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Professional Psychology: Research and Practice - Vol 48, Iss 6

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Professional Psychology: Research and Practice Professional Psychology: Research and Practice publishes articles on the application of psychology, including the scientific underpinnings of the profession of psychology.
Copyright 2018 American Psychological Association
  • Making APA civil again: The efforts and outcomes of the civility working group.
    Although the American Psychological Association (APA) has had challenges with incivility among its membership and ranks, APA leadership proactively assembled a working group in 2016 to develop policies and procedures to “develop aspirational civility principles as well as procedures for all forms of direct in-person communication and online messages and postings within and on behalf of APA.” A diverse working group team then worked closely with APA leadership and council membership as well as investigated best practices and guidelines in the literature about civility in workplace environments. The resulting APA implementation plan was supported with over 90% approval by the APA Council and will be rolled out as soon as feasible. Civility expectations, operational definitions of both civility and incivility, and assigned civility ambassadors for all APA committees and listservs will hopefully result in an organizational culture shift toward more civility. Time will tell if these efforts will be successful and sustainable, but in the current societal and cultural environment where incivility appears commonplace, APA is moving in a more positive and civilized direction. This brief article highlights APA’s recent efforts to make civility a priority throughout the organization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • A Job Satisfaction Questionnaire for Rural Clinicians in China.
    One of the challenges in studying the rural health care workforce in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is that job satisfaction questionnaires used in advanced economies do not match the rural health care context in LMICs. This study develops and validates a survey questionnaire of job satisfaction for rural clinicians in China. The questionnaire was developed through an extensive literature review and consultation with an expert group. A pilot test was conducted in a landlocked province of China with GDP per capita equivalent to Namibia of Africa or Ecuador in South America. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire were analyzed using SPSS and AMOS. The questionnaire includes 28 questions in 6 domains, and they are significantly different from each other (p <.001). The total Cronbach’s alpha coefficient is 0.930, with internal consistency reliability (Coefficient alphas) ranging from 0.775 to 0.874 and the total split-half reliability is 0.914. We conclude that the Job Satisfaction Questionnaire for Rural Clinicians has good topical discrimination, reliability, and validity, and may be used in other LMICs with necessary modifications for the purpose of scientific research or monitoring job satisfaction levels of rural health care professionals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • “There’s not a rug big enough to hide us under”: Participatory action research as anti-ageist psychological practice.
    Innovative, nonpathologized, mutually empowering opportunities for psychologists and trainees to work with older adults are rare—but participatory action research (PAR) projects offer a model for such interventions. First, PAR is introduced as an inclusive, wide-ranging approach to knowledge creation that also offers growthful benefits to participants. Next, the course of an ongoing multiyear PAR collaboration in a naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) is profiled. Finally, key elements of PAR preparation and practice for psychologists are summarized, with emphasis on its value within graduate training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • A randomized controlled test of direct-to-consumer marketing using the American Psychological Association psychotherapy works videos.
    A large percentage of individuals within the United States who experience mental health problems fail to seek out any form of professional psychological help. In particular, although the efficacy and effectiveness of psychotherapy has clearly been demonstrated in the empirical literature, trends indicate a decrease in the utilization of this type of treatment. Existing research suggests that help-seeking stigma and preferences play a significant role in predicting help-seeking behaviors; however, little research has tested methods for increasing preferences and decreasing stigma toward psychotherapy. In this study, a nationwide sample of participants (n = 983) were randomized to watch 1 of 3 short commercial advertisements for psychotherapy or a control video. Participants were then asked to complete measures of perceived public stigma, self-stigma, and preferences for psychotherapy or medication for a psychological problem. Group comparisons indicated that although participants who watched the videos did not display less self-stigma compared to control participants, they did experience lower perceptions of public stigma (d = 0.25). Further, those who watched the psychotherapy videos were more likely to indicate a preference for psychotherapy over medication compared to the control group (odds ratio = 1.50). These results have important preliminary implications for improving access to psychotherapy for those with a mental health need. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Work life, well-being, and self-care across the professional lifespan of psychologists.
