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School Psychology Quarterly - Vol 29, Iss 1

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School Psychology Quarterly The flagship scholarly journal in the field of school psychology, the journal publishes empirical studies, theoretical analyses and literature reviews encompassing a full range of methodologies and orientations, including educational, cognitive, social, cognitive behavioral, preventive, dynamic, multicultural, and organizational psychology. Focusing primarily on children, youth, and the adults who serve them, School Psychology Quarterly publishes information pertaining to populations across the life span.
Copyright 2014 American Psychological Association
  • Enhancing science, practice, and policy relevant to school psychology around the world.
    This editorial provides a brief update related to the present and future of School Psychology Quarterly as an international resource to enhance and advance science, practice, and policy relevant to school psychology around the world. Information is presented regarding; (a) the breadth of important topics relevant to school psychology, (b) the international contributions, (c) the value of high quality and timely reviews, (d) the structure of and opportunity to contribute to special topic sections of School Psychology Quarterly, and (e) the importance of an international emphasis on children’s rights and the relevance for school psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Advances in children’s rights and children’s well-being measurement: Implications for school psychologists.
    Recent years have brought important changes to the profession of school psychology, influenced by larger social, scientific, and political trends. These trends include the emergence of children’s rights agenda and advances in children’s well-being measurement. During these years, a growing public attention and commitment to the notion of children’s rights has developed, which is best expressed in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Convention outlines the conditions necessary to ensure and promote children’s well-being and calls for the ongoing monitoring of children’s well-being for accountability purposes. We articulate advances in children’s rights and children’s well-being measurement in the context of children’s schooling experiences in general and for school psychology in particular. We highlight implications for the assessment roles of school psychologists, who occupy a unique position at the intersection of multiple subsystems of children’s overall ecosystems. We argue that the synergy between a rights-based agenda and advances in children’s well-being assessment methodology can provide valuable opportunities for school psychology. This synergy can help school communities establish perspective and goals for children’s well-being in rights respecting ways, using the most promising well-being assessment strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Patterns of cognitive strengths and weaknesses: Identification rates, agreement, and validity for learning disabilities identification.
    Few empirical investigations have evaluated learning disabilities (LD) identification methods based on a pattern of cognitive strengths and weaknesses (PSW). This study investigated the reliability and validity of two proposed PSW methods: the concordance/discordance method (C/DM) and cross battery assessment (XBA) method. Cognitive assessment data for 139 adolescents demonstrating inadequate response to intervention was utilized to empirically classify participants as meeting or not meeting PSW LD identification criteria using the two approaches, permitting an analysis of: (a) LD identification rates, (b) agreement between methods, and (c) external validity. LD identification rates varied between the 2 methods depending upon the cut point for low achievement, with low agreement for LD identification decisions. Comparisons of groups that met and did not meet LD identification criteria on external academic variables were largely null, raising questions of external validity. This study found low agreement and little evidence of validity for LD identification decisions based on PSW methods. An alternative may be to use multiple measures of academic achievement to guide intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Construct validity of the WISC-IV with a referred sample: Direct versus indirect hierarchical structures.
    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) is one of the most frequently used intelligence tests in clinical assessments of children with learning difficulties. Construct validity studies of the WISC-IV have generally supported the higher order structure with four correlated first-order factors and one higher-order general intelligence factor, but recent studies have supported an alternate model in which general intelligence is conceptualized as a breadth factor rather than a superordinate factor (M. W. Watkins, 2010, Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fourth Edition among a national sample of referred students, Psychological Assessment, Vol. 22, pp. 782–787; M. W. Watkins, G. L. Canivez, T. James, K. & R. Good, in press, Construct validity of the WISC-IVUK with a large referred Irish sample, International Journal of School and Educational Psychology). WISC-IV core subtest data obtained from evaluations to assess learning difficulties in 345 children (224 boys, 121 girls) were examined. One through four, first order factor models and indirect versus direct hierarchical models were compared using confirmatory factor analyses. The correlated four-factor Wechsler model provided good fit to these data, but the direct hierarchical model showed statistically significant improvement over the indirect hierarchical model and correlated four-factor model. The direct hierarchical model was judged the best explanation of the WISC-IV factor structure, with the general factor accounting for 71.6% of the common variance while the first order factors accounted for 2.4–10.3% of the common variance. Thus, the results with the present sample of referred children were similar to those from other investigations (G. E. Gignac, 2005, Revisiting the factor structure of the WAIS-R: Insights through nested factor modeling, Assessment, Vol. 12, pp. 320–329; G. E. Gignac, 2006, The WAIS-III as a nested factors model: A useful alternative to the more conventional oblique and higher-order models, Journal of Individual Differences, Vol. 27, pp. 73–86; P. Golay, I. Reverte, J. Rossier, N. Favez, & T. Lecerf, 2012, Further insights on the French WISC-IV factor structure through Bayesian structural equation modeling. Psychological Assessment, advance online publication; M. W. Watkins, 2010, Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fourth Edition among a national sample of referred students, Psychological Assessment, Vol. 22, pp. 782–787; M. W. Watkins, G. L. Canivez, T. James, K. & R. Good, in press, Construct validity of the WISC-IVUK with a large referred Irish sample, International Journal of School and Educational Psychology) supporting primary interpretation of the Full Scale IQ rather than the factor index scores. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Bifactor structure of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—Fourth Edition.
