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Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology - Vol 22, Iss 1

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Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology seeks to publish theoretical, conceptual, research and case study articles that promote the development of knowledge and understanding, application of psychological principles, and scholarly analysis of social-political forces affecting racial/ethnic minorities.
Copyright 2016 American Psychological Association
  • The Historical Loss Scale: Longitudinal measurement equivalence and prospective links to anxiety among North American indigenous adolescents.
    Objectives: Thoughts of historical loss (i.e., the loss of culture, land, and people as a result of colonization) are conceptualized as a contributor to the contemporary distress experienced by North American Indigenous populations. Although discussions of historical loss and related constructs (e.g., historical trauma) are widespread within the Indigenous literature, empirical efforts to understand the consequence of historical loss are limited, partially because of the lack of valid assessments. In this study we evaluated the longitudinal measurement properties of the Historical Loss Scale (HLS)—a standardized measure that was developed to systematically examine the frequency with which Indigenous individuals think about historical loss—among a sample of North American Indigenous adolescents. We also test the hypothesis that thoughts of historical loss can be psychologically distressing. Methods: Via face-to-face interviews, 636 Indigenous adolescents from a single cultural group completed the HLS and a measure of anxiety at 4 time-points, which were separated by 1- to 2-year intervals (Mage = 12.09 years, SD = .86, 50.0% girls at baseline). Results: Responses to the HLS were explained well by 3-factor (i.e., cultural loss, loss of people, and cultural mistreatment) and second-order factor structures. Both of these factor structures held full longitudinal metric (i.e., factor loadings) and scalar (i.e., intercepts) equivalence. In addition, using the second-order factor structure, more frequent thoughts of historical loss were associated with increased anxiety. Conclusions: The identified 3-factor and second-order HLS structures held full longitudinal measurement equivalence. Moreover, as predicted, our results suggest that historical loss can be psychologically distressing for Indigenous adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Development and validation of the African American Women’s Shifting Scale (AAWSS).
    Objective: The purpose of this research was to develop and validate an instrument to measure shifting or self-altering strategies among African American women. Method: A 13-item instrument was developed to measure aspects of shifting phenomena based on the empirical literature, feedback from focus groups, and cultural experts. The initial validation study, using principal axis analysis, was conducted with a national sample of 318 African American women. A second independent national sample of 190 African American women provided data for a confirmatory factor analysis. Results: Results indicated that the inventory was composed of the following 3 factors: Strong Black Woman, Awareness of Shifting Behavior, and Sensitivity to the Perceptions of Blacks. Conclusions: A structural model was developed based on the Multicultural Assessment-Intervention Process (MAIP) framework that allowed for the exploration of the shifting construct. Implications for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • “What are you?” Multiracial individuals’ responses to racial identification inquiries.
    Objectives: Guided by a racial microaggression framework and utilizing a mixed-method approach, this study explores multiracial individuals’ interpersonal experiences and perceptions of racial identification inquiries—queries directed toward them as others attempt to determine their racial background (e.g., “What are you?”). Methods: As part of an online study, multiracial college students (n = 40) were presented with a hypothetical situation in which racial identification inquiries were delivered by a White, racial minority, or racially unspecified communicator. Qualitative analyses identified the categories and thematic codes of participants’ open-ended explanations of the personal relevance of these hypothetical situations and proposed endings. Nonparametric tests examined differences in situation, affect, and communication partner ratings based on race of the communicator. Results: Findings affirmed that racial identification inquiries are commonly reported by diverse multiracial individuals (92.5% of the present sample). Qualitative coding of participants’ explanations of personal relevance and proposed endings for the hypothetical situations, as well as ratings of situation, affect, and communication partner, revealed both positive and negative characterizations ascribed to racial identification inquiry experiences. Participants who imagined the queries came from a White communicator allotted less time to continuing the conversation than those in the control condition (communicator race unspecified). Conclusions: A racial microaggression framework was relevant but not sufficient in reflecting the complex nature of racial identification inquiries for multiracial individuals. The insights into multiracial individuals’ perceptions of these stimuli encourage more critical and dynamic thinking about racial categorization systems and interpersonal racial processes for this underrepresented but growing population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • To be or not to be: How ethnic/racial stereotypes influence ethnic/racial disidentification and psychological mood.
