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Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement - Vol 46, Iss 3

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Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science The Canadian Psychological Association is partnering with the American Psychological Association to publish Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science. Each quarterly issue includes empirical research in many areas of psychology, including abnormal, behavioral, community, counseling, educational, environmental, developmental, health, clinical, personality, psychometrics, and social.
Copyright 2014 American Psychological Association
  • Adaptation en français et validation d’une échelle de mesure des peurs des personnes âgées (PPA). / French adaptation and validation of a scale measuring fear of the elderly (PPP).
    Old age generates many concerns that can cause several adverse effects on the individual. Until now, clinicians and researchers had no French instrument to assess the fears of the elderly. This paper presents results of two studies that establish the psychometric properties of a French translation of WSOA (“The Worry Scale for the Older Adults”) of Wisocki et al. in 1998. The study describes the stages of a translation of the questionnaire and checks the factor structure, internal consistency and the quality of items from nonclinical aged participants. Study 2 was designed to assess the factor structure of the scale through confirmatory factor analysis and test the temporal stability of the scale. The overall results show that the scale has very good psychometric properties with a nonclinical population. This tool is an instrument of choice for clinicians, psychologists, and researchers seeking to identify quickly and effectively the concerns of elderly French. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Disordered eating behaviours in an undergraduate sample: Associations among gender, body mass index, and difficulties in emotion regulation.
    The ability of individuals to recognise and regulate their emotions is known as emotion regulation. It is well established that difficulties in emotion regulation are associated with disordered eating. The present study explored the relationships among gender, body mass index, difficulties in emotion regulation, and disordered eating behaviours in a nonclinical sample of men and women. As part of a larger study, men (n = 85) and women (n = 165) from undergraduate university programs provided weight and height information and completed the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale and the Eating Attitudes Test. Results from regression analyses suggest that, in a nonclinical sample, gender, body mass index, and specific difficulties in emotion regulation are related to disordered eating attitudes and behaviours. With respect to dieting, some of these relationships are more complex and involve interactions between BMI and both gender and impulse control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Mixité de genre et de métiers: Conséquences identitaires et relations de travail. / Mixture of gender and trades: Consequences for identity and working relationships.
    This research concerns the effects of working in a professional gendered sector on the perception of feminine and male identities in the working relations and joins in those on the gender and treats (handles) differences between men and women. (Eagly, 1987; Eagly et al., 2004; Eagly, 2009; Guionnet & Neveu, 2004). It aims at showing in which levels live the differences between men and women by using the Theory of the Social Roles (Eagly, 1987; Eagly et al., 2004). Seventy men and women tram’s drivers and so many cashiers have characterised their gender’s identity in the work. The results show an effect of the not congruent activity in its sex on its professional identity and thus let glimpse, in perspective, a possible evolution of relationships between men and women in the work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Official public apology effects on victim group members’ evaluations of the perpetrator group.
    Many scholars, politicians, and pundits speculate that apologies and reparations for historical injustices improve intergroup relations and affirm social identities. We examined these questions in two studies. In Study 1, we surveyed a group of Chinese and non-Chinese Canadians before and after the Canadian government apologized for unjust policies enforced on Chinese immigrants between 1885 and 1947. In Study 2, we randomly assigned Canadians to read that an apology had or had not been offered for a harm either committed or experienced by Canada. In each study, we found that victim group members evaluated the perpetrator group more favorably after redress was offered. Apologies weakly and inconsistently affected social identity evaluations amongst victim and perpetrator groups. We discuss the psychological and policy implications of the results. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The Authenticity Scale: Psychometric properties of a French translation and exploration of its relationships with personality and well-being.
    In this article, we examined the psychometric properties of a French translation of the Authenticity Scale created by A. M. Wood, P. A. Linley, J. Maltby, M. Baliousis, and S. Joseph (2008, The authentic personality: A theoretical and empirical conceptualization and the development of the authenticity scale, Journal of Counseling Psychology, 55, 385–399). In the first study (N = 188), we assessed the reliability of this translation as well as its construct validity and discriminant validity from the Big Five personality traits. In the second study (N = 437), we conducted a confirmatory factor analysis to confirm the factorial structure found in Study 1 and the factorial structure obtained by Wood et al. (2008). The results show that the psychometric properties of the French Authenticity Scale are comparable to those of the original English version. The scale has both good scale score reliability (α = .77 to .82) and temporal stability over an 8-week period (r = .54 to .69). It is based on a three-factor solution explaining 60% of the variance. The scale shows discriminant validity from the Big Five personality traits and is related to both subjective and psychological well-being. This article provides a valid and reliable instrument in French that measures dispositional authenticity and will be useful to clinicians, counselors, and researchers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • How do I see you? Partner-enhancement in dating couples.
