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Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne - Vol 58, Iss 4

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Canadian Psychology The Canadian Psychological Association is partnering with the APA to publish Canadian Psychology. In each quarterly issue, you will find generalist articles in the areas of theory, research, and practice that are of interest to a broad cross-section of psychologists.
Copyright 2018 American Psychological Association
  • Violence de-mystified: Findings on violence by young males in the Pittsburgh Youth Study.
    This article summarizes key findings from the Pittsburgh Youth Study (PYS), a longitudinal study that was started by Rolf Loeber and Magda Stouthamer-Loeber in collaboration with David P. Farrington in 1987. A systematic school sample was formed of 1,517 boys, spread over Grades 1, 4, and 7 (average ages 7, 10, and 13). The youngest and oldest cohorts were regularly followed up for more than 2 decades, until ages 28 and 35, respectively. For the youngest cohort there were 13 consecutive follow-ups between ages 7 and 19, and then again at ages 25 and 28. The oldest cohort was followed up every year from age 13 to 25 (13 waves), and then again at age 35. This article reports on the surprisingly high prevalence of violence committed by the young men, their experience as victims of violence, and their developmental pathways leading up to violence and homicide. We review the developmental sequences between substance use and violence, and summarise findings on the predictors of violence and homicide, particularly potentially modifiable risk factors, many of which were measured in late childhood. Implications for early intervention are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Are we assessing temperament appropriately? The Emotionality Activity Sociability and Impulsivity (EASI) Temperament Scale: A systematic psychometric review.
    This article describes a systematic review of the psychometric properties of the parent-report Emotionality, Activity, Sociability, and Impulsivity Temperament Scale (EASI; Buss, Plomin, & Willerman, 1973) and its iteration, the Emotionality, Activity, Sociability, and Shyness Temperament Survey (EAS; Buss & Plomin, 1984). Comprehensive terms were used to search four electronic databases up to July 2015. Twenty-seven papers that administered the EASI or EAS in English and provided psychometric information were included; 107 articles that administered the measures in a language other than English or that used various modifications were kept for narrative review. For the EASI, results demonstrated acceptable convergent and predictive validity, yet low to marginally acceptable internal consistency for the subscales, and poor factor structure was observed. For the EAS, internal consistency was generally acceptable, and predictive and concurrent validity was good, whereas support for the factor structure was mixed with some studies requiring modifications to the measure. The EAS demonstrated the most research support and best psychometric properties; however, revision of the measure may lead to improved overall psychometrics. Adoption of a revised, psychometrically sound version of this measure would facilitate greater consistency across the literature. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Empowerment or dependency? The religion/religiosity–mastery relationship.
    Whereas religion/religiosity (R/R) tends to have a positive relationship with psychological well-being in general, the relationship between R/R and Mastery is less clear. Research investigating R/R–mastery has reported a positive, nonsignificant, and negative relationship, and often uses informal composite measures to assess R/R without a substantive discussion surrounding their suitability. The current study used a national Canadian sample (N = 12,930) to investigate the moderating effect of socioeconomic status and religious affiliation on R/R–mastery. Researchers used dual analytical strategies (individual R/R predictors [Model 1], a composite R/R variable [Model 2]) in order to investigate the R/R–mastery relationship. In Model 1, R/R variables were associated with lower Mastery levels and there was support for socioeconomic status moderating the R/R–mastery relationship. In Model 2, R/R was again negatively associated with Mastery, but socioeconomic status did not act as a moderator for the R/R–mastery relationship. Results from Model 2 also suggested that while Christian groups experience R/R negatively, the nonreligious experience R/R nonsignificantly. The discussion noted the importance of choice of R/R measurement, the limited role that R/R had on Mastery, whether structural resources are important in the R/R–mastery relationship, and the need to for researchers to attend to religious affiliation when discussing the R/R–mastery relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • From research to practice: Bridging the gaps for psychologists working in indigenous communities affected by gangs.
    Canadian Psychologists have several challenges regarding our research and practice in the development and application of efficacious treatment models for disrupting the progression of gangs and youth crime. Empirically supported model programs for crime prevention and gang intervention require significant study in the Indigenous community context. Indigenous communities affected by gangs and the practitioners serving in these diverse communities require effective models to coordinate treatments across multiple systems and jurisdictions for health, social service, and justice. As a way of bridging the research gaps, we present an overview of the literature on treatment models deemed by the National Crime Prevention Centre (NCPC) to meet the highest standard for treatment efficacy and cost effectiveness (Public Safety Canada, 2012) and review the evidence generated by studies that engaged Indigenous peoples’ experiences in gangs. In doing so, we contribute a synthesis of recommendations for gang intervention programming in Indigenous communities, and critique the body of literature on what is considered best practices for crime prevention/intervention in Canada. We offer practical strategies for abiding by the needs and healing processes of Indigenous peoples, and identify challenges and opportunities for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Efficacité et efficience des programmes de transition à la vie adulte: Une revue systématique.
    The many problems experienced by young people who reach the age of majority at the end of a placement in the child welfare system are well documented in the scientific literature. As a result, many countries have introduced policies and programs to encompass the transition stage. This systematic review addresses two important questions concerning those programs: 1) Are the programs effective in preparing young people who are taken in care at readaptation centres to make the transition to adulthood? 2) Are these programs efficient; that is, do the benefits outweigh the cost? To answer those questions, comparative studies (experimental, quasi-experimental or cohort studies) published in the scientific literature and grey literature between 1970 and 2014 were identified. Eight studies concerning effectiveness and three studies dealing with efficiency of programs for transition to adulthood were selected based on inclusion criteria for the systematic review. The findings of the review are set out along with recommendations from the authors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Attachement adulte et relations sexuelles avec partenaires occasionnels: Synthèse des recherches.
    While they are common, casual sex relationships (CSR) can provoke psychological distress (Stinson, 2010). Thus, determination of the personal factors of individuals inclined to CSR could serve to optimize the experience of those sexual practices. The theory of attachment seems a promising theoretical framework for studying individual differences that may be related to CSR (Cooper et al., 2006). The objective of this research synthesis is to establish where individuals who engage in CSR are situated on a security-insecurity continuum of adult attachment. Eleven studies that examine this link were selected. The results suggest that individuals who have never had casual sex relations display a more secure adult attachment style than individuals who have had CSR experience. In addition, insecure avoidance attachment seems more strongly related to CSR than insecure anxiety attachment. These results should be carefully interpreted in the light of the limitations of the studies selected. Specific methodologies of the studies are presented and promote development of recommendations for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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  • Développer les compétences psychosociales des élèves pour lutter contre le harcèlement scolaire: Une revue de la littérature.
    The purpose of this article is to propose a French language inventory of the effectiveness of school bullying interventions that aim to enhance the social skills of students. A systematic narrative review of papers published between 2004 and 2015 was carried out using ERIC, FRANCIS, REPERE, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO and Academic Research First. Of the 11 articles included in the literature review, 6 showed significant changes in bullying behaviours or in the victimization of students. Specifically, 63 % of the studies showed a significant decrease in intimidation and 50 % showed a decrease in victimization. The most effective programs were those that focused on developing 1 or 2 social competencies using play. Overall, findings indicate that there is value in implementing such antibullying programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
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