    Objectives: The current study explores disidentification. Ethnic/racial disidentification is defined as psychological distancing from a threatened social identity to preserve a positive sense of self. The first study goal was to explore how daily ethnic/racial stereotype appraisal is related to ethnic/racial disidentification. The second goal was explore the association between disidentification and psychological mood. In both cases, centrality and private regard were considered individual differences that might moderate daily associations. Method: Ethnic/racial minority young adults (Mage = 20.63 years, SD = 1.49; N = 129) completed a 21-day daily diary, including ethnic/racial stereotype appraisal, ethnic/racial disidentification, and mood. At the end of the study, participants completed measures of ethnic/racial centrality and private regard. Results: The effect of daily stereotype appraisal on disidentification depended on feelings of centrality and private regard. Young adults reporting high centrality and high private regard reported higher disidentification on days on which they reported more stereotype appraisal. These same young adults also reported higher negative mood on days on which they reported disidentification. Young adults reporting high private regard reported less positive mood on days on which they reported disidentification, whereas those reporting low private regard reported more positive mood. Conclusion: This article discusses the role of ethnic/racial disidentification as a normative negotiation of threats to ethnic/racial identity development. For young adults who report high levels of centrality and private regard, daily encounters with ethnic/racial stereotypes are associated with more disidentification, but that disidentification comes at a cost in the form of more negative daily mood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Do spouses matter? Discrimination, social support, and psychological distress among Asian Americans.
    Objective: Perceived discrimination poses risks for psychological distress among Asian Americans, but the differential impact of general unfair treatment and racial discrimination has not been examined. Although social support from distal sources reduces discrimination-related distress either directly or as a buffer, the unique roles of spousal support have remained understudied. Nativity status was examined as another moderator of these relationships to resolve previous inconsistent findings regarding its relationship to the discrimination–distress link. Method: Data were from 1,626 U.S.- and foreign-born Asian American adults (Mage = 42.17 years; n = 1,142 married/cohabiting) in the nationally representative National Latino and Asian American Study, who reported on experiences of unfair treatment, racial discrimination, social supports from spouses, family, friends, and neighborhood, and psychological distress. Results: Hierarchical multiple regressions showed that both unfair treatment and racial discrimination predicted psychological distress, and spousal support predicted distress above and beyond distal forms of social support in the context of perceived discrimination. Moderation analyses revealed that spousal support buffered against negative psychological consequences of unfair treatment, but not racial discrimination. Spousal support was not differentially protective as a function of nativity; however, U.S.-born respondents reacted with greater distress to unfair treatment than their foreign-born counterparts. Conclusions: Psychological effects of both general and race-based discrimination, and the unique contributions of distinct sources of social support, are important to understanding adjustment and cultural transition among Asian Americans. Nativity differentially influences effects of unfair treatment. Implications for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Contributions of acculturation, enculturation, discrimination, and personality traits to social anxiety among Chinese immigrants: A context-specific assessment.
    Based on the diathesis–stress model of anxiety, this study examined the contributions of cultural processes, perceived racial discrimination, and personality traits to social anxiety among Chinese immigrants. Further guided by the theory of intergroup anxiety, this study also adopted a context-specific approach to distinguish between participants’ experience of social anxiety when interacting with European Americans versus with other Chinese in the United States. This quantitative and ex post facto study used a convenience sample of 140 first-generation Chinese immigrants. Participants were recruited through e-mails from different university and community groups across the United States. The sample includes 55 men and 82 women (3 did not specify) with an average age of 36 years old. Results showed that more social anxiety was reported in the European American context than in the Chinese ethnic context. The full models accounted for almost half the variance in anxiety in each context. Although personality accounted for the most variance, the cultural variables and discrimination contributed 14% of the unique variance in the European American context. Notably, low acculturation, high neuroticism, and low extraversion were unique contributors to social anxiety with European Americans, whereas in the Chinese ethnic context only low extraversion was a unique contributor; more discrimination was uniquely significant in both contexts. The findings suggest a need to contextualize the research and clinical assessment of social anxiety, and have implications for culturally sensitive counseling with immigrants. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • “They were just making jokes”: Ethnic/racial teasing and discrimination among adolescents.
    Objectives: The effects of peer-based discrimination are especially harmful for adolescents given the heightened role of social feedback during this period. The current study aimed to understand the unique expressions of discrimination that adolescents experience between close peers and friends, as well as the daily influence of such experiences. Method: Study 1 included semistructured interviews (10 interviews, 2 focus groups; Mage = 17.3) with an ethnic/racially diverse sample of adolescence. Study 2 (n = 79; Mage = 15.72) used a 21-day daily diary study with a different sample of ethnic/racially diverse adolescents. Results: Study 1 found that, among close peers and friends, adolescents experienced “ethnic/racial teasing,” a unique form of discrimination characterized by humor. Additionally, adolescents consistently dismissed the negative messages as innocuous based on the supposedly humorous nature of such interactions. Study 2 found that when adolescents were targeted for ethnic/racial teasing, individuals who were already anxious experienced increased daily anxiety, and that increases in social anxiety persisted across days. Conclusions: The current study suggests that among peers, ethnic/racial teasing is a common way that adolescents interact around ethnicity/race. Further, this study points to the complexity of these experiences; though they were largely considered normative and harmless, they also had negative psychological effects for some adolescents. Implications for our conceptual understanding of discrimination and teasing during adolescence are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Personal discrimination and satisfaction with life: Exploring perceived functional effects of Asian American race/ethnicity as a moderator.
