PsyResearch
ψ   Psychology Research on the Web   



Couples needed for online psychology research


Help us grow:




Psychology of Men & Masculinity - Vol 19, Iss 1

Random Abstract
Quick Journal Finder:
Psychology of Men and Masculinity This twice yearly journal is devoted to the dissemination of research, theory, and clinical scholarship that advances the discipline of the psychology of men and masculinity. This discipline is defined broadly as the study of how men’s psychology is influenced and shaped by gender, and by the process of masculinization, in both its socially constructed and biological forms.
Copyright 2018 American Psychological Association
  • Editorial.
    From January 2018, articles are eligible for Open Science Badges recognizing publicly available data, materials, and/or preregistration plans and analyses. These badges are awarded on a self-disclosure basis. If all criteria are met as confirmed by the editor, the form will then be published with the article as supplemental material. Authors should also note their eligibility for the badge(s) in the cover letter. For all badges, items must be made available on an open-access repository with a persistent identifier in a format that is time-stamped, immutable, and permanent. For the Preregistered badge, this is an institutional registration system. Data and materials must be made available under an open license, allowing others to copy, share, and use the data, with attribution and copyright as applicable. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Why is fraternity membership associated with sexual assault? Exploring the roles of conformity to masculine norms, pressure to uphold masculinity, and objectification of women.
    Despite consistent evidence that fraternity membership is associated with greater perpetration and acceptance of sexual violence, less is known about why this link occurs. In this study, we use Structural Equation Modeling to test whether endorsement of traditional masculinity explains why fraternity membership is associated with greater rape myth acceptance and more sexual deception behaviors in a sample of 365 undergraduate men. Our assessment of traditional masculinity included the following 3 components: conformity to masculine norms, pressure to uphold masculine norms, and acceptance of objectification of women. Results suggest that conformity to masculine norms, pressure to uphold masculine norms, and acceptance of objectification of women mediate the relation between fraternity membership and acceptance of sexual violence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • A paternalistic duty to protect? Predicting men’s decisions to confront sexism.
    Research suggests that women weigh the perceived costs and benefits when deciding whether to confront sexism on behalf of themselves or other women. Novel to the present research, we tested whether men similarly weigh the anticipated costs and benefits when deciding whether to confront sexism on behalf of women. Using path analysis across 2 correlational studies, we also investigated how endorsement of a masculine protection ideology predicted frequency of confronting sexism on behalf of socially close (e.g., girlfriend, sister) versus distant (e.g., acquaintance, stranger) women. Results from Study 1 (N = 148 undergraduate men) revealed that men were motivated by the perceived benefit, but not the perceived cost, when deciding whether to confront sexism. In both studies (Study 2 N = 205 male MTurk workers), the extent to which men endorsed a masculine ideology of protection positively predicted their frequency of confronting for socially close, but not distant women. We conclude that in some cases paternalistic masculinity may promote antisexist behavior (confronting on behalf of socially close women), although the impact of those confrontations for sexism reduction remains to be tested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • The psychometric properties of the Sexual Experiences Survey–Short Form Victimization (SES-SFV) and characteristics of sexual victimization experiences in college men.
    Estimates of the rate of sexual victimization in college men vary wildly, likely because of the lack of validated measures. This study provides psychometric data on the Sexual Experiences Survey–Short Form Victimization (SES-SFV) and basic descriptive characteristics of sexual victimization of college men via the SES-SFV. Participants (n = 405) completed a web survey containing the study measures; a subset of 69 participants completed the SES-SFV again 1–3 weeks later. Convergent validity correlations were consistent but modest in size. Two-week test–retest reliability estimates varied widely by the type of sexual victimization assessed and scoring format used; dichotomous scores were the most reliable and category scores the worst. More than 1 in 4 participants (28%) reported experiencing sexual victimization at Time 1; most reported victimization frequencies greater than 1 (22.8% of sample). Using behaviorally specific items, 1 in 7 reported experiencing rape (14.1%). The most common type of sexual victimization experienced was unwanted sexual contact. Rape acknowledgment among men who experienced rape (12.2%) was much lower than has been observed in women. Our results indicate mixed evidence for the reliability and validity of the SES-SFV in college men, highlight important characteristics of sexual victimization in college men, and demonstrate the need for further research on the best strategies for the assessment of sexual victimization in college men. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Cardiovascular, affective, and behavioral responses to masculinity-challenging stressors: Active versus passive coping.
