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Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology - Vol 22, Iss 3

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Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology seeks to publish theoretical, conceptual, research and case study articles that promote the development of knowledge and understanding, application of psychological principles, and scholarly analysis of social-political forces affecting racial/ethnic minorities.
Copyright 2016 American Psychological Association
  • Counseling services for Asian, Latino/a, and White American students: Initial severity, session attendance, and outcome.
    Objective: The current study examined racial/ethnic differences in initial severity, session attendance, and counseling outcomes in a large and diverse sample of Asian American, Latino/a, and White student clients who utilized university counseling services between 2008 and 2012. Method: We used archival data of 5,472 clients (62% female; M age = 23.1, SD = 4.3) who self-identified their race/ethnicity as being Asian American (38.9%), Latino/a (14.9%), or White (46.2%). Treatment engagement was measured by the number of counseling sessions attended; initial severity and treatment outcome were measured using the Outcome Questionnaire-45. Results: Asian American clients, particularly Chinese, Filipino/a, Korean, and Vietnamese Americans, had greater initial severity compared with White clients. Asian Indian, Korean, and Vietnamese American clients used significantly fewer sessions of counseling than White clients after controlling for initial severity. All racial/ethnic minority groups continued to have clinically significant distress in certain areas (e.g., social role functioning) at counseling termination. Conclusions: These findings highlight the need to devote greater attention to the counseling experiences of racial/ethnic minority clients, especially certain Asian American groups. Further research directions are provided. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Help-seeking intentions among Asian American and White American students in psychological distress: Application of the health belief model.
    Objective: Underutilization of needed mental health services continues to be the major mental health disparity affecting Asian Americans (Sue, Cheng, Saad, & Chu, 2012). The goal of this study was to apply a social psychological theoretical framework—the health belief model (Rosenstock, 1966)—to understand potential reasons why Asian Americans underutilize mental health services relative to White Americans. Method: Using a cross-sectional online questionnaire, this study examined how perceived severity of symptoms, perceived susceptibility to mental health problems, perceived benefits of treatment, and perceived barriers to treatment influenced intentions to seek help among a sample of 395 Asian American and 261 White American students experiencing elevated levels of psychological distress. Results: Analyses using structural equation modeling indicated that Asian Americans in distress had relatively lower intentions to seek help compared with White Americans. Perceived benefits partially accounted for differences in help-seeking intentions. Although Asian Americans perceived greater barriers to help seeking than did White Americans, this did not significantly explain racial/ethnic differences in help-seeking intentions. Perceived severity and barriers were related to help-seeking intentions in both groups. Conclusions: Outreach efforts that particularly emphasize the benefits of seeking mental health services may be a particularly promising approach to address underutilization. The findings have implications in help-seeking promotion and outreach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • White fear, dehumanization, and low empathy: Lethal combinations for shooting biases.
    Objectives: A growing number of studies have documented the existence racial shooting biases against Black versus White targets (Correll et al., 2002). Little is known about individual differences that may moderate these biases. The goals of this study were to examine (a) whether White participants’ fear of racial/ethnic minorities is associated with racial shooting biases, and (b) whether dehumanization and empathy moderate this effect. Method: Participants (N = 290) completed a dehumanization implicit association test and simulated shooting task, then reported their fear of racial minorities (i.e., White fear) and empathic ability. Results: We found that (a) individuals high in White fear showed a shooting bias, such that they had a lower threshold for shooting Black relative to White and East Asian targets, (b) Dehumanization moderated the White fear and shooting bias relation, such that individuals high in White fear and high in dehumanization had a significantly more liberal shooting threshold for Black versus White targets, and (c) Empathy moderated the White fear and shooting bias relation, such that people who were high in White fear and low in empathic ability had a more liberal shooting threshold for Black versus White targets. In sum, fearing racial/ethnic minorities can have devastating shooting bias outcomes for Black individuals, but this effect is stronger when people also dehumanize Black individuals, and weaker when people have high empathy. Conclusions: These findings contribute to the literature by identifying theory driven moderators that identify both risk and protective factors in predicting racial shooting biases. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Finding the door: Critical incidents facilitating gang exit among indigenous men.
