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Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement - Vol 46, Iss 1

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Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science The Canadian Psychological Association is partnering with the American Psychological Association to publish Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science. Each quarterly issue includes empirical research in many areas of psychology, including abnormal, behavioral, community, counseling, educational, environmental, developmental, health, clinical, personality, psychometrics, and social.
Copyright 2014 American Psychological Association
  • If it be love indeed tell me how much: Early core beliefs associated with excessive reassurance seeking in depression.
    This study explored core beliefs associated with excessive reassurance seeking (ERS) in depression. Undergraduate students (n = 303) completed measures of early maladaptive schemas, attachment styles, ERS, and depression, along with a subsequent measure of depressive symptoms 6 weeks later. Anxious attachment, avoidant attachment, and an abandonment/instability schema each added to the prediction of ERS beyond the effects of depression. Moreover, avoidant attachment and the abandonment/instability schema moderated the relationship between ERS and depression over time. These results are consistent with the idea that individuals with early core beliefs reflecting insecurity in relationships seek reassurance. The findings also suggest that it may not be ERS behaviour per se, but rather characteristics of the individual in combination with ERS that are associated with depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • An examination of communicative interactions of children from Romanian orphanages and their adoptive mothers.
    Before adoption to Canada, children from Romanian orphanages experienced conditions of global deprivation. In this study, we examined the communicative interactions of 4-year-old children adopted from Romania with their adoptive mothers and those of age-matched Canadian-born children. In general, children who had spent more than 8 months in a Romanian orphanage (later adoptees; n = 27) did not differ in the types of communicative intents produced in unstructured interactions from their earlier-adopted peers (n = 21). Later adoptees did produce more acknowledgment utterances, fewer praise utterances, and more requests than the Canadian-born children (n = 27). Mothers of later-adopted children adopted from Romanian orphanages used more frequent regulatory language than mothers of earlier-adopted or Canadian-born children. Mothers’ increased regulation of their child’s activity through language was related to their child’s attachment style and attention difficulties, which significantly differed between the child groups. The results demonstrate that children’s characteristics can influence caregivers’ communicative behaviors. Importantly, results suggest that children from adverse conditions adopted into healthier environments do not show long-term differences in pragmatic or social language usage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The quality of the parenting alliance during the transition to parenthood.
    This study of 151 couples expecting their first child investigated a 2-mediator model in which parents’ insecure romantic attachment was related to 2 mediators: partners’ relationship adjustment and changes in relationship adjustment, which were both associated with the quality of their parenting alliance. Couples completed questionnaires about romantic attachment, relationship adjustment, and the coparenting relationship during the third trimester of the pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum. Results showed that the postnatal quality of partners’ union mediated the association between prenatal insecure attachment and postnatal coparenting quality for both men and women. Men’s prenatal insecure attachment also predicted changes in their relationship adjustment across the transition. This study provides evidence that relationship adjustment is foundational to couples’ psychological preparedness for coparenting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Discordant patterns among emotional experience, arousal, and expression in adolescence: Relations with emotion regulation and internalizing problems.
    Recent evidence suggests that discordant patterns across multiple domains of emotion reveal important differences in socioemotional functioning. As a result of the social and emotional changes of adolescence, we examined how discordant patterns of self-reported experience, heart rate arousal, and expression of self-conscious affect related to internalizing behaviours and emotion regulation habits. Experience, arousal, and expression of girls (n = 49) aged 12–17 were recorded during social stress, a spontaneous speech. Experience referred to internal subjective feelings (self-reported feelings of self-consciousness), arousal reflected internal bodily changes (heart rate change from baseline to speech), and expression referred to observable self-conscious behaviours (e.g., hiding, nervous smiling). Consistent with previous research, between-subjects concordance was weak or nonexistent. Within-subjects tests of discordance revealed two major findings: (1) Greater experience than expression during the speech was related to girls’ trait-like shame, and (2) Girls with high experience and expression, but low arousal had more difficulty regulating their emotions and more internalizing problems. This preliminary study with adolescent girls introduces the possibilities of multimethod emotion research for the purpose of understanding the development of psychopathology in adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Attribution processes in parent–adolescent conflict in families of adolescents with and without ADHD.
