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Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology - Vol 20, Iss 4

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Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology seeks to publish theoretical, conceptual, research and case study articles that promote the development of knowledge and understanding, application of psychological principles, and scholarly analysis of social-political forces affecting racial/ethnic minorities.
Copyright 2014 American Psychological Association
  • Race and ethnicity in the workplace: Spotlighting the perspectives of historically stigmatized groups.
    Racial and ethnic identity matter and are salient for people in the workplace—a place where people spend a substantial amount of their time. This special issue brings the workplace into the domain of racial and ethnic minority psychology. It also brings to the study of the workplace a relatively neglected perspective: that of people from historically stigmatized racial and ethnic groups. Though there is, of course, need for more work with different themes, outcomes, and populations, this special issue takes us an important step in the direction of understanding better and giving voice to the experiences of racial and ethnic minorities in the workplace. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • When visibility hurts and helps: How intersections of race and gender shape Black professional men’s experiences with tokenization.
    Research shows groups who experience minority status encounter tokenization. Most studies applying token theory to minority groups at work focus on either gendered or racialized processes of tokenization. We offer a different approach by using an intersectional lens to examine how both race and gender work together to shape ways Black professional men experience tokenization when employed in predominantly White male-dominated workplaces. Based on interviews with 42 Black men employed as doctors, lawyers, bankers, or engineers, we conclude that although Black professional men encounter some of the typical negative aspects of tokenization, intersections of race and gender create other important facets that render their token experience somewhat unique and different from their White male, White female, and Black female counterparts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Selective incivility: Immigrant groups experience subtle workplace discrimination at different rates.
    Immigrants play an increasingly important role in local labor markets. Not only do they grow steadily in number but also in cultural, educational, and skill diversity, underlining the necessity to distinguish between immigrant groups when studying discrimination against immigrants. We examined immigrant employees’ subtle discrimination experiences in a representative sample in Switzerland, controlling for dispositional influences. Results showed that mainly members of highly competitive immigrant groups, from immediate neighbor countries, experienced workplace incivility and that these incivility experiences were related to higher likelihoods of perceived discrimination at work. This research confirms recent accounts that successful but disliked groups are particularly likely to experience subtle interpersonal discrimination. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • See no evil: Color blindness and perceptions of subtle racial discrimination in the workplace.
    Workplace discrimination has grown more ambiguous, with interracial interactions often perceived differently by different people. The present study adds to the literature by examining a key individual difference variable in the perception of discrimination at work, namely individual color-blind attitudes. We examined relationships between 3 dimensions of color-blind attitudes (Racial Privilege, Institutional Discrimination, and Blatant Racial Issues) and perceptions of racial microaggressions in the workplace as enacted by a White supervisor toward a Black employee (i.e., discriminatory actions ranging from subtle to overt). Findings showed that observer views on institutional discrimination fully mediated, and blatant racial issues partially mediated, the relationships between racial group membership and the perception of workplace microaggressions. Non-Hispanic Whites endorsed color blindness as institutional discrimination and blatant racial issues significantly more than members of racioethnic minority groups, and higher levels of color-blind worldviews were associated with lower likelihoods of perceiving microaggressions. Views on racial privilege did not differ significantly between members of different racial groups or affect microaggression perceptions. Implications for organizations concerned about promoting more inclusive workplaces are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Identity threat at work: How social identity threat and situational cues contribute to racial and ethnic disparities in the workplace.
    Significant disparities remain between racial and ethnic minorities’ and Whites’ experiences of American workplaces. Traditional prejudice and discrimination approaches explain these gaps in hiring, promotion, satisfaction, and well-being by pointing to the prejudice of people within organizations such as peers, managers, and executives. Grounded in social identity threat theory, this theoretical review instead argues that particular situational cues—often communicated by well-meaning, largely unprejudiced employees and managers—signal to stigmatized groups whether their identity is threatened and devalued or respected and affirmed. First, we provide an overview of how identity threat shapes the psychological processes of racial and ethnic minorities by heightening vigilance to certain situational cues in the workplace. Next, we outline several of these cues and their role in creating and sustaining perceptions of identity threat (or safety). Finally, we provide empirically grounded suggestions that organizations may use to increase identity safety among their employees of color. Taken together, the research demonstrates how situational cues contribute to disparate psychological experiences for racial and ethnic minorities at work, and suggests that by altering threatening cues, organizations may create more equitable, respectful, and inclusive environments where all people may thrive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • On the psychological barriers to the workplace: When and why metastereotyping undermines employability beliefs of women and ethnic minorities.