    Cardiovascular, affective, and behavioral responses to laboratory stressors, varying in the extent to which they challenged participants’ masculinity and evoked active versus passive coping, were examined in 30 male cadets at a military college. Participants were exposed to a novel, passive coping, Masculinity and Toughness-Challenging Interview (MTCI) and randomly assigned to a passive coping, low masculinity-challenging (PASSIVE-LOW MASC) or an active coping, high masculinity-challenging (ACTIVE-HIGH MASC) cold pressor condition. As expected, the ACTIVE-HIGH MASC manipulation was able to overcome the typical vasoconstrictive properties of cold pressor to produce a myocardial response pattern, relative to a vascular pattern observed for the PASSIVE-LOW MASC condition and the MTCI. Myocardial reactivity to the ACTIVE-HIGH MASC cold pressor condition was accompanied by a relatively positive psychological state response. Vascular reactivity to the MTCI was intensified with greater engagement in and self-disclosure during the task. Findings suggest more favorable health implications for men who actively cope with challenges to their masculinity compared with passive copers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Caring is masculine: Stay-at-home fathers and masculine identity.
    This qualitative study examined 25 stay-at-home fathers (SAHFs) in the United States and their lived experiences through the perspective of the theory of caring masculinities. Results from semistructured telephone interviews demonstrated that the majority of SAHFs voluntarily opted to be full-time caregivers, named financial reasons for becoming a SAHF, reported high levels of satisfaction in caring for their children, and experienced little change in their relationship with their spouse or partner as a result of being a SAHF. Major findings included the potential change in attitudes and masculine identities that accompany becoming a SAHF, men’s emotional connection with others, and their increased respect for caregiving. Overall, SAHFs reported incorporating aspects of masculine and feminine qualities to develop a new masculine identity that best supports their caregiving role and experiences. In addition, SAHFs identified social isolation and mixed reactions from people as the 2 main challenges against constructing and maintaining their new masculinity; they also reported support from multiple social networks (e.g., partners, female family members, other SAHFs) as a means to successfully overcome such challenges. The results are further discussed in the context of the caring masculinities framework and suggestions are provided for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Emotion dysregulation moderates the link between perfectionism and dysmorphic appearance concern.
    Past research has revealed a relationship of perfectionism with dysmorphic appearance concern (DAC). Little research, however, has examined moderators of this relationship, including among men, whose appearance concerns are underresearched compared with women. Emotion regulation is one potential moderator that may be particularly compromised among men. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the role of emotion dysregulation in the relationship of perfectionism with DAC among men. Participants were 106 undergraduate men who completed an online survey that included questions about DAC, difficulties in emotion regulation, perfectionism, and depressive symptoms. Results showed that increased emotional awareness and low impulse control were associated with DAC. Moreover, difficulties in emotion regulation moderated the relationship between perfectionism and DAC. Implications of the present findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Social context, emotional expressivity, and social adjustment in adolescent males.
    Research has consistently found that expressing emotion related to distressing events promotes social adjustment (Rimé, 2007, 2009), whereas suppression of negative emotion has social costs (e.g., Gross & John, 2003). However, prior research has largely failed to take into account the degree of relationship between the distressed individual and the person to whom the distressed individual is speaking, and the social norms of the population to which the distressed individual belongs. Considering these factors, the relationship between emotional expressivity and social adjustment may be more complicated than the emotional regulation literature would suggest. Thus, the primary aim of this study was to examine the relationship between social adjustment and emotional expressivity toward friends and nonfriends in a sample of late adolescent males, through the lens of masculinity research that suggests that low emotional expressivity may be adaptive for males in certain contexts. Adolescent boys (N = 178) reported the degree to which they expressed emotion to friends and to nonfriends (which includes acquaintances and strangers). Results indicated that for these boys, emotional expressivity was associated with better social adjustment only when the expression of emotion occurred within the context of friendship. Additionally, boys who exhibited greater “expressive flexibility,” expressing more to friends than nonfriends, reported the greatest social adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • “What defines a man?”: Perspectives of African American men on the components and consequences of manhood.