    Objective: Our aim was to generate a categorical scheme to describe how participants exited from gang life. Method: We utilized the CIT (Butterfield, Borgen, Amundson, & Maglio, 2005; Flanagan, 1954; Woolsey, 1986) and explored gang exit processes among 10 Indigenous men living in Manitoba and Saskatchewan, Canada. Participants responded to the question: What facilitated gang exit for you? Results: They provided 136 critical incidents that were organized into 13 categories of behaviors and experiences that facilitated their exit from gang life: (a) working in the legal workforce, (b) accepting support from family or girlfriend, (c) helping others stay out of gang life, (d) not wanting to go back to jail, (e) accepting responsibility for family, (f) accepting guidance and protection, (g) participating in ceremony, (h) avoiding alcohol, (i) publically expressing that you were out of the gang, (j) wanting legit relationships outside gangs, (k) experiencing a native brotherhood, (l) stopping self from reacting like a gangster, and (m) acknowledging the drawbacks of gang violence. Conclusion: The categorical scheme is presented, described with use of extensive quotes from this research, theoretical and clinical implications are discussed, and suggestions for future research are offered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • A pathway model for emotional distress and implications for therapeutic jurisprudence in African American juvenile court respondents.
    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to propose and examine a pathway to emotional distress in African Americans with juvenile court contact (N = 213; Male = 71%; MAge = 15, SDAge = 1.47). Method: The model included direct and indirect effects of parent attachment and empathy, as well as the direct effects of pro-social and aggressive behavior, on emotional distress, CFI = .99, TLI = .95, χ²(1) = 2.60 p = .11, and RMSEA = .09. Results: This model explained 49% of variability of scores for emotional distress. Overall, aggressive behavior had the strongest relationship with emotional distress (β = .63), followed by parent attachment (β = −.38). In contrast, empathy (β = .12) and pro-social behavior (β = .17) were not related to emotional distress scores. A second model that included males and females simultaneously, without equality constraints, revealed substantive gender differences, CFI = .99, TLI = .91, χ²(2) = 4.63 p = .10, and RMSEA = .11. Conclusions: Results are discussed in the context of therapeutic jurisprudence, and recommendations are proposed for providers of court-ordered interventions (i.e., therapy and probation supervision). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Historical loss thinking and symptoms of depression are influenced by ethnic experience in American Indian college students.
    Objective: Recent research has indicated that historical loss may play an important role in the experience of depression symptoms in American Indian/Alaska Native people. Increased frequency of historical loss thinking has been related to symptoms of depression and other pervasive psychological outcomes (i.e., substance abuse) in American Indian and Canadian First Nations communities. The current study investigated how aspects of ethnic minority experience relate to the incidence of historical loss thinking and symptoms of depression in American Indian adults. Method: Data are presented from 123 self-identified American Indian college students (ages 18–25, 67.50% female) who participated in the study in return for course credit and/or entrance into a raffle for gift cards. Participants completed the Adolescent Historical Loss Scale (AHLS), Scale of Ethnic Experiences (SEE), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression Scale (CES-D). Indirect effects of ethnic experience on symptoms of depression through historical loss thinking were calculated with nonparametric bootstrapping procedures. Results and Conclusions: Results indicated that a strong ethnic identification, desire to predominantly socialize with other American Indians, and perceptions of discrimination were associated with increased historical loss thinking. Feelings of comfort and assimilation with the mainstream American culture were negatively related to historical loss thinking. Only perception of discrimination was directly related to symptoms of depression; however, ethnic identification and the preference to predominantly socialize with other American Indians were both indirectly related to elevated depressive symptoms through increased historical loss thinking. The clinical implications for these results are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Perceived discrimination predicts increased support for political rights and life satisfaction mediated by ethnic identity: A longitudinal analysis.
    Objectives: The aim of the current research is to test predictions derived from the rejection-identification model and research on collective action using cross-sectional (Study 1) and longitudinal (Study 2) methods. Specifically, an integration of these 2 literatures suggests that recognition of discrimination can have simultaneous positive relationships with well-being and engagement in collective action via the formation of a strong ingroup identity. Method: We test these predictions in 2 studies using data from a large national probability sample of Māori (the indigenous peoples of New Zealand), collected as part of the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (Ns for Study 1 and 2 were 1,981 and 1,373, respectively). Results: Consistent with the extant research, Study 1 showed that perceived discrimination was directly linked with decreased life satisfaction, but indirectly linked with increased life satisfaction through higher levels of ethnic identification. Perceived discrimination was also directly linked with increased support for Māori rights and indirectly linked with increased support for Māori rights through higher levels of ethnic identification. Study 2 replicated these findings using longitudinal data and identified multiple bidirectional paths between perceived discrimination, ethnic identity, well-being, and support for collective action. Conclusion: These findings replicate and extend the rejection-identification model in a novel cultural context by demonstrating via cross-sectional (Study 1) and longitudinal (Study 2) analyses that the recognition of discrimination can both motivate support for political rights and increase well-being by strengthening ingroup identity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The mediating role of internalized racism in the relationship between racist experiences and anxiety symptoms in a Black American sample.