    Individuals self-enhance or rate themselves more positively than they rate either strangers or acquaintances. Within ongoing relationships, self-enhancement may be detrimental to the relationship. Three studies examined partner-enhancement, rating a dating partner more positively than the self. Study 1 found partner-enhancement relative to the self on moderate relationship-relevant traits (e.g., loving, selfish) and to the average student on all traits. Individuals also self-enhanced on all traits relative to the average student. Study 2, a dyad study, found partner-enhancement on moderate but not low (e.g., reserved, intelligent) relationship-relevant traits and idealization (rating the partner more positively than the partner self-rates) by men but not women. In Study 3, when primed with high, but not low, relationship quality, people partner-enhanced on the moderate relevant traits. These findings suggest that individuals can strategically self- and partner enhance in their dating relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Exploring the links between identity styles and forgiveness in university students.
    The relationship between ego identity, ego resilience, and forgiveness in emerging adults was investigated. Two-hundred and 28 emerging adults (71% women; M age = 19.9) completed measures of: identity processing styles (informational, normative, and diffuse-avoidant); dispositional forgiveness; forgiveness motives (revenge, avoidance, benevolence); and, ego resilience. Correlations revealed different patterns of forgiveness as a function of identity styles. The normative style was unrelated to dispositional forgiveness, the diffuse-avoidant style was negatively related to dispositional forgiveness, and the informational style was positively related to dispositional forgiveness and negatively related to revenge motivations. Mediation analyses revealed that ego resilience mediated the positive relationship between the informational identity style and dispositional forgiveness. The importance of a flexible and resilient identity for forgiveness during emerging adulthood is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Systemic heterosexism and adjustment among adolescents raised by lesbian mothers.
    This study examined the direct and indirect associations between heterosexism and adolescents’ adjustment using a sample of 50 dyads composed of lesbian mothers and their adolescents. Mothers and adolescent children completed questionnaires on experienced and perceived heterosexism, social support, coming out, and adjustment. Mothers’ experienced heterosexism and adolescents’ perceived heterosexism were negatively associated with adolescents’ adjustment. Mothers’ support moderated the negative associations between adolescents’ perceived heterosexism and adolescents’ internalizing problems. Friends’ support moderated the negative associations between adolescents’ coming out as children of lesbian mothers and adolescents’ externalizing problems. School support was negatively associated with adolescents’ problems, and it moderated the negative associations between a) adolescents’ experienced heterosexism and internalizing problems, b) adolescents’ coming out as children of lesbian mothers and internalizing problems, c) adolescents’ coming out as children of lesbian mothers and externalizing problems. Consistent with previous research on younger children of lesbian mothers, the findings underlined the role of school, family, and social networks in protecting the wellbeing of adolescents raised by lesbian mothers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Appraising the duality of self-monitoring: Psychometric qualities of the Revised Self-Monitoring Scale and the Concern for Appropriateness Scale in French.
    Revising Snyder’s (1974) original Self-Monitoring Scale, Lennox and Wolfe’s (1984) double-sided approach distinguishes two aspects of self-monitoring: (a) the active, high self-esteem, and extrovert side, measured by the Revised Self-Monitoring Scale (RSMS); and (b) the protective, low self-esteem and anxious side, measured by the Concern for Appropriateness Scale (CAS). This study aims at moving forward the assessment of self-monitoring by providing a valid French translation of these two scales. Six hundred and 34 participants were asked to complete the RSMS and the CAS, as well as other measures to assess construct validity. Distribution, scale score reliability, temporal stability, and factor structure were examined. Using a split-sample procedure, construct validity was also investigated, using several criteria (self-esteem, social desirability, extraversion, openness, trait anxiety, self-consciousness, gregariousness, straightforwardness), including new criteria that provide a more accurate definition of the two underlying constructs. The French RSMS and the French CAS replicate the psychometric properties of the other versions (Bachner-Melman, Bacon-Shnoor, Zohar, Elizur, & Ebstein, 2009; O’Cass, 2000) and appear to be psychometrically robust. Strengths, weaknesses, and potential uses of both scales are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Établissement et validation d’une mesure de la motivation à cesser la consommation de médicaments psychotropes chez les personnes âgées. / Development and validation of a measure of motivation to stop consumption of psychotropic drugs in the elderly.