    What it means to be man is shaped by racial, ethnic, and cultural factors. In this paper, we explore what determines and comprises middle-aged and older African American men’s definitions of manhood. Using a thematic approach, we examined the semantic differences noted in the verbs chosen to define a man, the characteristics that were most important to how they saw themselves, and the characteristics that were most important to them to portray to others. Analyzing data from 64 interviews with urban African American men 35–76 from the Southeastern United States, we found that manhood was a concept that reflected key characteristics and traits, demonstrated deeper qualities or attributes, and revealed their inherent nature or character. While previous research sought to identify attributes of manhood that defined adult African American males, the current study was conducted to characterize how middle-aged and older African American men defined manhood and its key components through exploring how they wanted to see themselves and what traits they wanted to portray to others. What a man is or should be was defined by attributes that reflected a foundation of character that not only exemplified gendered values, goals, and roles, but that also demonstrated religious and cultural values and beliefs. For these men, manhood was more than a compilation of traits but a reflection of who they were at a deeper level. These ideals were rooted in an amalgamation of gendered ideals, cultural norms, religious doctrine and beliefs, and age-related priorities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • The intersection of race and gender: Asian American men’s experience of discrimination.
    Asian American men’s experience of discrimination, based on the intersection of their gender and race, has gained research attention in past decades. However, the application of an intersectionality perspective in this area of research has been somewhat inconsistent. Therefore, this article presents 3 intersectionality conceptual paradigms that can be applied to the study of Asian American men’s experience of discrimination based on race and gender: (a) the Cumulative Disadvantage Paradigm, (b) the Subordinate Male Target Hypothesis Paradigm, and (c) the Intersectional Fusion Paradigm. In this article, we provide a description of these paradigms, a review of the empirical research supporting these paradigms, and an evaluation of the extent to which these paradigms are applicable to Asian American men’s experience of discrimination. We hope that this article can provide theoretical guidance to researchers and assist them in generating new study questions to address Asian American men’s experience of discrimination. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • The detrimental effect of affirming masculinity on judgments of gay men.
    A group-based affirmation reminds individuals of important ingroup attributes and highlights positive distinctiveness. Because nonprototypical ingroup members threaten the distinctiveness of the ingroup, group-affirmed individuals may be motivated to derogate fellow nonprototypical ingroup members. Four experiments test this hypothesis by affirming masculinity in heterosexual men and examining its effect on their judgments of gay men, who are often considered nonprototypical of their gender. Consistent with the main hypothesis, heterosexual men whose masculinity was affirmed via feedback or a values writing task expressed more prejudice against gay men relative to heterosexual men who were not affirmed (Experiments 1–4). Second, affirming masculinity and threatening masculinity had the same effect—both increased antigay prejudice (Experiment 2). Third, antigay prejudice increased in response to a masculinity affirmation only when the affirmed attribute was in a domain in which gay men are considered nonprototypical (masculine toughness), but not in a domain irrelevant to gay men’s prototypicality as men (professional ambition; Experiment 3). Finally, affirming masculinity by targeting masculine characteristics important to individual male participants versus the group as a whole both increased antigay prejudice, which was mediated by social categorization (Experiment 4). Together, these findings suggest that a group-based affirmation can sometimes paradoxically increase prejudice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Men’s perpetration of partner violence in Bangladesh: Community gender norms and violence in childhood.
