proficiency. In addition, ethnic/racial minorities appear to be grossly underrepresented in the field of neuropsychology. Findings are discussed in relation to the need for appropriate education and training of neuropsychologists in multicultural issues and the provision of more valid assessments for ethnic/racial minority individuals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • In the eyes of the beholder: National identification predicts differential reactions to ethnic identity expressions.
    Two studies examined how perceivers’ national identification influences their implicit and explicit attitudes toward White and non-White ethnic groups whose members express their ethnic identity overtly in public or discreetly in private spaces. Results revealed that at a conscious level, White American perceivers’ national identification elicited more negative attitudes toward both White and non-White ethnic groups when members embraced their ethnic heritage in public rather than in private. However, at an unconscious level, White perceivers’ identification with the national group led to less favorable attitudes toward non-White ethnic groups, but not White ethnic groups, when their group members embraced ethnic identity in public. By integrating research on national identification, ethnic identity expression, and prejudice, the present research highlights some conditions under which majority group members’ national identification affects how they perceive ethnic subgroups within the nation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Lost in the categorical shuffle: Evidence for the social non-prototypicality of Black women.
    The white male norm hypothesis (Zárate & Smith, 1990) posits that White men’s race and gender go overlooked as a result of their prototypical social statuses. In contrast, the intersectional invisibility hypothesis (Purdie-Vaughns & Eibach, 2008) posits that people with membership in multiple subordinate social groups experience social invisibility as a result of their non-prototypical social statuses. The present research reconciles these contradictory theories and provides empirical support for the core assumption of the intersectional invisibility hypothesis—that intersectional targets are non-prototypical within their race and gender ingroups. In a speeded categorization task, participants were slower to associate Black women versus Black men with the category “Black” and slower to associate Black women versus White women with the category “woman.” We discuss the implications of this work for social categorical theory development and future intersectionality research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Excluded and avoided: Racial microaggressions targeting Asian international students in Canada.
    This qualitative study explored East and South Asian international students’ (N = 12) experiences with racial microaggressions at one Canadian university. Data were collected through unstructured, individual interviews. Using a modified version of the consensual qualitative research method (Hill, Thompson, & Williams, 1997), we identified six racial microaggressions themes: (a) excluded and avoided, (b) ridiculed for accent, (c) rendered invisible, (d) disregarded international values and needs, (e) ascription of intelligence, and (f) environmental microaggressions (structural barriers on campus). In addition, we used the same approach to identify themes pertaining to the ways in which students coped with racial microaggressions: (a) engaging with own racial and cultural groups, (b) withdrawing from academic spheres, and (c) seeking comfort in the surrounding multicultural milieu. Microaggressions and coping themes differed based on country of origin and language proficiency. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Familism, family ethnic socialization, and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers’ educational adjustment.
    The current longitudinal study examined how familism values and family ethnic socialization impacted Mexican-origin adolescent mothers’ (N = 205) educational adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, educational utility), and whether these associations were moderated by adolescent mothers’ ethnic centrality. Findings indicated that adolescent mothers’ reports of familism values and family ethnic socialization were positively associated with their beliefs about educational utility, but not educational expectations. Ethnic centrality moderated the association between adolescent mothers’ familism values and educational utility, such that adolescent mothers’ endorsement of familism values during pregnancy were associated with significant increases in educational utility after their transition to parenthood, but only when adolescents reported high levels of ethnic centrality. Moreover, ethnic centrality was positively associated with adolescent mothers’ educational expectations. Results highlight the importance of familism, ethnic socialization, and ethnic centrality for promoting Mexican-origin adolescent mothers’ educational outcomes. Findings are discussed with respect to understanding adolescent mothers’ educational adjustment in the context of family and culture. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The family-study interface and academic outcomes: Differences and similarities between ethnic minority and ethnic majority students.
    The present study investigated possible differences in the family-study interface between ethnic minority and ethnic majority students as an explanation for the poorer study results of ethnic minority students compared with those of majority students. We used a model for family-study conflict and facilitation derived from family-work and work-study models. This model held true for the full sample and both non-Western ethnic minority students (N = 342) and ethnic majority students (N = 1314) separately at a major Dutch university. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that ethnic minority students reported less study effort and earned lower grades compared with ethnic majority students. Regarding the family-study interface, ethnic minority students reported more family-study conflict than did ethnic majority students. No differences were found between the 2 groups in family-study facilitation. Ethnic minority students participated more in family activities and were more involved with their family than ethnic majority students. Levels of experienced family support were equal for both groups of students. Students who received more family social support reported less conflict and more facilitation. This latter finding held more strongly for majority students, resulting in more study effort and higher grades for this group. The results demonstrated the explanatory power of the family-study conflict and facilitation model for both groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Giving back or giving up: Native American student experiences in science and engineering.
