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School Psychology Quarterly - Vol 32, Iss 1

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School Psychology Quarterly The flagship scholarly journal in the field of school psychology, the journal publishes empirical studies, theoretical analyses and literature reviews encompassing a full range of methodologies and orientations, including educational, cognitive, social, cognitive behavioral, preventive, dynamic, multicultural, and organizational psychology. Focusing primarily on children, youth, and the adults who serve them, School Psychology Quarterly publishes information pertaining to populations across the life span.
Copyright 2017 American Psychological Association
  • School Psychology Quarterly: Onward and upward.
    The title of this editorial reflects the journal's pledge to adhere to the principles and mission of School Psychology Quarterly (the “onward” portion of the title). At the same time, the journal strives to move “upward,” as maintaining the status quo is not in the journal's best interest. Changes to the design and structure of the journal (beginning with this issue) are but two of the most visible to enhance its visual “curb appeal” and to expand the scope of papers that would interest a wide group of readers-many of whom may not be aware of the overlap between their research and papers published in the journal. The journal has also added new sections, which are designed to appeal to authors who wish to contribute in other, equally meaningful ways. These new sections are outlined in the editorial. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • School connectedness and suicidal thoughts and behaviors: A systematic meta-analysis.
    Among the protective factors associated with reduced risk for suicide, scientific inquiries into school connectedness are especially important considering that schools are ideally situated to provide interventions reaching the vast majority of youth. Although there is a wealth of research that supports the association between school connectedness and reduced self-report of adolescents having a suicidal thought or making a suicide attempt, inconsistencies in the way studies have measured and operationalized school connectedness limit synthesis across findings. This meta-analytic study investigates the literature exploring associations between school connectedness and suicidal thoughts and behaviors across general and subpopulations (high risk and sexual minority youth) using a random effects model. Eligible studies examined a measure of school connectedness explicitly referred to as “school connectedness” or “connections at school” in relation to suicidal ideation or suicide attempts among youth enrolled in school (Grades 6–12). Multiple metaregression analyses were conducted to explore the influence of school connectedness measurement variation, as well as participant characteristics. Results, including 16 samples, support that higher school connectedness is associated with reduced reports of suicidal thoughts and behaviors across general (odds ratio [OR] = 0.536), high-risk (OR = 0.603), and sexual minority (OR = 0.608) adolescents. Findings are consistent when analyzed separately for suicidal ideation (OR = 0.529) and suicide attempts (OR = 0.589) and remain stable when accounting for measurement variability. Although limited by its cross-sectional nature, findings support recent calls to increase school connectedness and proffer important implications for screening and intervention efforts conducted in schools. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Dependability of data derived from time sampling methods with multiple observation targets.
    In this study, generalizability theory was used to examine the extent to which (a) time-sampling methodology, (b) number of simultaneous behavior targets, and (c) individual raters influenced variance in ratings of academic engagement for an elementary-aged student. Ten graduate-student raters, with an average of 7.20 hr of previous training in systematic direct observation and 58.20 hr of previous direct observation experience, scored 6 videos of student behavior using 12 different time-sampling protocols. Five videos were submitted for analysis, and results for observations using momentary time-sampling and whole-interval recording suggested that the majority of variance was attributable to the rating occasion, although results for partial-interval recording generally demonstrated large residual components comparable with those seen in prior research. Dependability coefficients were above .80 when averaging across 1 to 2 raters using momentary time-sampling, and 2 to 3 raters using whole-interval recording. Ratings derived from partial-interval recording needed to be averaged over 3 to 7 raters to demonstrate dependability coefficients above .80. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Predicting dropout using student- and school-level factors: An ecological perspective.