    The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—Fourth Edition (WPPSI-IV; Wechsler, 2012) represents a substantial departure from its predecessor, including omission of 4 subtests, addition of 5 new subtests, and modification of the contents of the 5 retained subtests. Wechsler (2012) explicitly assumed a higher-order structure with general intelligence (g) as the second-order factor that explained all the covariation of several first-order factors but failed to consider a bifactor model. The WPPSI-IV normative sample contains 1,700 children aged 2 years and 6 months through 7 years and 7 months, bifurcated into 2 age groups: 2:6–3:11 year olds (n = 600) and 4:0–7:7 year olds (n = 1,100). This study applied confirmatory factor analysis to the WPPSI-IV normative sample data to test the fit of a bifactor model and to determine the reliability of the resulting factors. The bifactor model fit the WPPSI-IV normative sample data as well as or better than the higher-order models favored by Wechsler (2012). In the bifactor model, the general factor accounted for more variance in every subtest than did its corresponding domain-specific factor and the general factor accounted for more total and common variance than all domain-specific factors combined. Further, the domain-specific factors exhibited poor reliability independent of g (i.e., ωh coefficients of .05 to .33). These results suggest that only the general intelligence dimension was sufficiently robust and precise for clinical use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Long-term psychosocial consequences of peer victimization: From elementary to high school.
    Prior research has demonstrated that victims of peer victimization show reduced psychological adjustment, social adjustment, and physical well-being compared with nonvictims. However, little research has addressed whether this maladjustment continues over the long term. This study examined adjustment in 72 high school students who had participated in a peer-nomination procedure assessing peer victimization when in elementary school (5 to 8 years earlier). Thirty-five high school students who had been peer nominated as overtly and/or relationally peer victimized were compared with 37 peers who were not nominated as victimized in elementary school. High school students completed self-report measures of psychological adjustment, social adjustment, physical well-being, and current overt and relational victimization. In addition, a retrospective self-report measure of peer victimization in elementary school was administered. Results revealed that, although current self-reported peer victimization was negatively related to adjustment, elementary-school peer-nomination measures of victimization were unrelated to high-school adjustment. Further, current self-reports of remembered victimization in elementary school were associated with lowered adjustment. These results indicate that current and past perceived peer victimization is negatively related to adjustment, but past experience of peer-identified victimization has a more complex relation to current adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Effects of peer victimization on psychological and academic adjustment in early adolescence.
    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effects of frequency of peer victimization experiences on psychological and academic adjustment during early adolescence, with a focus on testing psychological adjustment as a mediator, as well as differences based on gender and type of victimization. The sample in this short-term longitudinal design study consists of 7th and 8th graders (n = 670, 50% male) from an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse middle school. Victimization was measured using 10 items that assessed frequency of verbal, physical, and relational victimization experiences, and outcomes were assessed with the Behavior Assessment System for Children (2nd ed.) and school records. There was support for gender differences in frequency of peer victimization experiences based on type of victimization. More specifically, boys reported higher levels of physical and verbal victimization, and girls reported higher levels of relational victimization. In addition, there were statistically significant differences between boys and girls on the relation between victimization and anxiety, attendance, and grades, with girls experiencing more maladjustment than boys in response to peer victimization. Finally, results demonstrated no gender differences in indirect effects of psychological adjustment on the relation between peer victimization and academic outcomes, whether victimization was physical, verbal, and relational. These findings highlight the importance of addressing social-emotional functioning as well as peer victimization in the schools for both boys and girls, as both affect students’ academic functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Predictive relations between peer victimization and academic achievement in Chinese children.
    The goal of this study was to explore longitudinal associations between peer victimization and academic achievement in Chinese children. Participants were N = 805 3rd-grade students (486 boys, 319 girls; Mage = 9.5 years, SD = 3 months) attending primary schools in Shanghai, People’s Republic of China. At Time 1 and Time 2 (2 years later), peers nominated classmates who were victims of peer maltreatment using the Chinese version of the Revised Class Play (Chen, Rubin, & Sun, 1992), and teachers rated students’ academic achievement. Among the results, peer victimization was negatively related to academic achievement at both time points. Also, peer victimization and academic achievement displayed considerable stability across the 2 years. Results from cross-lagged hierarchical analyses demonstrated that peer victimization at Grade 3 predicted lower academic achievement at Grade 5. However, academic achievement at Grade 3 was not predictive of peer victimization at Grade 5. These results suggest that peer victimization appears to function more as a precursor rather than a consequence of lower academic achievement. Results are discussed in terms of the cross-cultural similarities in the links between peer maltreatment and academic achievement and their educational implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Empathetic responsiveness, group norms, and prosocial affiliations in bullying roles.
    In this study, the relationships among gender, empathetic responsiveness, perceived group norms, prosocial affiliations, and bullying roles were examined for 262 fifth- through eighth-grade students (n = 141 males; n = 121 females). According to the Bullying Participant Roles Survey (BPRS), participants were identified as defenders (n = 135; 51.5%), victims (n = 48; 18.3%), bullies (n = 39; 14.9%), and outsiders (n = 26; 9.9%). Results of multinominal logistic regression revealed that empathetic responsiveness was a significant predictor of defending behavior and an inverse predictor of outsider behavior. Gender also predicted defending behavior, with boys being more likely to defend than girls. In addition, participants who indicated that their friends supported bullying were more likely to be involved in bullying perpetration and victimization. An unexpected interaction effect between prosocial affiliations and group norms indicated that girls who reported more probullying group norms but whose friends reported having more prosocial tendencies were more likely to assume roles of bullies and victims than outsiders. Implications for practice are outlined, including recommendations for antibullying initiatives. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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