    Parent–Adolescent conflict and attributions for that conflict were examined in a sample of 51 families of 13- to 17-year-old adolescents with (n = 29) and without (n = 22) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Adolescents, mothers, and fathers completed questionnaires assessing their conflict and attributions for their parent–adolescent conflict. Adolescents with ADHD and their parents have conflicts over more issues than adolescents without ADHD and their parents. Attributions were not predictive of conflict over and above ADHD status according to adolescent or mother report. Attributions moderated ADHD status in predicting father-reported conflict. Fathers of youth with ADHD who believed conflict was pervasive across contexts and stable over time reported more issues involving conflicts than fathers of youth without ADHD. In addition, fathers of youth with ADHD who believed that conflicts were their sons’ or daughters’ responsibility were less likely to report more issues involving conflict than fathers of youth without ADHD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Perfectionism, friendship intimacy, and depressive affect in transitioning university students: A longitudinal study using mixed methods.
    Theory suggests people high in socially prescribed perfectionism become depressed when they encounter ego-involving interpersonal problems. Prior studies testing this theory produced mixed results. The present study improves upon past designs by incorporating ego-involving life events from participants’ autobiographical narratives. Specifically, it was hypothesised that friendship intimacy, as coded from narratives, would moderate the relationship between socially prescribed perfectionism and depressive affect. Young adults transitioning into university for the first time (N = 127; 75.5% women; 81.1% Caucasian) participated in a two-wave, 130-day longitudinal study with quantitative and qualitative components. Entering university is a developmentally important and highly stressful transition for emerging adults. Results showed that socially prescribed perfectionism (but not self-oriented perfectionism) interacted with low friendship intimacy in autobiographical narratives to predict rank-order increases in depressive affect over time. These results advance understanding of the relationship between perfectionism and depressive affect by demonstrating the conditions under which the relationship occurs. The present study improves upon prior research by using a novel, mixed methods approach to operationalize interpersonal problems and by studying a transitional period (i.e., the transition to university) where change in depressive symptoms is expected. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Validation d’une échelle courte et multidimensionnelle de locus de contrôle spécifique au travail (MLCST). / Validation of a short multi-factor locus of control scale specific to work.
    Generally, the work locus of control is conceptualised as a unidimensional construct (Rotter, 1966) that enables a distinction between individuals with an internal or an external locus of control. However, it was suggested that a multidimensional structure with three distinct factors that takes into account the influence of powerful significant others would be more accurate (Levenson, 1972). Furthermore, Paquet, Berjot, and Gillet (2009) recently proposed a distinction between two types of significant others and validated a four-factor locus of control scale applied to the sport context. Consequently, the aim of the present research was to validate a short four-factor locus of control scale specific to the work context. This scale considers two types of significant others known to be influential in the work context: the superior and colleagues. Over 200 participants from French health care institutions were recruited in order to test the proposed factorial structure of the scale as well as the discriminant and convergent validity of the proposed constructs. Furthermore, the four-factor model was tested in comparison with existing locus of control models. Results supported the proposed four-factor structure of the scale and the discriminant and convergent validity of the constructs. Implications of the present research for future studies in the work context are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Validation d’un test d’inhibition auprès d’enfants présentant un trouble déficitaire de l’attention avec ou sans hyperactivité. / Validation of a test of inhibition with children presenting attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity.
    The objective of this study was to assess the development of inhibition in 5–11 year-old children with the “Stroop Fruit” task (see Archibald & Kerns, 1999; Catale & Meulemans, 2005) and to examine the clinical value of this tool. Three-hundred forty-six French-speaking children without any developmental disorders or learning disabilities were included in this study. A clinical group of 25 children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder was also assessed with this task. Developmental analyses on age groups show an enhancement of performance in the interference condition between 5 and 8 years old. Furthermore, results also show that the clinical group performed significantly less accurately than the control group for the interference condition, which confirms the clinical interest of this tool. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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