    High school dropout has been associated with negative outcomes, including increased rates of unemployment, incarceration, and mortality. Dropout rates vary significantly depending on individual and environmental factors. The purpose of our study was to use an ecological perspective to concurrently explore student- and school-level predictors associated with dropout for the purpose of better understanding how to prevent it. We used the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 dataset. Participants included 14,106 sophomores across 684 public and private schools. We identified variables of interest based on previous research on dropout and implemented hierarchical generalized linear modeling. In the final model, significant student-level predictors included academic achievement, retention, sex, family socioeconomic status (SES), and extracurricular involvement. Significant school-level predictors included school SES and school size. Race/ethnicity, special education status, born in the United States, English as first language, school urbanicity, and school region did not significantly predict dropout after controlling for the aforementioned predictors. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts within a multitiered intervention model are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Adolescent controversial status brokers: A double-edged sword.
    Using a 3-wave longitudinal, multidimensional approach, this study investigated the influence of social network position and social status on the psychosocial outcomes of 440 youth (45.1% girls; Mage = 16.1 years; 90.9% Caucasian) over 26 months, focusing on the controversial status classification (i.e., youth who are highly liked and disliked by their peers). Brokerage (i.e., the degree to which a person has relationships with peers who do not have a direct relationship with each other) was examined in conjunction with sociometric status to explain potential heterogeneity of outcomes for controversial status youth. Adolescents completed peer nominations and self-reports of adjustment. Results demonstrated that brokerage was related to poorer psychosocial outcomes for controversial compared to average status youth. Brokerage appears to add predictive value to youths’ adjustment beyond traditional sociometric classifications, especially for controversial status youth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Examining the effectiveness of a culturally adapted social-emotional intervention for African American males in an urban setting.
    The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of a culturally adapted version of the Strong Start intervention program on the social-emotional outcomes of African American male students. Externalizing behavior problems of children, specifically African American males, are of great concern for schools. Punitive discipline polices such as expulsion and suspension have proved to be ineffective and harmful. Consequently, school-based social-emotional learning (SEL) interventions have been proposed to teach children coping skills that can help them increase positive social behaviors and emotional regulation. Sixty-one African American male students enrolled in an urban elementary school participated in this intervention. This study employed a randomized delayed treatment control design. Results indicated positive effects in the areas of self-regulation and self-competence. However the intervention did not have an impact on student’s empathy, responsibility, or externalizing behavior. Implications are discussed in terms of developing culturally relevant school-based interventions for African American males. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Emotional expressivity and emotion regulation: Relation to academic functioning among elementary school children.
    We examined emotional expressivity (i.e., happiness, sadness, and anger) and emotion regulation (regulation of exuberance, sadness, and anger) as they relate to academic functioning (motivation, engagement, and achievement). Also, we tested the premise that emotional expressivity and emotion regulation are indirectly associated with achievement through academic motivation and engagement. Participants included 417 elementary school students (Mage = 10 years; 52% female; 60% Black) and their teachers from a Midwestern metropolitan area. We used child and teacher questionnaires, and data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Regarding emotionality, happiness was positively associated with multiple aspects of academic functioning whereas an inverse association was found for anger; sadness was not associated with academic functioning. Also, happiness and anger were indirectly related to achievement through academic engagement. Emotion regulation was positively associated with multiple aspects of academic functioning; it was also indirectly associated with achievement through engagement. Implications are discussed regarding how social and emotional learning programs in schools can further benefit from research on children’s emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Improving teacher perceptions of parent involvement patterns: Findings from a group randomized trial.
    For children with the most serious and persistent academic and behavior problems, parent involvement in education, particularly teacher perceptions of involvement, is essential to avert their expected long-term negative outcomes. Despite the widespread interest in and perceived importance of parent involvement in education, however, few experimental studies have evaluated programs and practices to promote it. In this group randomized trial, we examined the effects of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management program (IY TCM) on teacher perceptions of contact and comfort with parents. One hundred five classrooms with 1818 students were randomly assigned to an IY TCM or to a control, business as usual condition. Measures of key constructs included teacher ratings of parent and student behaviors, direct observations in the classroom, and a standardized academic achievement test. Latent transition analysis (LTA) was used to identify patterns of involvement over time and to determine if intervention condition predicted postintervention patterns and transitions. Four patterns of involvement were identified at baseline and at follow-up; parents of students with academic and behavior problems were most likely to be in classes with the least adaptive involvement patterns. Intervention status predicted group membership at follow-up. Specifically, intervention classroom parents were significantly more likely to transition to more adaptive teacher-rated parenting profiles at follow-up compared to control classroom parents. This is the first randomized trial we are aware of that has found that teacher training can alter teacher perceptions of parent involvement patterns. Clinical implications for students with behavior and academic problems are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Metabolic control and academic achievement over time among adolescents with type 1 diabetes.