    We investigated the effect of how one might expect one’s group to be viewed by a dominant outgroup (i.e., metastereotypes) on employability beliefs of members of disadvantaged groups. Based on the extensive literature on stereotype threat, we hypothesized that activating negative metastereotypes would undermine employability beliefs of members of disadvantaged groups, because such beliefs are likely to threaten their state self-esteem. In particular, we expected that an effect of negative metastereotyping on employability beliefs would be explained by momentary self-doubts and be particularly evident among members whose dispositional self-esteem is high rather than low to begin with. Taken jointly, results from a correlational study (n = 80) and an experimental study (n = 56) supported these hypotheses, and discussion focuses on their implications for mobility into the workplace. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Strategies for managing impressions of racial identity in the workplace.
    This article deepens understanding of the workplace experiences of racial minorities by investigating racial identity-based impression management (RIM) by Asian American journalists. Racial centrality, directly or indirectly, predicted the use of 4 RIM strategies (avoidance, enhancement, affiliation, and racial humor). Professional centrality also predicted strategy use, which was related to life satisfaction and perceived career success. By shedding light on proactive strategies that individuals use to influence colleagues’ impressions of their racial identity, we contribute to research on diversity in organizations, impression management, and racial identity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • From whence cometh their strength: Social support, coping, and well-being of Black women professionals.
    In the workplace, Black women encounter different job demands than their White counterparts and often experience less control. Demand-control theory offers a framework to examine the challenges Black women face as well as how factors such as coping strategies and social support can moderate levels of well-being. In this study we examined the impact of Black women’s social support and coping strategies on job-family role strain, career satisfaction, and life satisfaction. Responses were collected from 188 highly educated Black American women employed in variety of occupations. Results of path modeling found that social support is important to well-being, and that self-help coping can overcome deficient social support’s impact on well-being. Exploratory analyses revealed that support from ones’ family, church, coworkers, and supervisor each individually related to aspects of well-being, particularly when self-help coping is low. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Workplace discrimination predicting racial/ethnic socialization across African American, Latino, and Chinese families.
    Informed by Kohn and Schooler’s (1969) occupational socialization framework, this study examined linkages between racial/ethnic minority mothers’ perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination in the workplace and adolescents’ accounts of racial/ethnic socialization in the home. Data were collected from 100 mother–early adolescent dyads who participated in a longitudinal study of urban adolescents’ development in the Northeastern United States, including African American, Latino, and Chinese families. Mothers and adolescents completed surveys separately. We found that when mothers reported more frequent institutional discrimination at work, adolescents reported more frequent preparation for bias messages at home, across racial/ethnic groups. Mothers’ experiences of interpersonal prejudice at work were associated with more frequent cultural socialization messages among African American and Latino families. Chinese youth reported fewer cultural socialization messages when mothers perceived more frequent interpersonal prejudice at work. Findings are discussed in the context of minority groups’ distinct social histories and economic status in the United States. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Examining the associations of racism, sexism, and stressful life events on psychological distress among African-American women.
    African-American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African-American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations among racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African-American women and are correlated with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Exploring the various interpretations of “test bias”.
    Test bias is a hotly debated topic in society, especially as it relates to diverse groups of examinees who often score low on standardized tests. However, the phrase “test bias” has a multitude of interpretations that many people are not aware of. In this article, we explain five different meanings of “test bias” and summarize the empirical and theoretical evidence related to each interpretation. The five meanings are as follows: (a) mean group differences, (b) differential predictive validity, (c) differential item functioning, (d) differing factor structures of tests, and (e) unequal consequences of test use for various groups. We explain in this article why meanings (a) and (e) are not actual forms of test bias and that there are serious concerns about (b). In our conclusion, we discuss the benefits of standardized testing for diverse examinees and urge readers to be careful and precise in their use of the phrase “test bias.” (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Racial attitudes and visual cues in political judgments: Support for Obama during the 2008 presidential election.
