PsyResearch
ψ   Psychology Research on the Web   



Couples needed for online psychology research


Help us grow:




Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology - Vol 21, Iss 2

Random Abstract
Quick Journal Finder:
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology seeks to publish theoretical, conceptual, research and case study articles that promote the development of knowledge and understanding, application of psychological principles, and scholarly analysis of social-political forces affecting racial/ethnic minorities.
Copyright 2015 American Psychological Association
  • Ethnic variation in gender-STEM stereotypes and STEM participation: An intersectional approach.
    Stereotypes associating men and masculine traits with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are ubiquitous, but the relative strength of these stereotypes varies considerably across cultures. The present research applies an intersectional approach to understanding ethnic variation in gender-STEM stereotypes and STEM participation within an American university context. African American college women participated in STEM majors at higher rates than European American college women (Study 1, Study 2, and Study 4). Furthermore, African American women had weaker implicit gender-STEM stereotypes than European American women (Studies 2–4), and ethnic differences in implicit gender-STEM stereotypes partially mediated ethnic differences in STEM participation (Study 2 and Study 4). Although African American men had weaker implicit gender-STEM stereotypes than European American men (Study 4), ethnic differences between men in STEM participation were generally small (Study 1) or nonsignificant (Study 4). We discuss the implications of an intersectional approach for understanding the relationship between gender and STEM participation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Home activities of Mexican American children: Structuring early socialization and cognitive engagement.
    The question of how home activities advance the early social and cognitive development of Latino children receives growing attention from psychologists and social scientists. Some scholars and practitioners, focused on promoting “school readiness,” frame the problem as weak parenting, signaled by insufficient rich language or academic skills. Other theorists, rooted in ecocultural theory, argue that early socialization and cognitive engagement are culturally situated within routine home activities. These activity structures vary and change over time as families acculturate, adapting to local social ecologies. Little is known empirically about the activity structures within Latino homes, including how young children participate. We detail the social architecture and cognitive engagement pertaining to 6 prevalent home activities in which 24 Mexican American 4-year-olds were engaged over 14 months. We then report how children participate in these 6 activities, and their potential relevance to the cognitive skills gap seen at school entry. We found that children’s activities reproduced heritage language, symbols, and knowledge less often than suggested in prior literature; children’s typical level of cognitive engagement varied greatly among tasks; and the distribution of time spent in activities is associated with the mother’s school attainment and home language. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Direct and interactive links between cross-ethnic friendships and peer rejection, internalizing symptoms, and academic engagement among ethnically diverse children.
    The present study examined direct and interactive links between friendships and social, academic, and psychological adjustment problems (i.e., peer rejection as nominated by same-ethnic and cross-ethnic peers, teacher-reported academic engagement, and teacher-reported internalizing symptoms) among school-age children in multiethnic schools (n = 509, age: 9–10). The data, which included 2 time points with a 6-month interval, were drawn from a relatively large-sized, short-term longitudinal study. Results showed that cross-ethnic friendships (not same-ethnic friendships) were associated with greater academic engagement concurrently and predated decreased peer rejection and internalizing symptoms longitudinally, even after controlling for the availability of same-ethnic peers and classroom diversity. Furthermore, cross-ethnic friendships (not same-ethnic friendships) moderated the link between relational victimization and increased peer rejection and greater internalizing symptoms, such that this link was evidenced for children with fewer cross-ethnic friendships. However, the moderation effect was contingent upon the type of outcome variables and the ethnicity of the child. For example, the buffering effect against the negative contribution of relational victimization to internalizing symptoms was found particularly for African American children. The findings are discussed based on theories of normative development, ethnic socialization, and intergroup relations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Immigrant Arab adolescents in ethnic enclaves: Physical and phenomenological contexts of identity negotiation.