    The relation between metabolic control (HbA1c) and achievement (grade point average [GPA]) was examined over a period of 2.5 years (every 6 months) employing a dynamical systems approach that allowed for the examination of whether HbA1c was associated with change in subsequent GPA and vice versa. Metabolic control tends to deteriorate (i.e., with higher HbA1c reflecting poorer metabolic control) during adolescence. It was hypothesized that these higher levels of HbA1c would limit subsequent increases in GPA. The sample included 252 adolescents (Mbaseline age = 12.49 years, SD = 1.53; 53.6% female) with Type 1 diabetes. Mothers’ report and school records provided information on relevant demographics and GPA; medical records provided values of HbA1c. Two simultaneous coupled change equations (i.e., examining current values in 1 variable associated with changes in the other) controlling relevant risk indicators (i.e., age, sex, disease duration, insulin delivery method, IQ) revealed higher levels of HbA1c limited increases in GPA. Higher levels of GPA, however, were not associated with change in HbA1c except for 2 instances where moderation existed by disease duration and IQ. Higher GPA was associated with slower increases in HbA1c over time for youth with shorter disease duration and lower IQ. These results affirm the importance of maintaining good metabolic control to facilitate adequate school performance across the adolescent years. Further, the results suggest that factors related to school achievement may protect adolescents who are newly diagnosed or who have low cognitive ability from subsequent deterioration in metabolic control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The role of colorism in explaining African American females’ suspension risk.
    African American female students’ elevated suspension risk has received national attention. Despite a number of studies documenting racial/ethnic disparities in African American females’ school suspension risk, few investigations have attempted to explain why these disparities occur. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of colorism in explaining suspension risk using a nationally representative sample of adolescent females. Controlling for individual- and school-level characteristics associated with school discipline such as student-teacher relationships, prior discipline history, school size and type, the results indicate that colorism was a significant predictor of school suspension risk. African American female adolescents with darker complexions were almost twice as likely to receive an out-of-school suspension as their White female peers. This finding was not found for African American female students with lighter skin complexions. Implications for adopting a colorist framework for understanding school discipline outcomes and future research for advancing the field in this area are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Shyness and school adjustment in Chinese children: The roles of teachers and peers.
    Although childhood shyness has been associated with school-adjustment difficulties in contemporary research in China, the conceptual mechanisms that may underlie these relations remain underinvestigated. The goal of this study was to examine a complex theoretical model that explicates the roles of both peer preference and teacher–child relationships in the links between shyness and school adjustment in Chinese children. Participants were N = 1,275 3rd- through 7th-grade students (637 boys, 638 girls; Mage = 10.78 years, SD = 1.55) attending public primary and secondary schools in Shanghai, People’s Republic of China. Measures of shyness, peer preference, teacher–child relationships, and aspects of school adjustment were obtained from multiple source, including peer nominations, child self-reports, teacher ratings, and school records. Results from mediation and moderated mediation analyses demonstrated that (a) shyness indirectly predicted greater internalizing problems and poorer academic achievement through its negative association with peer preference and (b) these indirect effects were moderated by teacher–child relationships, such that the negative association between shyness and peer reference was attenuated among children with higher quality of teacher–child relationships. Results are discussed in terms of the roles of peers and teachers in the links between shyness and school adjustment and their educational implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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