    Objectives: The current study explores the potential mediating role of internalized racism in the relationship between racist experiences and anxiety symptomology in a Black American sample. Method: One hundred and 73 Black American participants, between 18 and 62 years of age, completed a questionnaire packet containing measures of anxious arousal and stress symptoms, internalized racism, and experiences of racist events. Results: Results indicated that internalized racism mediated the relationship between past-year frequency of racist events and anxious arousal as well as past-year frequency of racist events and stress symptoms. Conclusions: Internalized racism may be 1 mechanism that underlies the relationship between racism and anxious symptomology for Black Americans. These preliminary findings suggest that internalized racism may be an avenue through which clinicians can target the anxiety elicited by racist experiences. The clinical implications of these findings and future research directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Acculturation conflict among Latino youth: Discrimination, ethnic identity, and depressive symptoms.
    Objectives: Patterns of parent–adolescent conflict differ between immigrant and nonimmigrant families living in the United States (Fuligni, 1998). Despite this, there is limited empirical literature examining the nuanced nature of parent–adolescent conflict in immigrant families. To fill this gap, the current study examined the role of 2 types of conflict (i.e., general and acculturation) in predicting psychosocial outcomes (i.e., depressive symptoms and ethnic identity) among Latino adolescents, and whether these relationships differ within the context of peer discrimination. Method: All survey administration was completed in the participating school’s cafeteria. The sample consisted of 7th through 10th graders (n = 172) with a mean age of 14.01 years (SD = 1.32.) The sample consisted of 53% females, and was primarily Mexican in origin (78%). Results: As hypothesized, parent–adolescent acculturation conflict uniquely predicted greater depressive symptoms and lower ethnic private regard, even when controlling for parent–adolescent general conflict. However, acculturation conflict predicted lower ethnic private regard only in the presence of greater peer discrimination. More specifically, peer discrimination moderated the relation between acculturation conflict and ethnic private regard such that adolescents who reported the highest levels of acculturation conflict and peer discrimination reported the lowest levels of ethnic private regard. Conclusions: These results suggest that for Latino youth and their families, acculturation conflict may be particularly problematic, as compared with general conflict. In addition, youth who face ethnicity-based stressors in both familial and school contexts are especially at risk in their ethnic identity development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The role of mothers’ and fathers’ religiosity in African American adolescents’ religious beliefs and practices.
    Objectives: To advance understanding of youth religiosity in its sociocultural context, this study examined the associations between parents’ and adolescents’ religious beliefs and practices and tested the roles of parent and youth gender and youth ethnic identity in these linkages. Method: The sample included 130 two-parent, African American families. Adolescents (49% female) averaged 14.43 years old. Mothers, fathers, and adolescents were interviewed in their homes about their family and personal characteristics, including their religious beliefs. In a series of 7 nightly phone calls, adolescents reported on their daily practices, including time spent in religious practices (e.g., attending services, prayer), and parents reported on their time spent in religious practices with their adolescents. Results: Findings indicated that mothers’ beliefs were linked to the beliefs of sons and daughters, but fathers’ beliefs were only associated with the beliefs of sons. Mothers’ practices were associated with youths’ practices, but the link was stronger when mothers’ held moderately strong religious beliefs. Fathers’ practices were also linked to youth practices, but the association was stronger for daughters than for sons. Conclusions: Findings highlight the understudied role of fathers in African American families, the importance of examining religiosity as a multidimensional construct, and the utility of ethnic homogeneous designs for illuminating the implications of sociocultural factors in the development of African American youth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Perceived discrimination and sexual precursor behaviors in Mexican American preadolescent girls: The role of psychological distress, sexual attitudes, and marianismo beliefs.