    The goal of the present project was to develop and validate a measure designed to assess motivation in the elderly to cease psychotropic drugs, specifically benzodiazepines, by the elderly: the Motivation to Discontinue Benzodiazepines Scale (MDBS). This instrument was conceptualised according to self-determination theory, and comprises five subscales that correspond to the motivational subtypes of this theoretical framework (extrinsic motivation by integrated, identified, introjected, external regulation, and amotivation). The MDBS was distributed to 399 consumers of benzodiazepines (157 men, 242 women; mean age = 74.62 years, SD = 5.59). Results revealed that the MDBS possessed sound psychometric properties. The MDBS’ subscales displayed no positive correlations with social desirability. The factorial structure of the MDBS was documented by a confirmatory factor analysis. Convergent validity was examined by means of correlations with a variety of relevant psychological and behavioural constructs. The reliability of the subscales of the MDBS was satisfactory. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for measurement and intervention issues pertaining to the use of benzodiazepines in the elderly. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • La Social Interaction Phobia Scale: Propriétés psychométriques de la version française. / The Social Interaction Phobia Scale: Psychometric properties of the French version.
    The Social Interaction Phobia Scale (SIPS; Carleton et al., 2009) is a self-report measure designed to assess symptoms specific to social anxiety disorder. The measure represents a revised version of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Social Phobia Scale developed by Mattick and Clarke (1998). The original English version is a 3-factor model (i.e., Social Interaction Anxiety, Fear of Overt Evaluation, and Fear of Attracting Attention) with an excellent internal consistency, discriminant validity, and test–retest reliability. Given the initial psychometric robustness of the SIPS, a translation appears warranted to potentiate cross-cultural research and clinical utility. Accordingly, the purpose of the current study was to explore the psychometric properties of a French translation of the SIPS in a French Canadian community sample. Participants (N = 282) who reported speaking French as their first language completed the French Version of the SIPS. A confirmatory factor analysis supported the precedent 3-factor model, which demonstrated high internal consistency for total and subscale scores. Comparisons of subscales and total scores across sexes revealed minimal differences between men and women. Test–retest reliability and convergent validity with the French Social Phobia Inventory (Radomsky et al., 2006) were both high. Overall, the results provide preliminary support for the validity of the French version of the SIPS. Comprehensive results, implications, and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Attitude et distance sociale des élèves non handicapés à l’égard de leurs pairs handicapés. / Students without disabilities' attitudes and social distance towards their disabled peers.
    This research aimed two objectives. First, studying the behavioural dimension of nondisabled pupils’ attitude, going to school in an inclusive framework toward their disabled classmates, and detecting the social distance they maintain with them. Second, studying the effect of contact, visibility, and disability importunity factors on the evolution of this attitude and this social distance. Five hundred forty-nine secondary-school pupils from five junior high schools, hosting pupils with different kinds of disability whether visible and importunity or not (Down syndrome, mental retardation, cerebral palsy, and learning disorders) filled out a questionnaire at the beginning and the end of the year. The results show that the pupils have positive attitudes toward their disabled classmates, but that they maintain a social distance with them. They also highlight that the attitudes and the social distance evolve during the year depending on the interaction of studied factors. The schooling of pupils with a visible and importunity disability in a regular environment has positive effects. Their nondisabled classmates’ attitudes toward these pupils tend to be more positive in case of direct contact. Furthermore, the social distance decreases and can even disappear at the end of the year in case of indirect contact. These results show that the evolution of attitudes and social distance toward disabled pupils depends on the contact with the disability and also on the characteristics of this disability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Victimisations antérieures et violence subie lors des fréquentations: Effet médiateur de la détresse psychologique et de l’hostilité. / Previous victimizations and violence suffered during courtship: Mediator effect of psychological distress and hostility.