    Ecologically embedded social identity theories were used to examine the risk and protective factors associated with the identity negotiation and adjustment of recent immigrant Arab (IA) adolescents to the United States residing in ethnic enclaves. Yemeni, Lebanese, and Iraqi 8th-graders (n = 45) from 4 ethnic enclave schools participated in focus-group interviews. In-depth analyses of interviews revealed that living in an ethnic enclave enhanced IA adolescents’ feelings of belonging to the community. However, the new immigrant status coupled with country of origin determined the permeability of intergroup boundaries with well-established Arab and Arab American peers. Their identity negotiations and social identity salience (national, religious, and pan-Arab) were informed by transitional experiences from home to host country and the prevailing political and cultural tensions between the two, recognition of national hierarchy within the Arab community, perceptions of discrimination by the larger society, changed educational aspirations consequent to immigration, and current physical (school and community) and phenomenological contexts. Findings suggest that current theoretical perspectives should be extended to incorporate phenomenological representations of past spaces and places not currently occupied to understand adolescents’ multifaceted identity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Feelings About Culture Scales: Development, factor structure, reliability, and validity.
    Although measures of cultural identity, values, and behavior exist in the multicultural psychological literature, there is currently no measure that explicitly assesses ethnic minority individuals’ positive and negative affect toward culture. Therefore, we developed 2 new measures called the Feelings About Culture Scale—Ethnic Culture and Feelings About Culture Scale—Mainstream American Culture and tested their psychometric properties. In 6 studies, we piloted the measures, conducted factor analyses to clarify their factor structure, and examined reliability and validity. The factor structure revealed 2 dimensions reflecting positive and negative affect for each measure. Results provided evidence for convergent, discriminant, criterion-related, and incremental validity as well as the reliability of the scales. The Feelings About Culture Scales are the first known measures to examine both positive and negative affect toward an individual’s ethnic culture and mainstream American culture. The focus on affect captures dimensions of psychological experiences that differ from cognitive and behavioral constructs often used to measure cultural orientation. These measures can serve as a valuable contribution to both research and counseling by providing insight into the nuanced affective experiences ethnic minority individuals have toward culture. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • National and ethnic identity in the face of discrimination: Ethnic minority and majority perspectives.
    Does the United States afford people of different backgrounds a sense of equal identification with the nation? Past research has documented ethnic/racial group differences on levels of national identity but there has been little research examining what psychologically moderates these disparities. The present research investigates how perceived group discrimination is associated with national and ethnic identification among ethnic majority and minority groups. Study 1 examines whether perceived group discrimination moderates subgroup differences on national and ethnic identification. Study 2 makes salient group discrimination—via an item order manipulation—and examines the effects on national and ethnic identification. In general, the 2 studies demonstrate that for most ethnic minorities higher perceptions of group discrimination are related to lower levels of national identity and higher ethnic identity. Conversely, among majority group members, higher levels of perceived discrimination predict higher levels of national identity with little influence on ethnic identification. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Validation of the internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4) and its link to academic performance and psychological adjustment among Asian American adolescents.
    There is limited research examining psychological correlates of a uniquely racialized experience of the model minority stereotype faced by Asian Americans. The present study examined the factor structure and fit of the only published measure of the internalization of the model minority myth, the Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4; Yoo et al., 2010), with a sample of 155 Asian American high school adolescents. We also examined the link between internalization of the model minority myth types (i.e., myth associated with achievement and myth associated with unrestricted mobility) and psychological adjustment (i.e., affective distress, somatic distress, performance difficulty, academic expectations stress), and the potential moderating effect of academic performance (cumulative grade point average). Results suggested the 2-factor model of the IM-4 had an acceptable fit to the data and supported the factor structure using confirmatory factor analyses. Internalizing the model minority myth of achievement related positively to academic expectations stress; however, internalizing the model minority myth of unrestricted mobility related negatively to academic expectations stress, both controlling for gender and academic performance. Finally, academic performance moderated the model minority myth associated with unrestricted mobility and affective distress link and the model minority myth associated with achievement and performance difficulty link. These findings highlight the complex ways in which the model minority myth relates to psychological outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Coming out in color: Racial/ethnic differences in the relationship between level of sexual identity disclosure and depression among lesbians.
