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Psychology of Addictive Behaviors - Vol 31, Iss 8

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Psychology of Addictive Behaviors The Psychology of Addictive Behaviors publishes peer-reviewed original articles related to the psychological aspects of addictive behaviors. Articles on the following topics are included: (a) alcohol and alcoholism, (b) drug use and abuse, (c) eating disorders, (d) smoking and nicotine addiction, and (e) other compulsive behaviors (e.g., gambling). Full-length research reports, literature reviews, essays, brief reports, and comments are published. The journal is published four times yearly and is abstracted by Psychological Abstracts.
Copyright 2017 American Psychological Association
  • Cognitive behavioral interventions for alcohol and drug use disorders: Through the stage model and back again.
    Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) approaches have among the highest level of empirical support for the treatment of drug and alcohol use disorders. As Psychology of Addictive Behaviors marks its 30th anniversary, we review the evolution of CBT for the addictions through the lens of the Stage Model of Behavioral Therapies Development. The large evidence base from Stage II randomized clinical trials indicates a modest effect size with evidence of relatively durable effects, but limited diffusion in clinical practice, as is the case for most empirically validated approaches for mental health and addictive disorders. Technology may provide a means for CBT interventions to circumvent the “implementation cliff” in Stages III–V by offering a flexible, low-cost, standardized means of disseminating CBT in a range of novel settings and populations. Moreover, returning to Stage I to reconnect clinical applications of CBT to recent developments in cognitive science and neuroscience holds great promise for accelerating understanding of mechanisms of action. It is critical that CBT not be considered as a static intervention, but rather 1 that constantly evolves and is refined through the stage model until the field achieves a maximally powerful intervention that addresses core features of the addictions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Motivational interviewing, enhancement, and brief interventions over the last decade: A review of reviews of efficacy and effectiveness.
    Motivation is a well-established predictor of recovery for addictive behaviors. Treatments aimed at changing substance use and gambling frequently employ motivational enhancing strategies, based in the principles of Motivational Interviewing (MI). Evidence for these approaches across addictive behaviors does not always paint a clear picture. The purpose of this review was to examine existing reviews of motivational-based interventions for various substances of abuse and gambling in the last decade to gain a deeper understanding of the current evidence and implications for future research and clinical practice. Literature searches were conducted to identify review articles from January 1, 2007 to January 30, 2017 for motivational enhancing interventions for alcohol, tobacco, drugs, marijuana, cocaine, opioids, methamphetamines, and gambling. Of the 144 articles assessed we included a total of 34 review articles in our review, including 6 Cochrane reviews. This review supports use of motivationally enhancing interventions across addictive behaviors with strongest evidence supporting use in alcohol and tobacco, with brief interventions showing strong efficacy. There is strong support for MI with marijuana and some support for gambling. Insufficient evidence is available for methamphetamine or opiate use. There are important caveats. In most cases, MI is more effective than no treatment and as effective (but not necessarily more effective) than other active treatments. Findings for effectiveness of more intensive motivational interventions or combinations are mixed. Treatment fidelity assessments, limited subpopulation analyses, and differences in dose, outcomes, and protocol specification continue to pose significant problems for reviews. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Mindfulness-based interventions for addictive behaviors: Implementation issues on the road ahead.
    Over the past 35 years, mindfulness meditation practices have increasingly been integrated into Western medical settings. Research into the benefits of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) continues to expand, such that there are currently more than a dozen different protocolled MBIs for patients suffering from a variety of physical and psychological disorders. In the last decade, a number of MBIs specifically designed to treat addictive behaviors have been developed and tested. This review first provides a brief overview of the current state of the science with respect to the efficacy of MBIs for addictive behaviors, and some of the proposed mechanisms underlying the efficacy of MBIs. Second, the review highlights unresolved implementation issues and provides suggestions for how future research can address the implementation challenges to advance the delivery of MBIs. Specifically, this review focuses on the lack of clear empirical guidelines in the following areas: (a) effective training for MBI treatment providers; (b) adaptations of the traditional 2-hr closed-cohort group format; (c) delivery of MBIs in 1-on-1 treatment contexts; (d) delivery of MBIs at different points in the change process; (e) delivery of MBIs via technology-based platforms; and (f) facilitation of precision medicine in the delivery of MBIs. Specific research directions are suggested with an eye toward a meaningful increase in access to MBIs for front-line clinicians and clients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Contingency management treatment for substance use disorders: How far has it come, and where does it need to go?