    Professional lives and experiences of psychologists change over the course of their careers. Taking a developmental perspective, the present research used archival data from 2 previously conducted surveys to compare early career, midcareer, and late-career psychologists with 3 questions in mind: (a) Do personal and professional well-being differ across these career stages? (b) Do work-related demands and resources vary across these career stages? and (c) Does use of self-care strategies differ across career stages? Findings indicate that professional well-being varies over the psychologist’s life span, with a general trend toward greater well-being as one’s career progresses. Furthermore, results indicate that early career psychologists report greater work-related demands in the context of fewer professional resources, including more time on administrative paperwork, greater experience of negative client behaviors, and fewer opportunities for professional development. Finally, data offer some evidence that late-career psychologists may engage in more self-care. Although this finding was not consistent across samples, it is consistent with the burnout literature proposing that with age and experience, professionals develop more effective ways of managing professional demands and stress. Overall, the pattern of results suggests that greater professional well-being may be experienced at the later career stages and that increased efforts are needed to bolster professional and personal resources for psychologists who are in the early career stage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Adult ADHD assessment: An integrated clinical-forensic perspective.
    Initial diagnoses of ADHD in adulthood have increased tremendously in recent years. Making such diagnoses accurately is challenging because ADHD is a childhood-onset disorder and because many adults have an incentive for obtaining a diagnosis (e.g., access to stimulant medication or disability accommodations). Certain elements of a forensic perspective can lead to more accurate ADHD diagnoses in adults and targeted treatment for clients who genuinely need it, and more appropriate alternative clinical responses to those who do not. This article describes the research base for integrating forensic principles into clinical assessments of adults presenting with ADHD-related concerns, and provides a scientific model for such assessments, from referral through conclusions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Pain assessment methods and interventions used by pediatric psychologists: A survey by the Pain Special Interest Group of the Society of Pediatric Psychology.
    Although many valid pain-related assessment instruments and interventions exist, little is known about which are actually utilized in practice and the factors that contribute to pediatric psychologist’s decisions about their use. The aim of this survey study was to present a summary of current clinical practice among pediatric psychologists in the area of pediatric pain and to identify the needs and possible resources that would enable practitioners to better implement evidence-based assessments and interventions. To accomplish this aim, the Pain Special Interest Group of the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) constructed an online survey that was sent electronically to current members of the SPP list serve. Results indicated the majority of participants are guided by a theoretical model and are using evidence-based assessments and interventions, although they are not always familiar with the literature supporting their use. Providers noted evidence-based pain intervention is facilitated by assessment tools, intervention resources, and appreciation of pain interventions by multidisciplinary team members. Barriers are both logistical (clinic space and time constraints) and knowledge-based (lack of familiarity with assessments/interventions). Thus, while pediatric psychologists are progressing toward better translation of research to practice, continued educational efforts and communication among practitioners about available resources are warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • CAMINO: Integrating context in the mental health assessment of immigrant Latinos.
    People from Central and South America; Mexico; and the islands of Cuba, Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico represent a growing number of consumers accessing public sector behavioral health services in the United States. Despite perceived commonalities such as a shared language and cultural values, it is essential to recognize the rich diversity inherent to Latino communities and the complexities associated with each individual’s migration narrative. The authors propose CAMINO, a mnemonic tool designed to facilitate the inquiry of contextual data significant to pre- and postmigration experiences. The task of gathering relevant information regarding community and family supports (C), acculturative stress (A), migration history (M), idioms of distress and resilience (I), native language and preferences (N), and origin (O) may seem intuitive when working with immigrant populations, yet it is often challenging and risks being overlooked in real-world clinical practice. Recommended questions to inform the mental health assessment process and implications for community-based providers are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Pediatric psychologists’ career satisfaction: 2015 Society of Pediatric Psychology Workforce Survey results.
    Little is known about the career satisfaction of pediatric psychologists, who specialize in psychological research, teaching, and clinical service in the context of pediatric health care. As part of the larger Society of Pediatric Psychology Workforce Survey and in collaboration with the American Psychological Association Center for Workforce Studies, this study aimed to (1) describe the career domains which pediatric psychologists perceive to be important and their satisfaction in each domain, and (2) compare satisfaction of pediatric psychologists across work settings, number of positions, appointment duration, professional roles, career stage, academic rank, and gender. Responses from 336 pediatric psychologists demonstrated high career satisfaction. Domains of career satisfaction that received mean scores indicating high importance include balance of work and personal lives, peer/collegial support, and flexibility and choice in the workplace, but on average respondents reported being only somewhat satisfied in these domains. Total satisfaction scores were significantly higher among pediatric psychologists in 9–10-month appointments, primarily research careers, and at higher academic ranks, but scores were similar across employment settings and genders. To enhance career satisfaction and retention, pediatric psychologists may seek additional mentorship or explore new employment roles, and administrators and managers may consider adopting workplace policies or making environmental changes that could address specific areas of need. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Legal and clinical guidelines for making a child maltreatment report.
