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Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement - Vol 49, Iss 4

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Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science The Canadian Psychological Association is partnering with the American Psychological Association to publish Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science. Each quarterly issue includes empirical research in many areas of psychology, including abnormal, behavioral, community, counseling, educational, environmental, developmental, health, clinical, personality, psychometrics, and social.
Copyright 2017 American Psychological Association
  • Judicial discussion of eyewitness identification evidence.
    To safeguard against unreliable eyewitness evidence in court, judges must be aware of recommendations put forth by empirical researchers and legal inquiries (such as the Sophonow Inquiry; Cory, 2001). However, we do not know how judges weigh and assess the reliability of eyewitness identification evidence in their decisions. 247 full-text reports of Canadian judicial trial and appeal decisions from 1980 to 2016 involving a discussion of eyewitness identification evidence were coded for key system (e.g., lineup administration) and estimator variables (e.g., experiencing trauma) known to impact eyewitness reliability. Judicial discussion of these variables was infrequent; however, judicial decision was sensitive to information available about how a lineup was administered as well as whether the eyewitness was perceived to have experienced trauma during the crime. Lack of consideration of other key variables during decision-making may indicate a potential lack of subject-area knowledge as well as possible judicial use of heuristics that minimise the concern about eyewitness evidence reliability in the case at hand. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • L’effet du stress perçu sur les comportements d’absentéisme et de présentéisme: Le rôle médiateur de l’état de santé.
    This study aims to better understand the reasons that lead workers to come to work when ill or be absent from it. More specifically, this research studies the role of perceived stress and health on attendance behaviours (i.e., presenteeism and absenteeism) of employees. Data were collected from employees working in 2 distinct higher education institutions in Quebec. The results show that employees who come to work sick (i.e., presenteeism), also tend to report more days of absence (due to illness). The results also show that employees perceiving higher level of stress report more presenteeism, and also tend to be more absent from work (due to illness). Finally, the results indicate that the state of health represent one of the mechanisms explaining the dynamics of attendance at work. However, the (partial) mediation effect holds only for the relationship between perceived stress and presenteeism. The theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed in conclusion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Un nouveau modèle d’engagement conjugal: Validation du Questionnaire multimodal d’engagement conjugal.
    Three studies were conducted to develop and validate the new multimodal couple commitment questionnaire (MCCQ). Study 1 led to the creation and evaluation of the factor structure of the first version in 45 items of the questionnaire, with a sample of 139 adults. In Study 2, exploratory factor analyses among 317 adults from the community helped to reduce the number of items in the questionnaire. In Study 3, confirmatory factor analysis was used within a broad sample of 797 adults to demonstrate the psychometric qualities of the Questionnaire in 27 items. The results showed that MCCQ is a promising measure of optimal commitment, of over-commitment and of under-commitment that researchers can use with confidence. Further validation studies are needed to enable its use in a clinical context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Examination of the validity and reliability of the French version of the Brief Self-Control Scale.
    This study aims to develop and to validate a French version of the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS; Tangney, Baumeister, & Boone, 2004). This instrument is usually applied as a unidimensional self-report measure for assessing trait self-control, which captures one’s dispositional ability to resist short-term temptation to reach more valuable long-term goals. Data were collected from 2 independent samples of French-speaking individuals (n1 = 287; n2 = 160). Results indicated that the French version of the BSCS can be treated as unidimensional, like the original questionnaire. Data also showed consistent acceptable reliability and reasonable test-retest stability. Acceptable external validity of constructs was supported by relationships with self-reported measures of impulsivity (urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, sensation seeking), including urgency, lack of premeditation, and lack of perseverance. Overall, the findings suggest that the average score of the French version of the BSCS is a viable option for assessing trait self-control in French speaking populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Vérification des propriétés psychométriques de l’Échelle des besoins psychologiques fondamentaux en sport auprès d’adultes inscrits à des programmes d’activité physique de groupe.
    The use of robust measuring instruments makes it possible to obtain quality data and to ensure reliable results. However, many research projects face serious limits related to the psychometric properties of their measurement instruments. A critical analysis of instruments based on the self-determination theory for measuring basic psychological needs in physical activity sciences leads to the conclusion that the psychometric properties of those instruments are unstable and vary depending on context and population. The general objective of this article is to examine the psychometric properties of the Basic Needs Satisfaction in Sport Scale (BNSSS) adapted to a context of adult recreational physical activity (PA). The results show that this instrument, previously used in a sports context, has serious gaps in terms of psychometric properties of adult group physical activity. Some results of exploratory factorial analysis are inconsistent with the theory on which this instrument relies. Observations of critical analysis and the results of psychometric property analysis of BNSSS raise questions about the reliability of the instruments and the steps taken by researchers to ensure their validity. It also calls into question the results obtained. The conclusion is that there is a clear need to develop a robust instrument, in French, to measure the satisfaction of basic psychological needs in the context of adult physical activity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Advancements to the understanding of expert visual anticipation skill in striking sports.
    Superior performance in striking sports requires anticipation skill because of constraints imposed on the performer, which can make it extremely difficult to achieve the motor skill goal. This article reviews the empirical literature on expert visual anticipation in striking sports since 2012 to determine if it has contributed to advancement of a theoretical model. First, methodologies used to study visual anticipation are briefly described. Second, an existing model is outlined to present what is known about the theoretical underpinning of expert visual anticipation. Third, empirical evidence of key factors that contribute to expert visual anticipation are discussed. Moreover, whether anticipation skill can be improved and transferred to different contexts is discussed. The review identifies that there are multiple key factors that contribute to expert visual anticipation performance, which need to be more thoroughly accommodated as part of the theoretical model. There is still less empirical evidence of learning and transfer of visual anticipation skill even though both of these are vital to improve motor skill performance, as well as apply any improvement to anticipation skill in different in situ settings. Collectively, this review provides an update of the research on expert visual anticipation and identifies future research directions that can continue to further knowledge in striking sports. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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