    Contingency management (CM) interventions consistently improve substance abuse treatment outcomes, yet CM remains a highly controversial intervention and is rarely implemented in practice settings. This article briefly outlines the evidence base of CM and then describes 4 of the most often-cited concerns about it: philosophical, motivational, durability, and economic. Data supporting and refuting each of these issues are reviewed. The article concludes with suggestions to address these matters and other important areas for CM research and implementation, with the aims of improving uptake of this efficacious intervention in practice settings and outcomes of patients with substance use disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Contingency management interventions for tobacco and other substance use disorders in pregnancy.
    Contingency management (CM) is an effective intervention for reducing use of licit and illicit substances in a variety of populations. Pregnant women are a vulnerable population with much to gain from effective interventions for substance use disorders, and for whom CM interventions may be especially well-suited. We reviewed the literature on CM interventions among pregnant women with tobacco and other substance use disorders with 3 aims: (a) describe the effectiveness of CM for reducing use of tobacco and other substances during pregnancy, (b) describe the effects of CM interventions on infant outcomes, and (c) identify needs for future research on CM in pregnancy. Our search strategy revealed 27 primary studies of CM in pregnancy. CM was effective in the majority of studies targeting nicotine abstinence, and results were mixed in studies targeting illicit substances. A variety of methodologies were used within the relatively small number of studies making it difficult to identify underlying mechanisms. Also, very few studies reported maternal and infant outcomes, and significant effects of CM were only apparent when secondary analyses pooled data from multiple studies. Furthermore, there is extremely limited data on the cost effectiveness of CM interventions in pregnancy. Future research should address these 3 areas to better determine the ultimate value of CM as an efficacious treatment for pregnant women with substance use disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • A scoping review and meta-analysis of psychosocial and pharmacological treatments for cannabis and tobacco use among African Americans.
    The rates of co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use are higher among African Americans relative to other racial/ethnic groups. One plausible approach to treating co-use among African Americans is to examine the effectiveness of treatments for the sole use of cannabis and tobacco to identify effective approaches that might be combined to treat the dual use of these substances. The current meta-analysis sought to include studies that reported cannabis and/or tobacco use outcomes from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) with 100% African American samples. A total of 843 articles were considered for inclusion, 29 were reviewed by independent qualitative coders, and 22 were included in the review. There were no articles on cannabis use treatment with a 100% African American sample, resulting in a need to lower the threshold (60%) and conduct a scoping review of cannabis studies. Preliminary evidence from a small number of studies (k = 7) supports the use of Motivational Interviewing and Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy to treat cannabis use among African Americans, but not Contingency Management. Results from a meta-analysis of 15 tobacco studies found higher rates of smoking abstinence in the treatment condition relative to control conditions overall and across short and long-term follow-up periods. Significant differences in smoking abstinence were also found when examining the effects of pharmacological treatments relative to their control conditions. The clinical and research implications of these findings for future psychosocial and pharmacological trials for cannabis and tobacco use and co-use among African Americans are described. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Interventions for alcohol-related risky sexual behaviors among college students: A systematic review.