    The present longitudinal study examined the complex role of race—including racial attitudes and visual representations of race—in White Americans’ responses to Obama during the 2008 U.S. presidential election. Consistent with prior research, participants who perceived Obama as darker skinned were less likely to vote for him and generally evaluated Obama less positively. It is important to note, however, that these effects were stronger among Whites with more egalitarian expressed racial attitudes. Moreover, this pattern occurred over and above effects of political orientation and remained stable over a 2-month period, including pre- and postelection. Implications of these findings for understanding the complex and persistent influence of race in politics are considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Equality for all? White Americans’ willingness to address inequality with Asian and African Americans.
    White Americans’ willingness to engage in dialogues about intergroup commonalities and power inequalities with Asian and African Americans were examined in two experiments. Because Whites perceive that African Americans experience greater discrimination than do Asian Americans, we predicted that they would be more willing to engage in dialogues that would interrogate injustice and inequality with them. We also explored the role of common ingroup identity (as Americans) on willingness for dialogue about inequality. In both studies, Whites were less interested in engaging in power talk with Asian Americans than with African Americans, but the difference in willingness for commonality talk was smaller. Asian Americans were perceived as experiencing lower levels of discrimination (Studies 1 and 2) and identify less with America (Study 2) both of which predicted lower willingness for power talk with them. Common ingroup identity manipulations had marginal effects on willingness for power talk with African Americans and no effect on power talk with Asian Americans. Implications for improving social disparities between various groups were discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Transracially adoptive parents’ color-blind attitudes and views toward socialization: Cross-racial friendships as a moderator.
    This study examined the moderating role of transracially adoptive parents’ cross-racial friendships in the relationship between their color-blind attitudes and views toward cultural and racial socialization. Using hierarchical multiple regression analyses and the Johnson–Neyman technique, it was hypothesized that parents’ color-blind attitudes would significantly account for 3 different dimensions of socialization beliefs (i.e., prejudice awareness, ethnic pride, and egalitarian socialization) and that self-reported cross-racial friendships would moderate the effects of color-blind attitudes. Results suggest that having several cross-racial friendships minimized the effects of participants’ color-blind attitudes on their ethnic pride and egalitarian socialization beliefs, whereas having few cross-racial friendships enhanced the effects of color-blind attitudes on both socialization variables. The importance of transracially adoptive families creating diverse and multiracial social networks is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Same spaces, different races: What can cafeteria seating patterns tell us about intergroup relations in middle school?
    Using 2 segregation indices—an exposure index previously used in cafeteria studies and an entropy index used for the first time, to our knowledge, in this study—we examined racial segregation in seating patterns among ethnically diverse middle school students in their school cafeteria over a 2-week period. Given the representation of groups in the cafeteria each day, results indicated the expected amount of contact between Asian and White students, but more limited contact between Asian and Latino students and between White and Latino students. Latino students, who were in the numerical majority in the sample, appeared least likely to contribute to overall segregation in the cafeteria. Implications for using the cafeteria methodology to examine intergroup relations were discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Pedagogy of the privileged: Review of Deconstructing Privilege: Teaching and Learning as Allies in the Classroom.
    Reviews the book, Deconstructing Privilege: Teaching and Learning as Allies in the Classroom edited by Kim A. Case (2013). The purpose of this book is to provide a collection of resources for those teaching about privilege directly, much of this volume may be useful for expanding the context within which educators teach all aspects of psychology. Understanding the history and systems of psychology, clinical practice, research methods, assessment, and all the core areas of psychology could be enhanced by consideration of the structural framework through which psychology has developed and is maintained. The book presents a useful guide for educators, and in particular, those who teach about systems of oppression and privilege directly. For psychologists, this guide provides scholarship and concrete strategies for facilitating students’ awareness of multiple dimensions of privilege across content areas. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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