    Native Americans are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) careers. We examine communal goal incongruence—the mismatch between students’ emphasis on communal work goals and the noncommunal culture of STEM—as a possible factor in this underrepresentation. First, we surveyed 80 Native American STEM freshmen and found they more highly endorsed communal goals than individualistic work goals. Next, we surveyed 96 Native American and White American students in STEM and non-STEM majors and confirmed that both Native American men and women in STEM highly endorsed communal goals. In a third study, we conducted a follow-up survey and in-depth interviews with a subset of Native American STEM students in their second semester to assess their experiences of belonging uncertainty, intrinsic motivation, persistence intentions, and perceived performance in STEM as a function of their initial communal work goals. Results demonstrate the prominence of communal goals among incoming Native American freshman (especially compared with White male STEM majors) and the connection between communal goals and feelings of belonging uncertainty, low motivation, and perceived poor performance 1 semester later. The interview data illustrate that these issues are particularly salient for students raised within tribal communities, and that a communal goal orientation is not just a vague desire to “help others,” but a commitment to helping their tribal communities. The interviews also highlight the importance of student support programs for fostering feelings of belonging. We end by discussing implications for interventions and institutional changes that may promote Native American student retention in STEM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Are the costs of neuroticism inevitable? Evidence of attenuated effects in U.S. Latinas.
    Neuroticism is the heritable and stable personality trait defined by the tendency to experience negative emotion, be easily stressed, and slow to soothe. Neuroticism poses a risk for poor social and health outcomes that has been identified as a major public health concern. To date, factors that attenuate neuroticism’s costs have not been identified. The goal of this work was to test the hypothesis that the costs of neuroticism would be attenuated in sociocultural contexts that emphasize readily accessible social support, emotional positivity, and physical proximity in interdependent relationships. U.S. Latino culture fits these characteristics. Two studies, an online survey study (Study 1) and a laboratory study (Study 2), tested whether three key costs of high neuroticism—less support (Study 1), more distress (Study 2), and blunted cortisol reactivity (Study 2)—would be attenuated in U.S. Latinas relative to non-Latinas of European and East Asian cultural background. Consistent with previous research, neuroticism was associated with less perceived support, more distress, and blunted cortisol reactivity in non-Latina women of European and East Asian cultural background. For Latina women, however, these effects were attenuated. Latina women who were high in neuroticism continued to feel supported, were not as distressed, and their cortisol reactivity was less blunted. The role of sociocultural context for generating a better understanding of personality processes and the social malleability of neuroticism’s costs are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Income, ethnicity, and sleep: Coping as a moderator.
    Toward identifying variables that may protect children against sleep problems otherwise associated with ethnic minority status and economic adversity, support coping was examined as a moderator. Participants were 235 children (113 boys, 122 girls; M age = 11.33 years, SD = 8.03 months), 64% European American and 36% African American. Children’s sleep duration (minutes) and continuity (efficiency) were assessed through actigraphs worn for 1 week. Mothers reported on the family’s monetary resources (income-to-needs ratio) and children reported on their support coping strategies. For children from lower income homes and African Americans, a higher level of support coping was a protective factor against fewer sleep minutes and reduced sleep efficiency, otherwise associated with economic adversity. Children from more economically advantaged homes had good sleep parameters regardless of their coping. The results build on the existing small body of work by demonstrating that children’s support coping strategies have a protective role against sleep problems otherwise associated with ethnic minority status and economic adversity and present potential targets for intervention that may help reduce health disparities in an important health domain. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Culturally adapted cognitive behavioral guided self-help for binge eating: A feasibility study with Mexican Americans.
    Objective was to test feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a culturally adapted cognitive–behavioral self-help program to treat binge eating and related problems in Mexican Americans. Participants were 31 women recruited from the Los Angeles area and diagnosed with binge eating disorder, recurrent binge eating, or bulimia nervosa. Participants completed a culturally adapted version of a CBT-based self-help program with 8 guidance sessions over a 3-month period. Treatment efficacy was evaluated in terms of binge eating, psychological functioning, and weight loss. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed 35.5% abstinence from binge eating at posttreatment and 38.7% diagnostic remission. Results indicated significant pretreatment to posttreatment improvement on distress level, BMI, eating disorder psychopathology, and self-esteem. Satisfaction with the program was high. Findings demonstrate that the program is acceptable, feasible, and efficacious in reducing binge eating and associated symptoms for Mexican American women. Study provides “proof of concept” for implementation of culturally adapted forms of evidence-based programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Predicting depressive symptoms from acculturative family distancing: A study of Taiwanese parachute kids in adulthood.