    Men’s perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) is common, but its multilevel determinants are understudied. We leveraged novel data from a probability sample of married junior men (N = 570; age 18 to 34 years) from 50 urban and 62 rural communities who took part in the Bangladesh survey of the 2011 UN Multi-Country Study of Men and Violence. We tested whether lifetime count (or scope) of physical IPV acts perpetrated was negatively associated with more equitable community gender norms among married senior men (N = 938; age 35 to 49 years) and positively associated with greater exposure to childhood violence among junior men. We also tested whether more equitable community gender norms mitigated the association of more violence in childhood with the lifetime scope of physical IPV acts perpetrated. Among younger married men, 50% reportedly ever perpetrated physical IPV, the mean lifetime scope of physical IPV types perpetrated was 1.1 (SD 1.3) out of 5 listed. A majority (64%) reported childhood exposure to violence. In multilevel Poisson models, a man with more childhood exposure to violence had a higher log scope (estimate: 0.31, SE 0.04, p <.001), and a man living amid the most equitable gender norms had a lower log scope (estimate: −0.61, SE 0.17, p <.01) of physical IPV acts perpetrated; however, no significant cross-level interaction was observed. Interventions that address the trauma of childhood violence and that promote more equitable community gender norms may be needed to mitigate IPV perpetration by younger men. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • The influence of magazines on men: Normalizing and challenging young men’s prejudice with “lads’ mags”.
    Social psychologists have argued that popular U.K. and U.S. men’s magazines known as “lads’ mags” have normalized hostile sexism among young men. Three studies develop this argument. First, a survey of 423 young U.K. men found that ambivalent sexism predicted attitudes toward the consumption of lads’ mags, but not other forms of direct sexual consumption (paying for sex or patronizing strip clubs). Second, Study 2 (N = 81) found that young men low in sexism rated sexist jokes as less hostile toward women, but not as either funnier nor more ironic, when those jokes were presented within a lads’ mags context. These findings refute the idea that young men readily read lads’ mags’ sexism as ironic or “harmless fun.” They show instead that placing sexist jokes in lads’ mags contexts makes them appear less hostile. The third study (N = 275) demonstrated that young men perceived lads’ mags as less legitimate after attempting to distinguish the contents of lads’ mags from rapists’ legitimations of their crimes. Implications for contemporary studies of masculinities and consumption are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Adherence to gender-typical behavior and high-frequency substance use from adolescence into young adulthood.
    Substance use is prevalent among adolescents in the U.S., especially males. Understanding the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between gender norms and substance use is necessary to tailor substance use prevention messages and efforts appropriately. This study investigates the relationship between adherence to gender-typical behavior (AGB) and substance use from adolescence into young adulthood. Participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health completed self-report measures on the frequency of binge drinking, cigarette smoking and marijuana use as well as various behaviors and emotional states that captured the latent construct of AGB. Sex-stratified logistic regression models revealed cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between AGB and high frequency substance use. For example, an adolescent male who is more gender-adherent, compared to less adherent males, has 75% higher odds of high frequency binge drinking in adolescence and 22% higher odds of high frequency binge drinking in young adulthood. Sex-stratified multinomial logistic regression models also revealed cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between AGB and patterns of use. For example, a more gender-adherent adolescent male, compared to 1 who is less adherent, is 256% more likely to use all 3 substances in adolescence and 66% more likely to use all 3 in young adulthood. Cross-sectional and longitudinal results for females indicate greater gender-adherence is associated with lower odds of high frequency substance use. These findings indicate adherence to gender norms may influence substance use behaviors across the developmental trajectory, and inform strategies for prevention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source

  • Be an advocate for others, unless you are a man: Backlash against gender-atypical male job candidates.
    Previous research shows that gender vanguards (individuals who demonstrate gender-atypical skills and behavior) suffer backlash in the form of social and economic penalties (Rudman & Phelan, 2008). This study examined backlash against female and male job applicants who were either gender-atypical or typical. Professionals (N = 149) evaluated female or male managerial applicants for internal promotion described in their performance review as showing either self-advocacy or advocacy on behalf of their team. Atypical, other-advocating men were judged to be low on agency and competence and penalized with job dismissal. Serial mediation analysis demonstrated that, compared with other-advocating women, other-advocating men were perceived to lack agency, which contributed to a perceived loss of competence that ultimately led to greater penalties. The implications of these findings for contemporary leadership theories and men’s and women’s professional success in the workplace are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
    Citation link to source



Back to top


Back to top