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Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement - Vol 49, Iss 3

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Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science The Canadian Psychological Association is partnering with the American Psychological Association to publish Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science. Each quarterly issue includes empirical research in many areas of psychology, including abnormal, behavioral, community, counseling, educational, environmental, developmental, health, clinical, personality, psychometrics, and social.
Copyright 2017 American Psychological Association
  • Best practices: A moral imperative.
    As scholars interested in contributing to the knowledge base of our discipline, I argue that the use of best practices in quantitative methods is not only smart, but is a moral obligation to avoid polluting our literature with spurious or nonreplicable results. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Multiplicity control, school uniforms, and other perplexing debates.
    Researchers in psychology are frequently confronted with the issue of analysing multiple relationships simultaneously. For example, this could involve multiple outcome variables or multiple predictors in a regression framework. Current recommendations typically steer researchers toward familywise or false-discovery rate Type I error control to limit the probability of incorrectly rejecting the null hypothesis. Stepwise modified-Bonferroni procedures are suggested for following this recommendation. However, longstanding arguments against multiplicity control combined with a modern distaste for null hypothesis significance testing have warranted revisiting this debate. This paper is an exploration of both sides of the multiplicity control debate, with the goal of educating concerned parties regarding best practices for conducting multiple related tests. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • A first steps guide to the transition from null hypothesis significance testing to more accurate and informative Bayesian analyses.
    This article begins with a brief summary of the problems with null hypothesis significance testing (NHST), followed by a short, nontechnical description of perhaps the most useful NHST alternative, Bayesian methods. Simple R commands and output for Bayesian correlations, regressions, and ANOVA are provided. This is followed by examples of how to describe Bayesian analyses in the Methods and Results sections of articles. The focus is on taking the cautious first steps in a transition away from NHST. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • National identity and public attitudes toward multiculturalism in Canada: Testing the indirect effect via perceived collective threat.
    This article integrates research on national identity and collective threat to examine how these 2 factors jointly contribute to the formation of multicultural ideology in Canada. Specifically, this article argues that ethnic and civic forms of national identity are associated with levels of perceived collective threat, thereby indirectly affecting multicultural attitudes (national identity → collective threat → multicultural attitudes). Results of structural equation modeling analyses indicated that (a) ethnic national identity is positively, and civic national identity is negatively, associated with collective threat; (b) the direct effect of ethnic national identity on multicultural attitudes disappears when collective threat is taken into account; and (c) the relationship between ethnic–civic national identity and multicultural attitudes is significantly mediated by collective threat. These findings imply that a shift from an ethnic to a civic (or ethnoculturally thinner) conception of nationhood reduces levels of outgroup threat and thereby indirectly generates positive multicultural ideology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Séparer les filles et les garçons dans les classes d’éducation physique et sportive : État de la question.
    Should boys and girls be in the same classroom? In some countries, a return to single-sex groups within school establishments is a prospect discussed, considered and already put in place because of continued inequity between the sexes. In physical and sports education (PSE), the question of separation of boys and girls in the classroom is widely debated as an important topic at the international level. The objective of this review of the literature is to present a summary of current knowledge about the effect of mixed or non-mixed groups on the training of students, the process of acquiring motor skills, and, at a more general level, the developing of femininity and masculinity in PSE. The article deals with the difficulties posed by mixed groups in PSE, describes numerous inequities between the sexes and the issues that are particular to a context of non-mixed teaching. This is followed by a status report on the work carried out on non-mixed groups in PSE. Finally, due to the limited number of studies on the subject, as well as the heterogeneous, and sometimes contradictory results, research opportunities are proposed, especially on the way gender develops (“doing gender ”) and emerges through student activity in co-educational and single-sex PSE classes. The maintenance of co-educational teaching is debated in the light of inequities between girls and boys in PSE. Teachers in many countries consider single-sex classes to be part of a strategy to promote greater equity between the sexes. A status report on research into the separation of sexes in PSE classes underlines the uncertain nature of the issue, and suggests further investigation of the way gender develops within this context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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