    Objectives: This study aims to understand the relations between experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination, perceptions of the harmful or helpful effects of one’s Asian American race/ethnicity within educational and occupational contexts (perceived functional effects), and well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life). A primary focus was to evaluate whether the association between racial/ethnic discrimination and satisfaction with life varied based on the degree to which Asian Americans believe that their race or ethnicity is helpful or harmful to educational and occupational functioning. Method: This study draws on nationally representative data from ethnically diverse Asian American adults (N = 3,335) and utilizes weighted descriptive, correlational, and logistic regression moderation analyses. Results: Ethnic variations emerged across analyses. Logistic regression analyses revealed a significant moderation effect for Chinese and Filipino Americans. Follow-up analyses revealed a protective effect of perceiving more positive or helpful functional effects in nullifying the link between discrimination and dissatisfaction with life for Chinese Americans. By contrast, viewing more harmful functional effects had a buffering effect for Filipino Americans. Conclusions: Results have implications for conceptualizing the potential impact of perspectives that imply Asian American advantage or disadvantage. Opportunities to apply and extend these initial findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Developing critical consciousness or justifying the system? A qualitative analysis of attributions for poverty and wealth among low-income racial/ethnic minority and immigrant women.
    Objectives: Economic inequality is a growing concern in the United States and globally. The current study uses qualitative techniques to (a) explore the attributions low-income racial/ethnic minority and immigrant women make for poverty and wealth in the U.S., and (b) clarify important links between attributions, critical consciousness development, and system justification theory. Methods: In-depth interview transcripts from 19 low-income immigrant Dominican and Mexican and native African American mothers in a large Northeastern city were analyzed using open coding techniques. Interview topics included perceptions of current economic inequality and mobility and experiences of daily economic hardships. Results: Almost all respondents attributed economic inequality to individual factors (character flaws, lack of hard work). Structural explanations for poverty and wealth were expressed by fewer than half the sample and almost always paired with individual explanations. Moreover, individual attributions included system-justifying beliefs such as the belief in meritocracy and equality of opportunity and structural attributions represented varying levels of critical consciousness. Conclusions: Our analysis sheds new light on how and why individuals simultaneously hold individual and structural attributions and highlights key links between system justification and critical consciousness. It shows that critical consciousness and system justification do not represent opposite stances along a single underlying continuum, but are distinct belief systems and motivations. It also suggests that the motive to justify the system is a key psychological process impeding the development of critical consciousness. Implications for scholarship and intervention are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Culture and risk assessments: Why Latino Americans perceive greater risk for diabetes.
    Objective: Large ethnic disparities exist in health outcomes, yet little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underlie these differences. We propose that a key to understanding ethnic minority health is to recognize the cultural factors that influence perceived vulnerability to disease (PVD), specifically ethnicity and ethnic identification. In 3 studies, we examined how these cultural factors were associated with PVD to Type II diabetes, a highly prevalent disease among Latino Americans. We had 3 specific aims. The first was to examine ethnic group differences in PVD between European Americans and Latino Americans. The second was to examine potential psychological mechanisms that account for ethnic differences in PVD. The third was to examine the relationship between ethnic identification and PVD among Latino Americans. Method: Participants in all studies were young European American and Latino American adults and were from independent samples. In all 3 studies, participants completed the questionnaires online. Results: Study 1 found that Latino Americans as compared with European Americans have higher PVD to diabetes. Study 2 showed that perceived similarity to the typical person who gets diabetes and the number of reported family members with diabetes predicted the degree of PVD to diabetes. However, we found that the nature of the associations between these mechanisms and perceived risk differed by ethnic group. Study 3 examined what may be influencing perceived similarity for Latino Americans; we found ethnic identification is a significant factor. Discussion: Together, the present findings have broad implications for diabetes communication, education, and health campaigns. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Adolescent Turkish migrants’ eating behavior in Germany: A comparison to nonmigrants in the home and host countries based on the prototype-willingness model.