    We applied Hwang’s (2006a) acculturative family distancing (AFD) theory to Taiwanese “parachute kids,” who had immigrated to the United States or Canada as unaccompanied minors and remained in North American as adults. It was hypothesized that each dimension of AFD—communication breakdown and cultural value incongruence—would uniquely predict conflict with participants’ family members in Taiwan, which would, in turn, predict their depressive symptoms. In a sample of 68 former parachute kids aged 18 to 36 years, the relation between communication breakdown and depressive symptoms was fully mediated by family conflict. On the other hand, the mediation effect was not found for cultural value incongruence. Moreover, a suppression effect occurred, suggesting the likelihood that an additional, unknown variable accounts for the relation between cultural value incongruence and depressive symptoms. We concluded, from these results, that the 2 AFD dimensions operate differently in this population than in previous AFD research. This conclusion was further supported by the finding that participants reported significantly more communication breakdown than cultural value incongruence with family members residing in Taiwan. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The psychometric properties of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Scale in Hispanic Americans with English or Spanish language preference.
    The Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale (GAD-7) is a self-report questionnaire that is widely used to screen for anxiety. The GAD-7 has been translated into numerous languages, including Spanish. Previous studies evaluating the structural validity of the English and Spanish versions indicate a unidimensional factor structure in both languages. However, the psychometric properties of the Spanish language version have yet to be evaluated in samples outside of Spain, and the measure has not been tested for use among Hispanic Americans. This study evaluated the reliability, structural validity, and convergent validity of the English and Spanish language versions of the GAD-7 for Hispanic Americans in the United States. A community sample of 436 Hispanic Americans with an English (n = 210) or Spanish (n = 226) language preference completed the GAD-7. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the goodness-of-fit of the unidimensional factor structure of the GAD-7 across language-preference groups. Results from the multiple-group CFA indicated a similar unidimensional factor structure with equivalent response patterns and item intercepts, but different variances, across language-preference groups. Internal consistency was good for both English and Spanish language-preference groups. The GAD-7 also evidenced good convergent validity as demonstrated by significant correlations in expected directions with the Perceived Stress Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Physical Health domain of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF assessment. The unidimensional GAD-7 is suitable for use among Hispanic Americans with an English or Spanish language preference. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Universal-diverse orientation in Asian international students: Confirmatory factor analysis of the Miville-Guzman Universality-Diversity Scale, Short Form.
    Despite apparent relevance to Asian international students, universal-diverse orientation (UDO) has not been psychometrically validated with this population. The current study investigated the most researched UDO measure, the Miville-Guzman Universality-Diversity Scale, Short Form (M-GUDS-S; Fuertes, Miville, Mohr, Sedlacek, & Gretchen, 2000), with 333 Asian international college students. The M-GUDS-S evidenced good reliability and convergent validity, and analyses confirmed a three-factor structure, supporting expanded use of the scale. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Review of Consensual qualitative research: A practical resource for investigating social science phenomena.
    Reviews the book, Consensual Qualitative Research: A Practical Resource for Investigating Social Science Phenomena by Clara E. Hill (see record 2011-09578-000). This book provides a strong and practical introduction to the method of consensual qualitative research (CQR) from the perspective of those who originated it and have used it most. Although it is framed as an edited book, it might be more accurately described as a book authored by Hill in collaboration with several knowledgeable and talented coauthors for different chapters; Hill is an author on every chapter within the book, there is some close repetition of concepts and language across chapters, and the choice of example studies within and across most chapters seems strongly tied to Hill’s work. The book is an invaluable resource for those already possessing a solid foundational understanding of qualitative methodology who seek to develop specific skills in CQR. Although there may be material in the text that will be review for a researcher with such a foundation, there is also much that is unique and particular to developing expertise in CQR. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Review of The Oxford handbook of social class in counseling.
    Reviews the book, The Oxford Handbook of Social Class in Counseling by W. M. Liu (see record 2013-01009-000). Liu gives us a framework to help us understand the notion of social class, as its objective definition has been replaced by a more amorphous sense of class. Lott (2002) long ago challenged our profession to pay attention to issues of social class and poverty. However, with few exceptions (Lott & Bullock, 2007; Toporek, Gerstein, Fouad, Roysircar, & Israel, 2006), few psychologists have accepted Lott’s challenge in book form. This book does so in 33 wonderful chapters. The book focuses upon lower social class populations as opposed to the gamut of social class issues, as “handbook” in the title of the book might suggest. Overall, this book is an important addition to professionals’ libraries. For therapists and counselors, this book can help them intervene with clients from poverty backgrounds, as all or almost all chapters have therapy implications and suggestions. For academicians, this book is an invaluable resource for suggested readings or lecture developments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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