    Disclosing one’s sexual minority identity, or “coming out,” has varying effects on the mental health of lesbians. Previous research indicates a negative association between disclosure and depression. However, these findings are based on research with White lesbians. To date, there is a paucity of studies that examined how the relationship between disclosure and depression may differ by race/ethnicity among lesbians. To address this gap, we examined the relationship between disclosure and depression among African American (26.5%), Latina (19.7%), and White (53.8%) self-identified lesbians (N = 351) in 2 survey-interviews (∼3-years apart). Over 50% of the participants reported a history of lifetime depression at baseline and 35.9% reported depression at Time 2 (T2). Disclosure levels varied: 78.9% had disclosed to their mother, 58.4% to their father, and 83.3% to a sibling. The mean level for disclosure to nonfamily individuals was 6.29 (SD 2.64; range 0–9). Disclosure results varied by race/ethnicity showing African American lesbians (vs. White lesbians) were less likely to disclose to nonfamily individuals when controlling for covariates. Results for the relationship between disclosure and depression showed disclosure to either parent or sibling was not associated with depression for the total sample. Among Latinas only, disclosure to nonfamily individuals was associated with less depression. Additional research is needed to explore racial/ethnic differences in disclosure with certain individuals and to better understand the relation between disclosure and depression. Findings have implications for reducing overall rates of depression among lesbians living with multiple-minority identities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Racial differences in sexual prejudice and its correlates among heterosexual men.
    Previous research has consistently found sexual prejudice to be a predictor of antigay aggression and has also revealed specific correlates and antecedents of sexual prejudice. However, extant literature reveals mixed findings about potential racial group differences in sexual prejudice, and few studies have examined racial differences in the correlates of sexual prejudice. The aims of this descriptive study were to determine whether there are (a) racial group differences in reports of sexual prejudice and (b) racial group differences in previously identified correlates of sexual prejudice. Participants were 195 heterosexual males, ages 18 to 30 (98 Blacks and 97 Whites), recruited from a large metropolitan city in the southeastern United States. Based on cultural differences in the influence of religion and in attitudes about male sexuality, it was hypothesized that Black participants would report higher sexual prejudice than White participants. Additionally, based on cultural differences in racial views on masculinity and in sociocultural experiences of male gender roles, it was hypothesized that Blacks would report greater endorsement of religious fundamentalism and the traditional male role norm of status than Whites. Results confirmed all of the hypothesized racial differences and revealed additional differences, including a differential effect of the traditional male role norm of status on sexual prejudice, which explains, at least in part, the racial differences found in sexual prejudice. These findings may reflect underlying cultural differences between Black and White males and may aid in the development of future efforts to reduce sexual prejudice and consequently antigay aggression toward sexual minorities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Correction to Armenta et al. (2013).
    Reports an error in "Where are you from? A validation of the Foreigner Objectification Scale and the psychological correlates of foreigner objectification among Asian Americans and Latinos" by Brian E. Armenta, Richard M. Lee, Stephanie T. Pituc, Kyoung-Rae Jung, Irene J. K. Park, José A. Soto, Su Yeong Kim and Seth J. Schwartz (Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 2013[Apr], Vol 19[2], 131-142). There were errors in the author note and the Measures section. The omitted information in the author note and the corrected version of the last sentence in paragraph two of the Measures section are provided. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2013-14946-002.) Many ethnic minorities in the United States consider themselves to be just as American as their European American counterparts. However, there is a persistent cultural stereotype of ethnic minorities as foreigners (i.e., the perpetual foreigner stereotype) that may be expressed during interpersonal interactions (i.e., foreigner objectification). The goal of the present study was to validate the Foreigner Objectification Scale, a brief self-report measure of perceived foreigner objectification, and to examine the psychological correlates of perceived foreigner objectification. Results indicated that the Foreigner Objectification Scale is structurally (i.e., factor structure) and metrically (i.e., factor loadings) invariant across foreign-born and U.S.-born Asian Americans and Latinos. Scalar (i.e., latent item intercepts) invariance was demonstrated for the two foreign-born groups and the two U.S.-born groups, but not across foreign-born and U.S.-born individuals. Multiple-group structural equation models indicated that, among U.S.-born individuals, perceived foreigner objectification was associated with less life satisfaction and more depressive symptoms, and was indirectly associated with lower self-esteem via identity denial, operationalized as the perception that one is not viewed by others as American. Among foreign-born individuals, perceived foreigner objectification was not significantly associated directly with self-esteem, life satisfaction, or depressive symptoms. However, perceived foreigner objectification was positively associated with identity denial, and identity denial was negatively associated with life satisfaction. This study illustrates the relevance of perceived foreigner objectification to the psychological well-being of U.S.-born Asian Americans and Latinos. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • One size does not fit all: Using variables other than the thin ideal to understand Black women’s body image.