    Objectives: This study explored the relation between perceived discrimination and sexual precursor behaviors among 205 Mexican American preadolescent middle school girls. In addition, this study examined whether psychological distress and sexual attitudes mediated and whether marianismo beliefs moderated this relation. Method: A categorical confirmatory factor analysis (CCFA) of the Marianismo Beliefs Scale (MBS) was conducted to test the factor structure with a preadolescent Mexican American population (ages 11–14). A path analysis of analytic models was then performed to examine the hypothesized relations between perceived discrimination, psychological distress, sexual attitudes, marianismo beliefs, and sexual precursor behaviors. Results: Results of the CCFA did not support the original 5-factor structure of the MBS for preadolescent Latina girls. However, a revised version of the MBS indicated an acceptable model fit, and findings from the path analysis indicated that perceived discrimination was both directly and indirectly linked to sexual precursor behaviors via psychological distress. Marianismo was not found to moderate the relation between perceived discrimination and sexual risk behaviors, however certain marianismo pillars were significantly negatively linked with sexual attitudes and precursor behaviors. Conclusions: This study underscores the importance of psychological distress in the perceived discrimination and sexual precursor link as well as the compensatory aspects of marianismo against sexual precursor behaviors in Mexican American preadolescent girls. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Stressors among Hispanic adults from immigrant families in the United States: Familismo as a context for ambivalence.
    Objectives: Ongoing exposure to social stressors is widely believed to undermine the health of Hispanic immigrant families. The current work aims to explore and interpret expressions of familismo as a framework through which postimmigration experiences are interpreted and potentially given meaning. Method: Qualitative data were obtained from 16 focus groups in California and Massachusetts (N = 93). Fifty-two percent of the participants identified as male and 59% primarily spoke Spanish. Results: Analyses revealed 3 distinct forms of ambivalence specific to familismo among Hispanic adults from immigrant families. Give and take described experiences wherein immigrants turn their backs on family in the short term to realize a better long-term future for the family. Negative change explained family misfortunes that arise in the pursuit of a better future for the family and creates doubts about the vision that motivated migration. Forced shifts suggests the navigation of daily life necessitates the inversion or abandonment of culturally idealized family roles and responsibilities. Conclusion: Hispanic adults from immigrant families described several situations in which competing views of familismo likely influenced the interpretation of unanticipated stressors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Development of an Asian American parental racial–ethnic socialization scale.
    Objective: To develop a measure of parental racial–ethnic socialization that is appropriate for Asian American families. Method: To test the reliability and validity of this new measure, we surveyed 575 Asian American emerging adults (49% female, 79% U.S. born). Results: Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, the results show 7 reliable subscales: maintenance of heritage culture, becoming American, awareness of discrimination, avoidance of other groups, minimization of race, promotion of equality, and cultural pluralism. Tests of factorial invariance show that overall, the subscales demonstrate, at minimum, partial metric invariance across gender, age, nativity, educational attainment, parent educational attainment, geographic region of residence, and Asian-heritage region. Thus, the relations among the subscales with other variables can be compared across these different subgroups. The subscales also correlated with ethnic identity, ethnic centrality, perceptions of discrimination, and pluralistic orientation, demonstrating construct validity. Conclusion: In an increasingly complex and diverse social world, our scale will be useful for gaining a better understanding of how Asian American parents socialize their children regarding issues of race, discrimination, culture, and diversity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Confirmatory evidence for a multidimensional model of racial-ethnic socialization for transracially adoptive families.
    Objectives: The purpose of the current study is to test a recently established model of racial-ethnic socialization (Langrehr, 2014) among 2 samples of White transracially adoptive parents and to assess whether the proposed model functions similarly after accounting for adopted child race. Method: Based on a modified version of the Racial Bias Preparation Scale (Fisher, Wallace, & Fenton, 2000), confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the 3-factor model (i.e., Prejudice Awareness, Racial-Ethnic Pride, and Egalitarianism) among 172 White transracially adoptive parents with Asian children (Mage = 45.72) and 140 White transracially adoptive parents with Black children (Mage = 42.62). In addition, multigroup invariance testing was used to assess whether the proposed model functioned similarly across the 2 groups of parents. Results: Results indicate that the proposed 3-factor model demonstrated partial measurement invariance such that the subconstruct of Egalitarianism functioned similarly across groups, whereas Racial-Ethnic Pride and Prejudice Awareness were deemed noninvariant. Conclusions: Findings are intended to help expand the concept of racial-ethnic socialization for transracially adoptive families and address the degree to which current research on racial-ethnic socialization can be applied to different transracially adoptive families. Results are intended to highlight ways that various social-cultural dimensions of family can culminate into different socialization experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The culture of mentoring: Ethnocultural empathy and ethnic identity in mentoring for minority girls.