    Objectives: The aim of the present research was to examine the regulation of eating behavior among adolescents with a Turkish migration background living in Germany in comparison with adolescent nonmigrants from the host (Germany) and home country (Turkey). The prototype-willingness model (PWM) was chosen and analyzed with respect to differences in mean levels and predictions of its social–cognitive factors. Method: Two studies were conducted. Study 1 was longitudinal with 131 adolescent Turkish migrants and 303 Germans, whereas Study 2 was cross-sectional with 102 adolescent Turkish migrants and 270 Turks. Sociodemographic information, PWM variables, and eating behavior were enquired via questionnaire. Group differences in means and prediction patterns were analyzed using multiple-group structural equation modeling. Analyses were conducted separately introducing PWM variables to eat either unhealthy (unhealthy model) or healthy foods (healthy model). Results: The studies show consistent differences in means and predictions between Turkish migrants and Germans as well as Turks. The regulation of Turkish migrants’ eating behavior was found to be intentional, whereas Germans and Turks showed both an impulsive and intentional regulation. Conclusions: Effective interventions on healthy eating for Turkish migrants need to be tailored according to their specific regulation of eating behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Assessing health in an Alaska native cultural context: The Yup’ik Wellness Survey.
    Objectives: The development and validation of a wellness measure among the Yup’ik of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska is presented, with the overarching goal of supporting locally relevant health practices in this Alaska Native population. Method: A survey containing the wellness measure and several additional psychosocial variables was completed by 493 Yup’ik individuals from 7 different highly rural communities in western Alaska. Participants ranged in age from 14 to 94 (M = 38.55, SD = 17.14), and slightly more than half were female (58.62%). Results: Individuals who scored higher on the wellness measure reported greater happiness, greater overall health, greater communal mastery, a larger and more satisfying social support network, and coping styles that were more likely to be active, accepting, and growth-oriented, and less likely to involve drugs and alcohol. Conclusions: This project advances research on the health implications of enculturation by specifying particular patterns of culturally sanctioned beliefs and behaviors that appear most beneficial. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Body dissatisfaction: Do associations with disordered eating and psychological well-being differ across race/ethnicity in adolescent girls and boys?
    Objective: This study examined whether body dissatisfaction, and its associations with disordered eating and psychological well-being, differ significantly across racial/ethnic groups of adolescents. Method: Cross-sectional analysis using data from a large, population-based study of adolescents participating in Eating and Activity in Teens, 2010 (EAT 2010) (N = 2,793; Mage = 14.4 years). The sample was socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse (81% racial/ethnic minority; 54% low or low-middle income). Results: Body dissatisfaction differed significantly across racial/ethnic groups; Asian American girls and boys reported the most dissatisfaction with their bodies. Among boys, the relationship between body dissatisfaction and unhealthy weight control behaviors was moderated by race/ethnicity (p <.01), with a significantly weaker association for African American boys compared with those in other groups. Otherwise, the associations between body dissatisfaction and dieting and disordered eating did not vary significantly across racial/ethnic groups. Associations between body dissatisfaction and depressive symptoms and (boys’) self-esteem differed significantly across racial/ethnic groups. Conclusion: In this study, with the exception of boys’ unhealthy weight control behaviors, body dissatisfaction was associated with measures of dieting and disordered eating for youth across racial/ethnic groups. In addition, the association between body dissatisfaction and psychological well-being interacted significantly with adolescents’ racial/ethnic backgrounds (with the exception of girls’ self-esteem). Findings highlight specific racial/ethnic differences in the associations between body dissatisfaction and psychological well-being, and underscore the importance of addressing body dissatisfaction in youth of all racial/ethnic backgrounds. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The privilege and burden of peer review.
    Objectives: Peer review is a core value and method of quality control in psychological research, academic psychology, and other disciplines, but little is known about the peer-reviewing behavior of ethnic minority reviewers in particular. The purpose of this study was to examine the self-identified ethnicity of those invited to peer review articles for 76 journals that utilized the American Psychological Association’s Journals Back Office (JBO) system from 2003 to 2012. It was hypothesized that a modest increase in the ratio of requests for reviews from self-identified ethnic minority reviewers would be observed over time, that self-identified ethnic minority reviewers would be less likely to refuse a review request than those who do not self-identify as an ethnic minority, and finally that increases in reviewer burden would be evident in significant increases in declines to requests by all reviewers. Method: Reviewer requests and responses were examined among the 76 journals that used the JBO system over a 10-year period. Results: Using hierarchical linear models, the percentage of review invitations extended to ethnic minorities was found to significantly increase over time: Initially, an estimated 8.34% of review requests were made to ethnic minority reviewers, and that percentage increased an average of 0.41% per year. Conclusions: Ethnic minority reviewers were significantly less likely to refuse a review request than ethnic majority reviewers. Results are discussed in terms of perceived pressure to demonstrate scholastic impact and the disproportionate service burden often borne by ethnic minority psychologists. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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