    Psychologists’ role as mandated reporters of child maltreatment is an important responsibility. This article will provide direction to psychologists in interpreting state laws as well as practical and clinical guidance when confronted with making a report of child abuse. A review of the U.S. laws on child maltreatment reporting as they pertain to psychologists is provided. Psychologists will be guided through the process of making a report and how to handle this responsibility professionally and clinically. Important considerations are discussed with regard to psychologists maintaining compliance with their legal responsibilities and protecting children from harm. Recommendations for future training are provided. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Training community-based clinicians in parent-child interaction therapy: The interaction between expert consultation and caseload.
    Professional psychologists are increasingly encouraged to utilize evidence-based treatments (EBTs), and therefore have a need to participate and provide the most efficient training methods for these treatments. Multicomponent trainings, which commonly include ongoing support, are more effective than brief methods such as 1-day workshops or reading treatment manuals. The present study examined the effectiveness of 1 form of ongoing support, consultation, as part of a multicomponent training protocol. Thirty-two community-based clinicians were trained in Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) as part of a statewide implementation effort, and data were collected on clinician and implementation outcomes at pre-, mid-, and posttraining. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to predict posttraining knowledge, skill, acceptability, and feasibility, as well as to examine clinician variables that might moderate these relations. Greater consultation call attendance significantly predicted higher posttraining skill; however, this association was qualified by a significant interaction with PCIT caseload. Implications for training guidelines are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • The impact of trauma experiences on posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorder symptom severity in a treatment-seeking sample.
    Comorbid diagnoses of substance use disorders (SUDs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are quite high among individuals seeking residential SUD treatment, and are associated with both poor treatment engagement and outcomes. The current study examines the impact of trauma type (e.g., Criterion A/non-Criterion A; substance-related/non-substance-related) on subjective distress and concurrent PTSD and SUD symptom severity in a sample of 50 trauma survivors seeking residential treatment for substance use. Results suggest that Criterion A events were consistently endorsed as the most subjectively distressing experiences by participants, and a substantial minority of participants endorsed substance-related traumatic experiences as their most subjectively distressing experience. However, neither Criterion A status, nor the substance-related nature of the traumatic experience, were systematically related to PTSD or SUD symptom severity. These results replicate previous findings illustrating the high prevalence of trauma experiences in a SUD treatment-seeking population. Further, they emphasize the importance of assessing and discussing a broad array of traumatic events that individuals with SUDs may face, and simultaneously addressing substance use and PTSD in treatment-seeking populations. Clinical implementation strategies and study limitations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Developing a trauma-informed mental health group intervention for youth transitioning from homelessness.
    Homeless youth represent a chronically vulnerable segment of society whose mental health needs, despite their acuity and complexity, are often unmet. This article describes the development and implementation of a pilot mental health group intervention, the Housing Outreach Project–Collaborative Wellness and Mindfulness Group, for young people in their first year of transitioning from homelessness/precarious housing to independent living. The intervention aimed to provide evidence-based mental health support to a traditionally difficult to engage population. The development of group framework and content, implementation, resultant client engagement, and perceived successes and challenges are described. Considerations for future mental health interventions and research with this population are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Barriers and facilitators to mobile application use during PTSD treatment: Clinician adoption of PE coach.
    Providers have many options when considering mobile applications (apps) to potentially incorporate into their practice. PE Coach is a patient-facing mobile app developed to support providers and their patients engaged in prolonged exposure (PE) therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Little is known about how providers and their patients use the various features of mental health mobile apps, in general, and PE Coach in particular. This article summarizes findings from qualitative semistructured interviews with 25 PE providers who reported using PE Coach with a total of 450 patients with PTSD. Categories of responses included how providers decided to use PE Coach, aspects and features of PE Coach appreciated, and their perspectives on patient use of the app. Facilitators of PE Coach use included the positive impact of a treatment-companion app on patient perceptions of treatment credibility, the side-by-side collaboration enabled by the app, the consolidation of treatment forms and resources on the patient’s phone, and the therapist perceptions of benefits to their patients by app use. Some of the barriers to use included technical challenges, feature differences between the Android and iOS versions of the app, inadequate knowledge of available features, and the lack of an archive of previously completed homework and assessment forms. Results provide useful information about how to better promote the adoption of PE Coach, increase full feature use, improve the app, and could help generate hypotheses for exploring how other behavioral health technologies are used. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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