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School Psychology Quarterly - Vol 32, Iss 2

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School Psychology Quarterly The flagship scholarly journal in the field of school psychology, the journal publishes empirical studies, theoretical analyses and literature reviews encompassing a full range of methodologies and orientations, including educational, cognitive, social, cognitive behavioral, preventive, dynamic, multicultural, and organizational psychology. Focusing primarily on children, youth, and the adults who serve them, School Psychology Quarterly publishes information pertaining to populations across the life span.
Copyright 2017 American Psychological Association
  • The qualities of attachment with significant others and self-compassion protect adolescents from non suicidal self-injury.
    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a serious public health problem. Identifying the factors that could help prevent or reduce NSSI is important. The current study examined the protective roles of the perceived qualities of current attachment to significant others (i.e., mothers, fathers, and peers) and self-compassion in adolescent NSSI. The potential mediating effect of self-compassion in the relationships between attachment relationships with mothers, fathers, and peers and adolescent NSSI was also explored. Self-reported data on mother, father, and peer attachment (each included 3 dimensions; i.e., trust, communication, and closeness); self-compassion; and NSSI were collected from 658 secondary school students (59.9% male; Mage = 13.58 years). Participants with NSSI experiences scored significantly higher on the perceived qualities of current attachment with parents and self-compassion than those reporting no NSSI experience. Attachment with peers did not distinguish the NSSI group from the Non-NSSI group. Further mediation analyses indicated that self-compassion mediated the relationships of closeness with mothers, fathers (partially), and peers to NSSI as well as the relationship of peer communication to NSSI. Limitations of this study and implications regarding the protective roles of attachment and self-compassion in the prevention and intervention for NSSI are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The distinction between exclusivity and comorbidity within NSSI.
    Based on notions posited by problem behavior theory, the primary goal of the current study was to examine the possibility that adolescents who engage in NSSI are not a homogeneous group but are rather divided into 2 subgroups: (a) adolescents who exclusively engage in NSSI, and (b) adolescents who are involved in NSSI alongside other problem behaviors (e.g., drug abuse, unprotected sexual intercourse). Participants were a school sample of 436 adolescents from 6 high schools across Israel, who completed self-report questionnaires during school hours on engagement in NSSI and other problem behaviors, self-esteem, self-criticism, ego clarity, coping strategies, self-efficacy to regulate affect, and sociodemographic information. Findings indicated that 22% of the sample reported engaging in NSSI. Adolescents who reported engaging in NSSI had higher prevalence rates of involvement in other problem behaviors compared to those who did not report engaging in NSSI. However, a comparison between those who exclusively engaged in NSSI and those who were involved in NSSI alongside other problem behaviors indicated that lower ego clarity, lower self-esteem, and poorer self-efficacy to regulate affect, alongside higher self-criticism and greater use of disengagement coping mechanisms characterized exclusive engagement in NSSI. Distinct theoretical models are needed to characterize different forms of NSSI: NSSI, which is an exclusive and singular phenomenon, for which problems related to the self are prominent, versus NSSI, which is accompanied by other problem behaviors. Accordingly, the implications related to school psychologists’ work in the assessment, treatment, and prevention of NSSI are suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • School response to self-injury: Concerns of mental health staff and parents.
    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents poses a significant problem for schools, adolescents, and their families. However, appropriate guidelines for addressing NSSI, including when to disclose the behavior to parents, are currently lacking. The present study aimed to understand how school mental health staff and parents of secondary school students view NSSI to determine how parent–school communication about NSSI, and responses to NSSI, can be improved. Nineteen school mental health staff participated in interviews and 10 parents of adolescents with a history of NSSI completed open-ended questionnaire items. Staff identified that sector-wide NSSI policy and education for teachers and principals would help them feel more supported and improve consistency in addressing NSSI between and within schools. In contrast, parents wanted more support directed at them rather than solely their adolescent. Implications for policy and parental support provided by the school are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Strong schools against suicidality and self-injury: Evaluation of a workshop for school staff.
    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidality are common among adolescents. School staff are often the first adults to be confronted with those behaviors. However, previous studies have shown a lack of knowledge and confidence in dealing with self-harming behaviors. Objectives of this study were to evaluate a workshop on NSSI and suicidality in adolescence for teachers, school social workers and school psychologists. In total, N = 267 school staff participated in 1 of 16 two-day workshops, which were offered in different cities in southern Germany. Pre-, post- and 6-month follow-up assessments were conducted concerning attitudes, confidence in own skills, perceived knowledge, and knowledge on NSSI and suicidality. Satisfaction with the workshop was evaluated directly after the workshop; changes in handling situations involving youth with self-harm were evaluated at follow-up. Overall, participants were very satisfied with the workshop. Few negative attitudes regarding NSSI and suicidality were prevalent before and after the workshop. Large effect sizes were found for improvement in confidence, perceived knowledge, and knowledge at postassessment, which were still present at 6-month follow-up. There were significant differences between professions, with teachers seemingly benefitting the most from the workshop. At follow-up, participants reported more changes in their own behavior than having been able to implement changes on a school level. A 2-day workshop seems to be effective in changing knowledge and confidence in school staff regarding NSSI and suicidality. Workshops catered to different professions (i.e., teachers and school psychologists) might be feasible. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Parents’ role in early adolescent self-injury: An application of self-determination theory.