    Objectives: Many mentoring programs place minority group mentees with majority group mentors. These programs aim to promote beneficial outcomes for their diverse participants. The present study explores mentors of color and White mentors’ ethnocultural empathy and ethnic identities in association with their minority group mentees’ ethnic identities. Method: Our study examined 95 mentoring pairs of middle school girls of color and college student women from both majority and minority group cultural backgrounds. Results: A series of linear regressions revealed an association between mentors’ ethnocultural empathy and EI exploration/commitment and minority group mentees’ ethnic identity exploration, regardless of the mentors’ majority group status. Conclusions: The results of this preliminary study suggest that mentors’ cultural identity and empathy may be linked with mentees’ willingness to explore their own ethnic identities. We discuss the implications for mentoring programs that seek to build participants’ ethnic identities and ethnocultural empathy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Ethnic identity, school connectedness, and achievement in standardized tests among Mexican-origin youth.
    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between school connectedness and performance in standardized test scores and whether this association was moderated by ethnic private regard. Method: The study combines self-report data with school district reported data on standardized test scores in reading and math and free and reduced lunch status. Participants included 436 Mexican-origin youth attending a middle school in a southwestern U.S. state. Participants were on average 12.34 years of age (SD = .95) and 51.8% female and 48.2% male. Results: After controlling for age, gender, free and reduced lunch status, and generational status, school connectedness and ethnic private regard were both positive predictors of standardized test scores in reading and math. Results also revealed a significant interaction between school connectedness and ethnic private regard in predicting standardized test scores in reading, such that participants who were low on ethnic private regard and low on school connectedness reported lower levels of achievement compared to participants who were low on ethnic private regard but high on school connectedness. At high levels of ethnic private regard, high or low levels of school connectedness were not associated with higher or lower standardized test scores in reading. Conclusion: The findings in this study provide support for the protective role that ethnic private regard plays in the educational experiences of Mexican-origin youth and highlights how the local school context may play a role in shaping this finding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Mothers’ characteristics as predictors of adolescents’ ethnic–racial identity: An examination of Mexican-origin teen mothers.
    Objective: The current longitudinal study examined Mexican-origin mothers’ cultural characteristics and ethnic socialization efforts as predictors of their adolescent daughters’ ethnic–racial identity (ERI) exploration, resolution, and affirmation. Method: Participants were 193 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (M age = 16.78 years; SD = .98) and their mothers (M age = 41.24 years; SD = 7.11). Results: Findings indicated that mothers’ familism values and ERI exploration were positively associated with mother-reported ethnic socialization efforts 1 year later. Furthermore, mothers’ ERI affirmation was a significant positive predictor of adolescents’ ERI affirmation 2 years later, accounting for adolescents’ ERI affirmation 1 year earlier. Conclusions: Discussion emphasizes the significance of ERI development among adolescent mothers who are negotiating the normative development of ERI and faced with their new role as parents and cultural socializers of their young children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Evaluating the invariance of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure across foreign-born, second-generation and later-generation college students in the United States.
    Objectives: Past research has established that the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) exhibits measurement invariance across diverse ethnic groups. However, relatively little research has evaluated whether this measure is invariant across generational status. Thus, the present study evaluates the invariance of the MEIM across foreign-born, second-generation, and later-generation respondents. Method: A large, ethnically diverse sample of college students completed the MEIM as part of an online survey (N = 9,107; 72.8% women; mean age = 20.31 years; SD = 3.38). Results: There is evidence of configural and metric invariance, but there is little evidence of scalar invariance across generational status groups. Conclusions: This study suggests that the MEIM has an equivalent factor structure across generation groups, indicating it is appropriate to compare the magnitude of associations between the MEIM and other variables across foreign-born, second-generation, and later-generation individuals. However, the lack of scalar invariance suggests that mean-level differences across generational status should be interpreted with caution. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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