    Very few empirical studies have investigated the effect that culturally relevant beauty ideals (such as long, straight hair and lighter skin tones) have on Black women’s feelings about their physical appearance. The current investigation examined the direct effect of internalizing idealized media images on Black women’s body esteem and appearance satisfaction. The indirect effects of: (a) the presumed influence of the media images on African American men, and (b) feelings of invisibility were also tested. Using an online survey, the sample included 230 women who identified as African American and/or Black American. Through structural equation modeling (SEM), findings reveal that participants’ body esteem was directly negatively impacted by higher levels of internalization of idealized media images. Further, the findings support the idea that higher levels of internalization of media lead to a greater presumed influence of media on men, which leads to higher feelings of invisibility, ultimately leading to lower body esteem. Finally, there was evidence to suggest that appearance satisfaction was not directly negatively affected by internalization of media images but was negatively impacted when the images are presumed to have a higher influence on African American men. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Racial and mental illness stereotypes and discrimination: An identity-based analysis of the Virginia Tech and Columbine shootings.
    The Virginia Tech and Columbine High shootings are 2 of the deadliest school massacres in the United States. The present study investigates in a nationally representative sample how White Americans’ causal attributions of these shooting moderate their attitudes toward the shooter’s race. White Americans shown a vignette based on the Virginia Tech shooting were more likely to espouse negative beliefs about Korean American men and distance themselves from this group the more they believed that the shooter’s race caused the shooting. Among those who were shown a vignette based on the Columbine High shooting, believing that mental illness caused the shooting was associated with weaker negative beliefs about White American men. White Americans in a third condition who were given the Virginia Tech vignette and prompted to subtype the shooter according to his race were less likely to possess negative beliefs about Korean American men the more they believed that mental illness caused the shooting. There was no evidence for the ultimate attribution error. Theoretical accounts based on the stereotype and in-group-out-group bias literature are presented. The current findings have important implications for media depictions of minority group behavior and intergroup relations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • The influence of mitigation evidence, ethnicity, and SES on death penalty decisions by European American and Latino venire persons.
    The purpose of the research was to determine whether European American and Latino mock jurors would demonstrate bias in death penalty decision making when mitigation evidence and defendant ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) were varied. A total of 561 actual venire persons acted as mock jurors and read a trial transcript that varied a defendant’s case information (mitigating circumstances: strong/weak, defendant ethnicity: European American/Latino, and defendant SES: low/high). European American jurors recommended the death penalty significantly more often for the low SES Latino defendant when strength of mitigation evidence was weak. In addition, they also assigned this defendant higher culpability ratings and lower ratings on positive personality trait measures compared with all other conditions. Strong mitigation evidence contributed to lower guilt ratings by European American jurors for the high SES European American defendant. Latino jurors did not differ in their death penalty sentencing across defendant mitigation, ethnicity, or SES conditions. Discussion of in-group favoritism and out-group derogation, as well as suggestions for procedures to diminish juror bias in death penalty cases, is provided. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Cognitive behavioral therapy: A meta-analysis of race and substance use outcomes.
    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective intervention for reducing substance use. However, because CBT trials have included predominantly White samples caution must be used when generalizing these effects to Blacks and Hispanics. This meta-analysis compared the impact of CBT in reducing substance use between studies with a predominantly non-Hispanic White sample (hereafter NHW studies) and studies with a predominantly Black and/or Hispanic sample (hereafter BH studies). From 322 manuscripts identified in the literature, 16 met criteria for inclusion. Effect sizes between CBT and comparison group at posttest had similar effects on substance abuse across NHW and BH studies. However, when comparing pre-posttest effect sizes from groups receiving CBT between NHW and BH studies, CBT’s impact was significantly stronger in NHW studies. T-test comparisons indicated reduced retention/engagement in BH studies, albeit failing to reach statistical significance. Results highlight the need for further research testing CBT’s impact on substance use among Blacks and Hispanics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source



Back to top


Back to top