    Objective: We applied self-determination theory to examine a model whereby perceived parental autonomy support directly and indirectly affects nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) through difficulties in emotion regulation. Method: 639 participants (53% female) with a mean age of 13.38 years (SD = 0.51) completed the How I Deal with Stress Questionnaire as a screener for NSSI, the Perceptions of Parents Scale, and the Difficulties in emotion Regulation Scale. Participants who indicated having ever hurt themselves on purpose without the intent to die (n = 116, 66% female) were classified in the NSSI lifetime group. Results: A mediation analysis with bootstrapping procedure revealed that adolescents who reported their parents as being less supportive of their need for autonomy were more likely to have engaged in NSSI. Further, this relationship was partially mediated by emotion regulation. Conclusion: Adolescents who do not perceive autonomy support from their parents, have more difficulties regulating their emotions, and may turn to NSSI as a means to cope. Clinical implications of the findings suggest involving the family, and specifically, targeting parental autonomy support may be beneficial when working with young adolescents who self-injure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Classification accuracy and acceptability of the Integrated Screening and Intervention System Teacher Rating Form.
    This study examines the classification accuracy and teacher acceptability of a problem-focused screener for academic and disruptive behavior problems, which is directly linked to evidence-based intervention. Participants included 39 classroom teachers from 2 public school districts in the Northeastern United States. Teacher ratings were obtained for 390 students in Grades K–6. Data from the screening instrument demonstrate favorable classification accuracy, and teacher ratings of feasibility and acceptability support the use of the measure for universal screening in elementary school settings. Results indicate the novel measure should facilitate classroom intervention for problem behaviors by identifying at-risk students and informing targets for daily behavior report card interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Structural validity of CLASS K–3 in primary grades: Testing alternative models.
    This study examined the internal structure of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS; K–3 version). The original CLASS K–3 model (Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008) and 5 alternative models were tested using confirmatory factor analysis with a sample of first- and second-grade classrooms (N = 141). Findings indicated that a slightly modified version of the original CLASS K–3 3-factor model best fit the current data. Although stable findings emerged across the current and previous studies, particularly in relation to the presence of 3 latent domains, there is also some variability across structures at different grade levels with regard to the bifactor and 3-factor models. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Use of direct behavior ratings to collect functional assessment data.
    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the utility of Direct Behavior Rating Single Item Scale (DBR-SIS) methodology in collecting functional behavior assessment data. Specific questions of interest pertained to the evaluation of the accuracy of brief DBR-SIS ratings of behavioral consequences and determination of the type of training necessary to support such accuracy. Undergraduate student participants (N = 213; 62.0% male; 62.4% White) viewed video clips of students in a classroom setting, and then rated both disruptive behavior and 4 consequences of that behavior (i.e., adult attention, peer attention, escape/avoidance, and access to tangibles/activities). Results indicated training with performance feedback was necessary to support the generation of accurate disruptive behavior and consequence ratings. Participants receiving such support outperformed students in training-only, pretest–posttest, and posttest-only groups for disruptive behavior and all 4 DBR-SIS consequence targets. Future directions for research and implications for practice are discussed, including how teacher ratings may be collected along with other forms of assessment (e.g., progress monitoring) within an efficient Tier 2 assessment model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Learning disability identification consistency: The impact of methodology and student evaluation data.
    Learning disability (LD) identification has long been controversial and has undergone substantive reform. This study examined the consistency of school psychologists’ LD identification decisions across three identification methods and across student evaluation data conclusiveness levels. Data were collected from 376 practicing school psychologists from 22 states. Eighty-three percent (n = 313) of participants were female. Ninety-one percent (n = 342) of participants identified as Caucasian, 4% (n = 15) Latino, 1.3% (n = 5) African American, .8% (n = 3) Asian/Pacific Islander, .3% (n = 1) Native American/Alaskan Native, and 1.3% (n = 5) 2 or more races. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 9 conditions and used 1 type of identification method and examined 1 type of student evaluation data to determine if a student should be identified with LD. Results showed that overall identification consistency was somewhat low (73.7%, κ = .45) There were no differences in identification consistency across identification methods χ2(2, N = 376) = 3.78, p = .151, but there were differences in identification consistency across conclusiveness levels of student evaluation data χ2(2, N = 376) = 50.40, p = .0001. Implications for practice, training, and research are also discussed, including the need of school psychologists to consider psychometric issues in LD identification as well as the need to further research the impact of student data conclusiveness in LD identification. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Assessing children’s perceptions of academic interventions: The Kids Intervention Profile.
    The psychometric properties of the Kids Intervention Profile (KIP), a rating scale designed to measure academic intervention acceptability from the perspective of students, were examined as well as the influence of background factors on students’ acceptability ratings. Data were extracted from 4 randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of a performance feedback intervention on third-grade students’ writing fluency (n = 228). Results indicated that the KIP contains 2 factors (General Intervention Acceptability, Skill Improvement) and has adequate internal consistency and stability across a 3-week period. There were gender differences in students’ acceptability ratings, with female students rating the intervention as significantly more acceptable than males. In addition, results suggested a modest, positive relationship between students’ intervention acceptability ratings and their intervention outcomes. Considerations regarding the use of the KIP, as well as limitations of the study, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Effects of an interdependent group contingency on the transition behavior of middle school students with emotional and behavioral disorders.
    An ABAB design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of an interdependent group contingency with randomized components to improve the transition behavior of middle school students identified with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBDs) served in an alternative educational setting. The intervention was implemented by one teacher with three classes of students, and the dependent variable was the percentage of students ready to begin class at the appropriate time. Data revealed significant improvements in student behavior, providing support for implementation of group contingencies for students with EBDs in alternative educational settings and an example of feasible procedures and data collection methods. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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