    Alcohol-related risky sexual behaviors are common among college students. Though various interventions targeting these behaviors have been examined, the literature does not currently include a review of these strategies. A comprehensive literature search was conducted, yielding 7 randomized controlled trials. Relevant outcome variables included unprotected sex, alcohol in conjunction with sex, and number of sexual partners. Findings suggested that interventions utilizing reminder cues or motivational interviewing-based techniques were largely found to be effective in increasing condom use behaviors among intoxicated individuals, while support for personalized normative feedback (PNF) for the same outcome was mixed. However, PNF interventions were generally effective in reducing alcohol use in conjunction with sex. Finally, though few studies examined number of sexual partners, there are mixed findings for interventions (i.e., motivational interviewing, PNF) targeting this outcome. Overall, there is promising, albeit mixed, evidence of the effectiveness of interventions targeting various alcohol-related risky sexual behaviors among college students. Strengths, limitations, and implications of the findings of this systematic review for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • A systematic review of treatments for problem gambling.
    Gambling problems impact 0.2%–4.0% of the population, and research related to treating gambling has burgeoned in the last decades. This article reviews trials for psychosocial treatments of gambling problems. Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Standards, we identified 21 randomized trials. Eleven studies evaluated interventions delivered via multisession, in-person therapy: cognitive therapies, cognitive–behavioral (CB) therapies, and motivational interventions (MI) alone or with CB therapies. An additional 10 studies used approaches that involved 1 or fewer in-person sessions; these included workbooks with CB exercises alone or in combination with MI and brief feedback or advice interventions. Although most studies found some benefits of CB therapy (alone or combined with MI) and brief feedback or advice relative to the control condition in the short term, only a handful of studies demonstrated any long-term benefits. Nearly half the studies used waitlist controls, precluding an understanding of long-term efficacy, and standardized outcomes measures are also lacking. Populations also differ markedly across studies, from nontreatment-seeking persons who screened positive for gambling problems to those with severe gambling disorder, and these discrepant populations may require different interventions. Although problem gamblers with less pronounced symptoms may benefit from very minimal interventions, therapist contact generally improved outcomes relative to entirely self-directed interventions, and at least some therapist contact may be necessary for patients with more severe gambling pathology to benefit from CB interventions. As treatment services for gambling continue to grow, this review provides timely information on best practices for gambling treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Review of interventions to reduce ultraviolet tanning: Need for treatments targeting excessive tanning, an emerging addictive behavior.
    Millions of Americans engage in tanning each year, defined as intentional ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure in the form of sunbathing or the use of indoor tanning beds. An emerging body of research suggests that UVR has addictive properties and some tanners engage in excessive tanning. This article provides an overview of the evidence of tanning addiction and a systematic review of existing tanning interventions with the goal of evaluating their potential to impact addicted tanners. Our search identified 24 intervention studies that were summarized and discussed according to 3 primary themes. First, there is a dearth of tanning interventions that target excessive tanning or are designed as treatments for tanning addiction. Second, tanning interventions are primarily educational interventions designed to increase knowledge of the risks of tanning. Third, there are notable aspects of existing tanning interventions that are relevant to addiction science, including the use of brief motivational and cognitive–behavioral-based interventions. Future directions are considered including recommendations for utilizing the existing evidence base to formulate interventions targeting excessive tanners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Treatments for Internet gaming disorder and Internet addiction: A systematic review.
    Problems related to excessive use of the Internet and video games have recently captured the interests of both researchers and clinicians. The goals of this review are to summarize the literature on treatment effectiveness for these problems and to determine whether any treatments meet the minimum requirement of an evidence-based treatment as defined by Chambless et al. (1998). Studies of treatments for Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and Internet addiction were examined separately, as past studies have linked IGD to more severe outcomes. The systematic review identified 26 studies meeting predefined criteria; 13 focused on treatments for IGD and 13 on Internet addiction. The results highlighted a paucity of well-designed treatment outcome studies and limited evidence for the effectiveness of any treatment modality. Studies were limited by methodological flaws, including small sample sizes, lack of control groups, and little information on treatment adherence, among other problems. In addition, the field is beset by a lack of consistent definitions of and established instruments to measure IGD and Internet addiction. The results of this review highlight the need for additional work in the area of treatment development and evaluation for IGD and Internet addiction. Attention to methodological concerns identified within this review should improve subsequent research related to treating these conditions, and ultimately outcomes of patients suffering from them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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