    Dating violence in adolescence represents a major societal problem and a health issue. It is therefore important to understand the context and factors associated with this problem. The experience of victimisation during childhood can lead to psychological consequences that increase in turn the risk of future victimisations, among others within couple relationships where the process of influence is little known. This model of mediation examined whether psychological distress and hostility influenced the associations between two forms of past victimizations (exposure to interparental violence, sexual harassment by peers) and physical or sexual dating violence victimization. The sample was composed of 751 girls and 508 boys aged between 14 and 19 years who had recently been in a dating relationship. They completed self-reported questionnaires in class. The results indicated that for girls, psychological distress acted as a partial mediator between sexual harassment and sustained sexual violence. For boys, past victimizations and hostility were associated with sustained physical violence, but no mediation analysis turned out to be significant. Future research and intervention avenues are discussed, in particular the neglected influence of sexual harassment for both girls and boys. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Generalized self-efficacy, positive cognitions, and negative cognitions as mediators of the relationship between conscientiousness and meaning in life.
    Meaning in life (MIL) is a core construct in eudaimonic theories of well-being and an important predictor of physical and psychological health. Although many studies have found that the personality variable conscientiousness has a particular strong relationship to MIL, the mechanisms underlying this relationship have not been examined. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the conscientiousness–MIL relationship would be mediated by generalized self-efficacy beliefs and, hence, more positive and fewer negative automatic cognitions. Measures of these constructs were administered to 273 college student volunteers recruited from a larger pool of students in classes and via e-mail solicitation, and the model was analyzed using structural equation modelling. As hypothesized, generalized self-efficacy, positive thoughts, and negative thoughts fully mediated the conscientiousness–MIL relationship. The model accounted for 45% of the variance in MIL, 34% of the variance in positive thoughts, 27% of the variance in negative thoughts, and 35% of the variance in generalized self-efficacy. These results suggest that conscientiousness shapes MIL through raising generalized self-efficacy, increasing frequency of positive thoughts, and decreasing frequency of negative thoughts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Attitudes and stereotypes of male and female nurses: The influence of social roles and ambivalent sexism.
    Social role theory proposed that the gendered division of labor leads to the development of gender stereotypes that are consistent with the social roles that men and women frequently occupy. According to ambivalent sexism, gender prejudices stem in part from an unequal distribution of power and status. These theories appear particularly relevant to nursing because (a) the majority of nurses in Canada are women, (b) many male nurses report stigmatizing experiences and gender-based occupational barriers, yet (c) men are overrepresented in the higher paying or more “masculine” aspects of the job. Nursing and non-nursing students (N = 145) from a small Canadian university reported their attitudes and stereotypes of male and female nurses. Regression analyses revealed that female nursing students generally reported more positive attitudes and stereotypes of both male and female nurses than did the male or female non-nursing students. Participants scoring higher (vs. lower) in benevolent sexism or lower (vs. higher) in hostile sexism reported more positive attitudes toward female nurses. In addition, participants scoring higher in hostile sexism reported more negative stereotypes of male and female nurses than did participants scoring lower in hostile sexism. The implications of men entering an occupation currently dominated by women, and how that might challenge existing justifications for inequalities in power and status, will be discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • A re-examination of behaviour in depression: Have we grossly underestimated the extent and impact of the behavioural suffering?
    While depression is known to be a disturbance of mood, it is also a disturbance of behaviour. From clinical evidence, it is suggested that this behavioural disturbance may be more profound than previously reported. The purpose of the study was to assess the level of behavioural disturbance in a moderately to severely depressed group of community living individuals aged 21 to 65 (N = 30). Behaviour was assessed by the Kingston Standardized Behavioural Assessment, and cognition was assessed by the Kingston Standardized Cognitive Assessment–Revised and the Mini-Mental State Examination. This depressed group was indeed more behaviourally impaired than one would expect from the traditional descriptions of depression. In fact, the level of behavioural disturbance found was equal to that in community-dwelling Alzheimer’s disease patients. The depressed group was then compared to an equally behaviourally disturbed group of probable Alzheimer’s disease patients also living in the community. The depressed group was both significantly better oriented, and had better overall cognition. Behavioural patterns were compared between groups. The findings of this study suggest that individuals with depression are more significantly impaired than traditionally thought. Not only was a broader range of behaviour change seen in patients, but there was a greater number of changes seen per patient than previously described. This also suggests that a greater number of targets for clinical intervention are available. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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